Permanent-type Well-completion Developmen tsr

Approximately 2,000 wells in the Gulf Coast of
Texas and Louisiana have been completed with the
bottom of the tubing above a number of producing
intervals to permit future recompletion without a rig.
To date the permanent-type well-completion tech-
nique, utilizing through-the-tubing tools run on a
sniall wire line, hak been used t o complete and re-
complete dual and single wells on land and water
locations at substantial cost savings.
Techniques and equipment have been developed
A c o n~ p 1 e t e workover b a s on a well
without the use of a rig in the spring of 1952. An
important forerunner of this operation was the de-
velopnient of a perforator small e no u g h to pass
through the tubing. l ' he successful field use of this
new concept of testing and reworking wells indi-
cated the possibility of a si zabl e reduction in cost s
and a more extensive testing of all producing inter-
val s penetrated by the \ell bore.
l ' he higher production rates 'o b t a i n e d with the
tubing-type perforator when perforating with s al t
water as a con~pletion fluid have led to extensive
laboratory study of the plugging effects of comple-
tion fluids, perforators, and techniques. ?'he prelini-
inary report of some of this testing was issued in
October 1953 by 1'. 0. Allen and J. H. Atterbury, Jr.'
Continued testing has revealed the severe perfora-
tion plugging caused Ly faulty jet-charge design,
conlpletion techniques, and conlpletion fluids.
Extensive testing of cements and cementing tech-
niques with sandstone cores has given an insight
into the role of filtration during the act of squeeze
cementing. New cements were t e s t e d and old ce-
ments were reviewed with attention on the filtration
rate a s the most important characteristic. New meth-
ods of field-mixing small batches of c e nl e n t with
smaller cement trucks were cited by the authors as
a needed developnlent in October 1953. An improved
method of mixing i s being used and smaller cenlent-
ing trucks are now being introduced. A s successful
* Humble Oil & Refirung Company, Houston.
t Pr esent ed by T. A. Huber at t he spri ng meetlng of t he South-
west ern District, Di vi si on of Pr oduct ~on, New Orl eans, March
Ref er ences are at t he end of t he paper.
that permit logging, cementing, perforating, remov-
ing s a n d and set cement, production stimulating,
and the exclusion of sand below the tubing without
removing the t u b i n g ; and these techniques have
been used to depths greater than 11,500 ft.
Equipment i s now being field-tested which unifies
all servi ces and equipment to bring about a reduc-
tion of surface equipment, manpower, and time nec-
essary to well recompletions by the perma-
nent-type method.
low-pressure squeeze-cementing jobs continue to
increase, a trend to reduced cement volumes and
surface squeeze pressures i s evident.
With the advent of the permanent-type well-coni-
pletion method and solution of the problems con-
fronting this type of operation, it became apparent
that the use of small through-the-tubing type tools
would permit a cost reduction and st i l l allow better
well control.
Over a dozen abnormal-pressure wells have now
been recompleted without killing the well with mud.
E'or sinlplicity, abnormal-pressure wells may be de-
fined as wells having surface pressure when filled
with s al t water. l . hese wells are being r e w o r k e d
with greater safety and at greatly reduced costs.
As the permanent-type well-completion technique
has increased in use and has been accepted as a
routine method of recompleting wells, new tools and
new techniques have been produced in ever-increas-
ing abundance. It i s the intention of the authors to
review the history and s ucces s of this new comple-
tion method and to describe some of the new tools
and techniques not described in previous publica-
Cementing Operations
It h a s been gratifying to observe that resul t s of
low-pressure squeeze-cementing operations in the
field have substantiated predictions based on labor-
-ry tests. l' he use of low pressures and small ce-
ment volunles, in addition to the avoidance of forma-
tion fracturing, h a s been observed in hundreds of
field jobs in the l ast two years. Most of these jobs
were successfully dry-tested. However, this opera-
tion h a s been virtually eliminated on plug-back jobs
and on some other cenient jobs where experience
dictates. At the present time, surface squeeze pres-
sures vary from 400 to 1,800 psi with a very slight
downward trend apparent in some areas. It has been
the rule to use squeeze pressures in excess of the
probable reverse-circulating pressures, but the trend
to l es s cement and lighter cements will pernlit much
lower surface s qu e e z e pressures. Initially about
15 bbl of cement slurry were niixed per squeeze job.
However, only 8 to 12 bbl of slurry are being mixed
in niost areas at this time.
Nornially a 12percent bentonitic cement h a s a
filtration rate of approxin1ately 90 to 120 cc in 30
niin API when clean, fresh mix water i s used. How-
ever, the use of brackish water in some a r e a s re-
sulted in a cement slurry having a water l os s of ap-
proxiniately double t hi s value. Thi s excessi ve filtra-
tion rate resulted in a cenient node buildup inside
the casing which restricted the use of the tubing-
type perforator. It was found that by increasing the
bentonite content of the modified cement to 25 per-
cent, the water l oss of the resultant slurry could be
halved; and this use of %-percent bentonitic cement
has been adopted in areas having poor niir water
and small casing or liners.
When using 25-percent bentonitic cement, i t i s
desirable to increase the calciuni lignosulfonate
used a s a retarding agent. The following i s the per-
centage of calciuni lignosulfonate t o cenient used
for 25-percent bentonitic cenient.
Well Temperatures, Calcium
Deg F'. Lignosulfonate, Percent
Up to 145 1.2
145 - 180 1.4
180 - 220 1.6
220 and above Make laboratory t est
Prior to the use of 25-percent bentonitic cenient
in field operations, a laboratory investigation was
made of the effect of cenient filtration rates, squeeze
pressures, and formation permeability upon the node
buildup or filter-cake buildup that extends into the
casing. 1'0 perform t hese t est s, Berea sandstone
cores were cemented inside a sniall container made
of 4'4-in. drill pipe with a plate welded on one end
of the drill pipe. Holes were drilled through the up-
per plate and core to simulate perforation h o l e s ,
and an u p p e r chamber was threaded to t hi s core
holder as a reservoir chamber for cenient and nitro-
gen. l ' hi s coniplete assembly i s shown in Fig. 1,
with a si de view of the filter-cake buildup. Three
cenients with different filtration rates were squeezed
into cores of equal permeability with 1,300-psi ni-
Fi g. 1-Appnratus for Testi ng Effects of Cement
trogen pressure, and the node buildup from the plate
on the core holder was measured every 10 min until
the squeeze pressure had been maintained for 40
min. Fig. 2 shows the relationship between node
b u i 1 d up and filtration rate, and i t illustrates the
smaller node buildup with 25-percent bentonitic ce-
ment vs. 12percent bentonitic cement and vs. 12
percent bentonitic cement mixed with s al t water to
increase the filtration rate. Once i t was ascertained
that the use of 25-percent b e n t o n i t i c cement re-
sulted in sniall node buildup, additional t es t s were
performed by squeezing t hi s cement into cores of
the same permeability while varying the squeeze
pressures from 100 psi to 1,300 psi. There was no
appreciable difference in filter-cake buildup with
variations in squeeze pressures, a s shown in Fig.
3. As a final ser i es of t est s, ' usi ng t hi s same ce-
ment and 1,300 lb squeeze pressure, cores of vary-
2 0 30
I n
0 9
0 8
0 7
0 6
0 s
0 1
0 3
0 1
0 I
O In )a 30 40
Fig.2-Relation Between Filter-cake Deposition and
Squeezing Time Showing Variation with Filtration
Rate and Slurry Mixtures
ing permeabilities were used to sinlulate t he per-
forated formation; and there e m d to be little
correlation between f i l t e r - c ~e buildup and perme-
a b i.1 i of the formation. ~h~ permeability of the
formation did affect the time necessary to con~plete-
ly fill the ~er f or at i on hole with cement; but after the
hole had been con~pletely filled with deposited filter
TEST NO. 10 100 PSI I -
cake, the permeability of the deposited filter cake
then became the controlling factor in the deposition
of cement within the casing. It was interesting to
note that a perforation hole c o u 1 d be completely
filled with cement filter cake to the inside of the
casing in a very short period of time, varying from
a few seconds to a little over 2 min, as illustrated
in Fig. 4.
l h i s same t est apparatus became a convenient
means of applying back pressure on the core in an
effort to remove the cement deposition by pressure
differential into the well bore. An effort was made
during these t est s to determine the minimum wait-
ing-on-cement time and st i l l satisfactorily withstand
a 1,000-psi pressure differential. Eight to 12 hours
setting time was satisfactory with 12-percent benton-
itic cement, but i t was often necessary to wait 24
hours before 25-percent bentonitic cement would sat-
isfactorily hold 1,000 psi. In an e f f o r t to obtain
stronger cement in the least possible time and to re-
duce the waiting-on-cement time, experiments were
then conducted on various materials that might be
flushed through the deposited cement prior to i t s ini-
tial s et and w hi 1 e the deposited cake st i l l had a
slightpernleability. It was found that 24-hour strength
could be obtained with 12-percent bentonitic cement
in a~~r 0xi "l at el Y 3 hours and with25-percent benton-
itic cement in approximately 6 hours by allowing
20-percent calcium chloride water to filter through
Fig. 3-Relation Between Filter-cake Deposition and Squeezing Time Showing Variation
with Squeeze Pressures
TN0. 5 39MD.
TEST NO. 6 475 MD.
TEST NO. 7 39 MD.
TEST NO. 3 113 MD .
2 0 3 0
Fig.4-Relation Between Filter-cake Deposition and Squeezing Time Showing Variation with
Core Permeability
the deposited cement under 100-psi pressure differ-
ential. There was some fear that the use of calcium
chloride might shrink the bentonitic clay present in
the cement, leaving resultant cracks in the depos-
ited cake. I-lowever, this did not occur on the major-
ity of tests. The use of calcium chloride a s a means
of flash-setting the deposited cement was then tried
in the field under a c t u a1 well conditions and dry
t est s were obtained. In an effort to obtain a cement
containing l e s s bentonite but having low water l oss
and being capable of taking a flash-set more rapidly,
field trials were conducted with an oil-emulsion ce-
ment containing kerosene or diesel oil emulsified
with water using calcium lignosulfonate, portland
cement, and Zpercent bentonite. It was found that
this new cement had a filtration rate varying from
40 cc to 75 cc in 30 min API, depending up o n the
method of mixing; and 24hour strength could be o b
tained in 1 hours when calciun~ chloride water was
filtered through the deposited filter cake.
In field operations i t h a s been found that a well
originally ~er f or at ed in mud or killed with mud gen-
erally will not dry t est satisfactorily after the ini-
tial cementing attempt unless a cement plug covers
the interval of perforations. Thi s i s true because
c e me n t will not be deposited in the perforations
plugged with mud and these mud plugs must be re-
moved by pressure differential into the well bore.
Indications are that the second squeeze-cement job
may be performed sooner when using this new ce-
ment and calcium chloride water as a means of ob-
taining high initial strength. It was noted during
field operations that the new cement not only had a
lower water-loss filtration but seemed to have a bet-
ter flow characteristic while pumping and could be
reversed from the well with a very low pressure.
At the present time service companies are s et up
in most areas to do a satisfactory job of mi x i n g
small batches of mo d i f i e d cement. The use of a
small tank with a paddle-wheel mi x e r or with a
whirling hydraulic mixer has a s s u r e d the correct
water-to-cement ratio and complete homogeneity of
the slurry. Field work had indicated that the dry in-
gredients in modified cement do not have to be pre-
mixed but can be used in the sack form if the calci-
um lignosulfonate i s added to the water prior to the
addition of bentonite and cement. It has been found,
however, that better gel characteristics are obtained
if the cement and bentonite are added simultaneous-
ly even though not perfectly blended. Thi s use of
cement in the sack form has been of v a l u e when
performing permanent-type well-completion opera-
tions from small barges in water locations wh e r e
the use of large bulk-cement trucks might be pro-
hibi tive.
During the initial trials of low-pressure squeeze
cementing in l i me s t o n e formations in the East
Texas area, cement was found too high in the cas-
ing and this c o u 1 d only be attributed to cement
backflow. It was reasoned that difficulty would be
experienced in dehydrating cement in the fractures
of relatively impermeable lin~estone fornlations and
that the cenient in the fractures niust in many cas es
take an i ni t i a 1 s et in slurry form. To accomplish
this operation, i t b e c am e a practice to hold back
pressure on the formation w h i 1 e removing the ex-
ces s cenient and the t u b i n g extension. l ' hi s suc-
cessfully prevented cenient backflow in the later
pernianent-completion jobs in t hi s area. Some areas
st i l l adhere to t hi s practice of maintaining surface
pressure on squeeze jobs performed on sandstone
as well a s limestone formations.
E'inding cement too high in the casing did create
one interesting problem-a nieans of removing this
cenient without a rig. 1'0 acconiplish this operation,
st eel tubing extension, containing st eel telescoping
joints at the lower extremity, was used to punip in-
hibited mud acid against the cenient in a swirling
fashion. It was found that 500 gal of niud acid would
reniove 25 to 30 ft of s et cement in 5'4-in. casing.
Surface Equipment
With the initial introduction of the tubing-type
perforator, some perforating conipanies niade an ef-
fort to r e du c e the si ze and cost of the surface
equipnient used with t hi s new sniall-diameter gun.
Very little effort was made, however, to reduce the
si ze or to modify the conventional wire-line and ce-
menting equipnient used for permanently conipleted
wells. Therefore, until a recent d a t e , pernianent-
type well-completion operations have been perforn~ed
with the conventional wire-line choke trucks, large
high-pressure cenienting units, and, in many cases,
with large perforating trucks.
Recently, two cenienting service units have been
constructed to permit a more thorough mi x i n g of
modified cenient and to tailor these trucks for use
with the permanent-type well-conipletion technique.
In both types of units, the fresh water used to mix
cenient and the dry cenient ingredients are trans-
ported to the location in the cenient trucks, thus
eliminating the need for a bulk-cement truck and a
tank truck. Both units also carry their own centrif-
ugal punip a s a nieans of supplying s al t water dur-
ing the operations, eliminating the need for the oil
company to supply gang labor and a punip for t hi s
Recently the service company supplying the two-
p unip , trailer-mounted cement unit al so designed
and equipped a single truck with an 0.082-in. piano-
wire line and a 34,-in. single conductor cable to per-
niit wire-line operations and perforating operations
to be performed froni one unit. l ' hi s use of dual wire-
line and trailer-mounted cenienting unit has t h e s e
advantages: .
1. Coordination between operators of wire-line and
cenienting units.
2. Reduction in manpower, inasmuch a s i t i s pos-
si bl e for the operators to perform operations on
both trucks without a duplication of effort.
To t est the theory of unified s e r v i c e , a single
pernianent-completion u n i t has been constructed
uhich combines cenienting, wire-line, and perfor-
ating operations in one vehicle. An effort has been
niade to reduce the s i ze of this equipment in line
with the requirements of the permanent-completion
type'of operation and st i l l maintain a suitable fac-
tor of safety. l ' hi s permanent-completion unit per-
niits coordination between pumping operations and
wire-line operations that has heretofore been im-
possible with two units. At the same time, the re-
duction in s i ze and amount of equipnient will permit
speedier and sinipler operations on barges, fills,
and other locations where space i s liniited.
Sand Exclusion
A ni e t ho d of removing produced sand froni the
well bore was discovered early in the use of per-
nianent-type well conipletion. The problem of con-
trolling produced sand when using t hi s technique
has also received f i e 1 d investigation. Because a
permanently conipleted well i s conipleted in the A-
sence of drilling niud and because the perforation
holes should remain unplugged, it seemed feasible
that this ua s the perfect environment in which to
use consolidating plastics. ?'he use of the tubing
extension permitted all s al t water to be displaced
from the well with oil to a point below the perfora-
tions and al so perniitted the plastic to be displaced
across the casing perforations p r i o r to injection
into the formation sand. Several wells conipleted in
the absence of drilling niud were treated with con-
solidating pl ast i c with success. I l o~. ever , it i s too
early to accurately appraise this work.
Field Operations
1'0 date s e v e r a l hundred wells have been re-
worked through the use of the permanent-type well-
conipletion technique, and several thousand wells.
have been c o nip 1 e t e d in such a nianner that this
technique may be used in the future. Co n ~ ~ l e t e work-
overs, without the use of a rig, have been performed
in wells to depths in excess of 11,500 ft, and the
tubing-type perforator has been used for the initial
conipletion of wells at even greater depths. l ' hi s
type of wire-line, cenienting, and perforating oper-
ation has been perfornied in various s i zes of tubing,
all s i zes of casing, and even in small liners. Vari-
ations in the s i ze of tubing, c a s i n g , or liners
seemed to p r e s e n t no difficulty. Forkovers have
been performed on wells located in Lays, Layous,
fills, and other difficult terrain. l ' hi s process has
I been used to obtain repeated economical t es t s in
1%-in. Gamma Ray and Neutron Survey Run through Conventional Gamma Ray and Neutron Survey Run
Tubing and Casing through Casing
Fi g. 5
wildcat wells by permitting the drilling rig to be re-
moved immediately after setting casing and running
tubing. On numerous occasions it has been neces-
sary to squeeze-cement a set of ~er f or at i ons and to
re-perforate the well in a lower interval. To date, it
has been necessary to move downward a maximunl
of approxiniately 400 to 500 ft. However, the amount
of casing to be l eft open below the squeeze-cement-
ed zone s e e m s to present no difficulty. Because
of different densities, there i s a tendency for the
cement to fall to the 1 ow e r part of the casing if
the cement i s underlain by sal t water. Therefore, i t
has been a practice to use sufficient cement when
squeeze cementing this type of well to permit the
cement t~ be a continuous column from the end of
the tubing extension to a point above the perfora-
Fl ow Metek
The increased use of through-the-tubing tools has
stimulated work on other tools that may be run on a
wire line in producing wells. The new flow meter
and sound device described by R. C. Rumble in his
paper "A Subsurface Flowmeter," which was pre-
sented at the 1954 fall meeting of the Petroleum
Branch, AIhIE, i s merely one of the new tools that
will give field and reservoir engineers more knowl-
edge of subsurface conditions. Several flow meters
now developed by oil and service companies may be
run t h r o u g h the tubing and operate in the casing
while diverting all production through the instru-
Logging Instruments
?'he advent of 1%-in. OD gamma ray and neutron
logging devices now makes i t ~ o s s i b l e to obtain
radioactivity logs of old wells without pulling t u b
ing. Thi s permits definition of lithology when no
previous logs have been obtained. In many instances
this new tool will also enable the reservoir engineer
to maintain constant observations of the level of
reservoir fluid contacts. Excellent correlation has
been o b t a i n e d between logs obtained with these
small instruments and 1 a r g e r casing instruments.
F'ig. 5 i s an example of two logs run by different-
sized instruments within a period of 3 days.
Tubing-type perforators have now progressed to
such a stage that a penetration job with a small gun
run through the tubing i s comparable with a conven-
tional casing gun. The appearance within the past
year of the swingjet tubing gun, which i s lowered
down the tubing with charges in a vertical position
and fires with the charges in a horizontal position,
has been the first radical departure in tubing-type
perforators since the original design in 1950. More
recently, experimental wor k has indicated that a
new f i x e d - b ~e l tubing gun with charges designed
as a result of intensive shaped-charge research will
have r e a t 1 improved ~er f omance, particularly
when used in a satisfactory completion fluid.
Thus far i t has been impossible to obtain a satis-
factory measure of the effect on well productivity
which results from completing wells with a large
pressure differential into the well bore. On the con-
trary, excessive pressure differentials into the well
bore have created upward surges after perforating
and, in s o me cases, were detrimental from a me-
chanical standpoint as gun debris was blown up the
tubing and prevented withdrawal of the collar loca-
tor. Indications are, however, that some pressure
differential into the well bore should increase well
?'he continued improvement in tubing-gun frangi-
bility should reduce the cost of future through-the-
tubing recompletions and eliminate the need to re-
move used gun cases. Heretofore, when aluminum
gun c a s e s have been encountered in the desired
working interval, i t has been a policy to dissolve
the case with a caustic soda solution. In a c t u a l
practice about 600 l b of c a u s t i c soda have been
added to 8 bbl of water and s p o t t e d in position
through a tubing extension of %-in. st eel pipe hav-
ing telescoping joints at the lower end. The solu-
tion i s generally spotted by pumping '4 bbl or s o
around the end of the extension every 5 or 10 min.
After several hours the spent caustic soda solution
i s removed from the well and other operations may
. -
The tubing-type perforator has retained i t s popu-
larity as a means of re-perforating old wells and of
increasing the perforated interval. Permanent-type
well-completion techniques on abnormal-pressure
wells have indicated the practicality of using the
expendable tubing-closing plug when re-perforating
with the tubing gun in wells having a high surface
Now that a good number of permanent-type well
operations have been completed, some idea of the
reduction in workover cost possible through this
technique i s available. Recently an analysis was
made of the permanent-type well-completion opera-
tions performed during 1954 over a rather large area
of operation where this technique has become rela-
tively routine. When compared with the conventional
method of reworking wells with a rig that had been
used during the previous .year, i t became apparent
that this permanent-completion technique saved ap-
proxin~ately 40 percent in workover costs. The area
analyzed contained wells of shallow depth where a
small pulling unit could be used,= well as shallow-
water locations where barge rigs must be used for
workover purposes. Not only was a cost reduction
realized, but two other fact s became readily appar-
ent through this analysis, viz.:
1. During the past year there has been a decided
reduction in difficulties such as line breakage,
equipment failures, and errors in judgment. Dur-
ing the latter part of 1954 and the initial part of
of 1955, all jobs were performed w i t h o u t any
serious difficulty, possibly because of more ex-
perience and better coordination between serv-
ice personnel and oil-company personnel.
2. An increase in the number of formation t est s per
workover was realized. Geologists took advan-
tage of the low cost of the permanent-completion
technique to t est all possible fluid-producing
formations penetrated by the well bore.
It h a s now become possible to rework a well in a
24-hour period, and the increased efficiency of serv-
i ce personnel should make p o s s i b 1 e 1- to Zday
workovers on a routine basis. The amount of initial
preparation of the well, the type of s u b s u r f a c e
equipment, and the amount of interval to be perfor-
ated will affect the time required to rework the well
and i t s final cost. However, there i s no appreciable
i n c r e a s e in time or cost as a result of greater
depths. As efficiency increases and unified service
becomes available, i t will soon be possible to per-
form complete workovers for as little a s $1,000. To
date better than a dozen wells have been reworked
without killing them with drilling mud or sal t water,
and i t h a s been p o s s i b l e to run the tubing exten-
sion and cement with as much as 1,300 psi surface
pressure on the well. By using 10 l b per gal sal t
water or 12 lb per gal calcium chloride water a s a
circulating fluid, i t i s possible to rework wells with
formation pressure gradients a s high a s 0.70 with-
out contaminating the formation with conventional
drilling mud.
The substantial reduction in workover and com-
pletion costs obtained through the use of the perma-
nent-completion technique may be further reduced
by the use of a unified service because of the fol-
1. A reduction in well-servicing manpower.
2. A reduction in dispatcher, accounting, and sal es
forces, because all operations may be performed
by one company.
3. Increased efficiency through coordinated serv-
It becomes apparent that this type of operation
will also reduce the work load of the oil-company
personnel by eliminating the number of service com-
panies that must be contacted and the amount of co-
ordination that i s required to have all vehicles at
the well si t e at the correct time. It also means that
the entire operation performed by service personnel
may be under the supervision of one man.
1. Wells may be r e w o r k e d or completed with a
1 a r g e reduction in cost using the permanent-type
well-completion technique.
2. A unified service o f f e r e d by one company i s
practical and offers advantages of coordination, ef-
ficiency, and speed.
3. Wells may be reworked in 1 to 2 days.
4. The use of the simplified squeeze-cementing
technique and the tubing-type perforator, combined
with other techniques developed for this economical
method of reworking wells, has proved practical and
has given engineers better information a s well as
better control of wells.
' Allen, T. 0. and Atterbury, J . A. Jr: Ef f ect i veness of
Gun Perforating, Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Met. Engrs.
(Petroleum Development and Technology) 201, 8 (1954).
George C. W i g h t (Stanolind Oil and Ga s Co.,
Houston)(written):* The authors are to be congratu-
lated for their efforts in improving the economy of
workovers through various permanent-type comple-
tion techniques. Benefits have a c c r u e d not only
where c o n ~ p 1 e t e permanent-type completion tech-
niques have been utilized, but also in improved re-
sul t s with existing equipment while utilizing certain
f e a t u r e s of the permanent-completion techniques.
For instance, our company has greatly reduced the
cost of many workovers in 4,000-ft to 6,000-ft nor-
mal-pressure wells (that can be killed with s al t wa-
*Presented by T. W. K e a t l n g , Stanol ~nd Oi l and Gas Co.,
ter) by taking advantage of the 1 o w-p r e s s u r e
squeeze techniques and the tubing gun, and al so by
extending the tubing downward temporarily by add-
ing joints at the top with a pulling unit.
Along this latter line, we find i t cheaper in many
such instances to pull and rerun tubing with a pull-
ing unit than to engage the service truck for running
special wire-line equipment or use the higher-priced
retrievable gas-lift valves. Thi s suggest s the de-
sirability of more economical unified service equip-
ment for workovers.
In general, i t appears that there may be many in-
st ances where i t i s not appropriate to use 100 per-
cent of the permanent-type completion techniques
but where judicious combinations of the newer and
the older techniques will be found most economical.
It may be of interest also to consider the suita-
bility of a type of low-water-loss cement that does
not require any special equipment for mixing.
Mr. Huber: If the saving in workover at 4,000 to
6,000 ft i s large, I believe i t can be seen that the
s a v i n g at greater depths would be tremendously
higher because in the permanent well-completion
method depth h a s very little to do with the cost of
performing the job.