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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJMET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

© I A E M E

by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E EFFECT OF WATER DEPTH AT 30˚

EFFECT OF WATER DEPTH AT 30˚ INCLINED CONDENSING COVER IN THE PERFORMANCE OF A WATER DISTILLATION SYSTEM IN AN INDOOR SIMULATION

Abhishek Gaikwad 1 ,

Dhananjay Kumar Singh 2 ,

Abhay Singh 3

Assistant Professor 1 , Scholars 2, 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study is to find a relation for the predicting convective and evaporative heat transfer coefficient and distillate output for 200 mm and 160 mm water depth. In this present work an attempt is to be made to use inner glass cover temperature instead of outer glass temperature as done by other researchers. The sides of the wall of the condensing cover are made up of FRP sheet to avoid heat losses from sides and to provide the desired inclination to the cover to the bath. It is exposed to room condition to increase the difference between water temperature and the condensing cover temperature to increase the heat transfer rate and thus the condensate output. The operating temperature range for the experiment is to be maintained at steady state from 50 o C to 90 o C by using a constant temperature bath. The yield obtained for a 1/2 hour intervals were used to determine the values of constant C and n and consequently convective and evaporative heat transfer coefficient. It is therefore expected that higher yield is to be obtained at higher temperature and at minimum depth of water.

Keywords: Distillate Output, Constant Bath Temperature, Dunkle, Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and Evaporative Heat Transfer Coefficient.

1. INTRODUCTION

There is an important need for clean, pure drinking water in many developing countries. Often water sources are brackish (i.e. contain dissolved salts) and contain harmful bacteria and therefore cannot be used for drinking. In addition, there are many coastal locations where sea water is abundant but potable water is not available. Pure water is also useful for batteries and in hospitals or schools. Distillation is one of many processes that can be used for water purification. This requires

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

an energy input, as heat, solar radiation can be the source of energy. In this process, water is evaporated, thus separating water vapor from dissolved matter, which is condensed as pure water. Requirement of distilled water for human beings is approx. 5 liters per person per day. Therefore 2m 2 of still are needed for each person served. A simple solar still consisting of a water basin and a single glass cover is the first proposed design of solar still that is easy to construct and it has virtually no operating cost. It is generally classified as a passive and active distillation system Solar stills should normally only be considered for removal of dissolved salts from water. If there is a choice between brackish ground water and polluted surface water, it will usually be cheaper to use a slow sand filter or other treatment device. If there is no fresh water then the main alternatives are desalination, transportation and rainwater collection.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experimental set-up includes a constant temperature bath; the condensing covers at inclination of 30°, digital temperature indicators, well calibrated thermocouples (by Zeal Thermometer), two transparent pipes of small diameter and measuring jars. The output from the still is collected through a channel. Two plastic pipes are connected to this channel to drain the distillated water to an external measuring jar. The total capacity of the constant temperature bath is 40 L, and its effective evaporative surface area is 300 mm × 400 mm. The water is heated by bath heating coils. It is conducted from 50°C to 90°C (temperature range) for 200 mm and 160 mm water depth at intervals of 5°C. Constant temperature bath was started at 8:30 am 1 hour before to take the readings and to make sure that steady state has been reached after 1 hour at 9:30 am. After steady state continuous readings for every 1/2 hour has been taken i.e., 10:00,10:30,11:00,11:30,12:00,12:30,1:00

natural mode. Same process has been applied for temperature range

under no fan conditions

50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, 80°C, 85°C, 90°C. Same method is applied for both water depths at 30° inclinations of condensing cover. Condensing cover is made of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) of 3 mm thickness. This glass reinforced plastic is manufactured by sticking many layers of corrugated sheets with special chemicals in such a manner that air is entrapped between its corrugated cavities, which provide a high degree of insulation for heat flow, which is a highly desired quality for the solar still material. Condensing cover made of plane glass of 4 mm thickness is fixed to the top of the vertical walls of

the stills using a rubber gasket on both side of glass and clamp fixed iron frames made of angles. To avoid the spilling of basin water into the distillate channel and to prevent the contact of distillate channel with the glass cover as well as with the water level.

i.e.,

with the glass cover as well as with the water level. i.e., Fig 1: Condensing cover

Fig 1: Condensing cover of the solar distillation system

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

3. INDENTATIONS AND EQUATIONS

In this experiment characteristic length is calculate by using half of the vertical height at central axis of condensing cover, this is 89 mm for 200 mm water depth, 129 mm for 160 mm water depth.

Difference = Height of bath – Height of water

= 230 – 160 = 70 mm (for 160 mm water depth)

= 230 – 200 = 30 mm (for 200 mm water depth)

Vertical height of smaller end of solar still (d f ) = 59 mm (for all cases of water depth) Characteristic Length (L v ) = Difference + d f

1. For 200 mm water depth = 59 mm + 30 mm = 89 mm = 0.089 m.

2. For 160 mm water depth = 59 mm + 70 mm = 129 mm = 0.129 m.

In general for heat transfer the following equations may be applied the rate of convective heat

transfer is described by the general equation.

heat transfer is described by the general equation. Where:- (1) h c w = Convective heat

Where:-

(1)

h cw = Convective heat transfer Coefficient

A = Evaporative surface area, m 2

T w = Evaporative surface temperature, C

T g = Temperature of boundary from evaporation surface, C

Q = Rate of heat transfer by convection.

Convective heat transfer coefficient is not a property of material, it is dependent on the following factors:-

1. Operating range of temperature and temperature difference.

2. Geometry of condensing cover.

3. Flow characteristics of the fluid.

4. Physical properties of the fluid within the operating temperature.

The relation of the non dimensional Nusselt number carries the convective heat transfer coefficient as

number carries the convective heat transfer coefficient as Where:- Nu = Nusselt Number Gr = Grashof
number carries the convective heat transfer coefficient as Where:- Nu = Nusselt Number Gr = Grashof

Where:-

Nu = Nusselt Number Gr = Grashof Number

Pr = Prandtl Number

K v = Thermal conductivity

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(2)

(3)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

L v = Characteristics length of condensing cover, m

C & n = Constant

The distillate output in kg from the unit can be obtained by the relation:

(4)

(4)

L = Latent heat of vaporization of water, J/kg

A w = Surface area, m 2

t

= time interval in seconds

Rate of evaporative heat transfer

 
(5)

(5)

Evaporative heat transfer coefficient, W/m² °C

(6)

(6)

Pw = Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature, N/m² Pg = Partial saturated vapor pressure at condensing cover temperature, N/m² By substituting the expression for h cw from equation (3) into equation (6), we get

(7)

(7)

Substituting h ew from equation (7) into equation (5), we get

(8)

(8)

Substituting q ew from equation (8) into equation (4), we get

(9)

(9)

(10)

(10)

 

Where,

(11)

(11)

Taking the logarithm to both side of equation (10) & comparing it with the straight line equation.

y = mx + C

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(12)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

We get

Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME We get (13) (14) By using
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME We get (13) (14) By using

(13)

(14)

By using linear regression analysis the coefficient in equation (12),

linear regression analysis the coefficient in equation (12), Where:- N = number of experiment observations Co
linear regression analysis the coefficient in equation (12), Where:- N = number of experiment observations Co

Where:-

N = number of experiment observations

Co = ln C; C = Exp (Co)

n = m

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

3.1 Temperature – dependent physical properties of vapor

1. Specificheat(C p )

2. Density(ρ)

of vapor 1. Specificheat(C p ) 2. Density( ρ ) 3. Thermal Conductivity(K v ) 4.
of vapor 1. Specificheat(C p ) 2. Density( ρ ) 3. Thermal Conductivity(K v ) 4.

3. Thermal Conductivity(K v )

4. Viscosity(µ)

5. Latent heat of vaporization of water (L)

Viscosity( µ ) 5. Latent heat of vaporization of water (L) 6. Partial saturated vapor pressure
Viscosity( µ ) 5. Latent heat of vaporization of water (L) 6. Partial saturated vapor pressure
Viscosity( µ ) 5. Latent heat of vaporization of water (L) 6. Partial saturated vapor pressure

6. Partial saturated vapor pressure at condensing cover temperature (P g )

7. Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature (P w )

8. Expansion factor (β)

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temperature (P g ) 7. Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature (P w ) 8.
temperature (P g ) 7. Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature (P w ) 8.
temperature (P g ) 7. Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature (P w ) 8.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

4. FIGURES AND TABLES

Table 1: Average values calculated for 200 mm water depth

S.NO

BATH TEMP

WATER TEMP

VAPOR TEMP

INNER GLASS

(°C)

(°C)

(°C)

TEMP (°C)

1

50

40.9

38.3

37.0

2

55

45.1

41.0

37.3

3

60

49.3

43.4

40.7

4

65

54.1

47.3

43.3

5

70

59.0

52.0

48.6

6

75

65.0

56.0

51.6

7

80

68.4

60.9

55.3

8

85

71.9

65.9

61.1

9

90

79.1

72.1

70.9

Table 2: Average values calculated for 160 mm water depth

S.NO

BATH TEMP

 

WATER TEMP

VAPOR TEMP

 

INNER GLASS

 
 

(°C)

(°C)

 

(°C)

TEMP (°C)

1

 

50

 

38.9

 

36.0

34.4

2

 

55

 

45.0

 

40.9

37.3

3

 

60

 

49.0

 

43.0

40.0

4

 

65

 

53.6

 

47.3

43.0

5

 

70

 

58.9

 

51.7

48.6

6

 

75

 

63.0

 

55.3

51.3

7

 

80

 

69.0

 

60.0

55.3

8

 

85

 

74.0

 

65.1

61.1

9

 

90

 

78.7

 

69.9

65.7

 

Table 3: Comparison of Tw, Tv and Tg at different water depths.

 

S.NO

Bath

Water Temp(˚C)

Vapor Temp(˚C)

 

Inner Glass Temp(˚C)

 

Temp

At 200 mm

At 160 mm

At 200 mm

At 160 mm

 

At 200 mm

At 160 mm

 

1 50

40.9

38.9

38.3

36.0

 

37.0

34.4

 

2 55

45.1

45.0

41.0

40.9

 

37.3

37.3

 

3 60

49.3

49.0

43.4

43.0

 

40.7

40.0

 

4 65

54.1

53.6

47.3

47.3

 

43.3

43.0

 

5 70

59.0

58.9

52.0

51.7

 

48.6

48.6

 

6 75

65.0

63.0

56.0

55.3

 

51.6

51.3

 

7 80

68.4

69.0

60.9

60.0

 

55.3

55.3

 

8 85

71.9

74.0

65.9

65.1

 

61.1

61.1

 

9 90

79.1

78.7

72.1

69.9

 

70.9

65.7

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

Table 4: Comparison of distillate output (M ew Practical) of present model

S.NO

BATH TEMP (°C)

M ew at 200 mm

M ew at 160 mm

1

50

3.0

1.1

2

55

5.4

3.4

3

60

9.1

6.8

4

65

11.8

8.1

5

70

16.2

12.2

6

75

22.3

17.0

7

80

29.0

27.5

8

85

35.3

33.0

9

90

46.0

41.5

Table 5: Comparison of distillate output between Dunkle, present model & theoretical value for 200 mm water depth

S.NO

BATH TEMP (°C)

M ew T(ml)

M ew P (ml)

M ew D (ml)

 

1 50

2.6

3.0

3.2

 

2 55

6.3

5.4

9.3

 

3 60

8.3

9.1

12.7

 

4 65

12.8

11.8

21.1

 

5 70

17.5

16.2

30.5

 

6 75

25.0

22.3

45.9

 

7 80

29.1

29.0

54.5

 

8 85

33.5

35.3

64.0

 

9 90

36.8

46.0

72.4

Table 6: Comparison of distillate output between Dunkle, present model & theoretical 160 mm water depth

value for

S.NO

BATH TEMP (°C)

M ew T(ml)

M ew P (ml)

M ew D (ml)

 

1 50

2.0

1.1

3.4

 

2 55

3.8

3.4

12.8

 

3 60

6.5

6.8

13.2

 

4 65

8.6

8.1

17.9

 

5 70

11.8

12.2

25.3

 

6 75

16.0

17.0

36.0

 

7 80

24.1

27.5

57.3

 

8 85

28.5

33.0

68.7

 

9 90

35.4

41.5

77.9

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig.2: Comparison of water temperature for

Fig.2: Comparison of water temperature for 200 mm & 160 mm water depth

of water temperature for 200 mm & 160 mm water depth Fig.3: Comparison of vapor temperature

Fig.3: Comparison of vapor temperature for 200 mm & 160 mm water depth

of vapor temperature for 200 mm & 160 mm water depth Fig.4: Comparison of inner glass

Fig.4: Comparison of inner glass temperature for 200 mm & 160 mm water depth

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

Comparison of M ewP 49 Mewp 41 at 200 mm 33 25 17 Mewp at
Comparison of M ewP
49
Mewp
41
at 200
mm
33
25
17
Mewp
at 160
9
mm
1
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
Bath temperature
M
ewP (ml)

Fig.5: Comparison of average values of practical distillate output recorded for different water depths

distillate output recorded for different water depths Fig.6: Comparison of distillate output between Dunkle,

Fig.6: Comparison of distillate output between Dunkle, present model & theoretical value for 200

mm water depth

Comparison of dunkle, theoretical & practical distillate output for 160 mm water depth 78 Mew
Comparison of dunkle, theoretical & practical distillate
output for 160 mm water depth
78
Mew T(ml)
67
56
45
Mew P (ml)
34
23
Mew D (ml)
12
1
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
Bath Temperature
M ew (ml)

Fig.7: Comparison of distillate output between Dunkle, present model & theoretical value for 160

mm water depth

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

6. CONCLUSIONS

The values obtained at higher operating temperatures for the convective and evaporative heat transfer coefficients and values of unknown constant C and n obtained by the present experiment. The present model gives more accurate and realistic values of distillate output as compared with the theoretical values of distillate output. It obtains high distillate output at higher operating temperatures and at higher water depth at 30° inclination of the condensing cover. It is clearly seen (Fig.2,3 & 4) that at 30˚ inclination angle condensing cover the water temperature for 200 mm water depth is higher than 160 mm up to 75˚C bath temperature. Vapor temperature and inner glass temperature for 200 mm water depth is higher than 160 mm water depth at all stages of bath temperature. So here we are observing that the water temperature, vapor temperature and inner glass temperature of the condensing cover for 200 mm water depth at 30˚inclination angle of the condensing cover is maximum than the 160 mm water depth at 30˚inclination angle of the condensing cover. The distillate output obtained from present model at 200 mm water depth is much higher than the values recorded for 160 mm water depth. It shows that at 30˚ inclination angle condensing cover minimum the water depth maximum the distillate. (See fig. 5) The values of Dunkle distillate output are higher in both the cases as our research is in indoor simulation. The environment change and some losses of distillate output as well as not using stirrer is also the drawbacks of this research which does not compete with the Dunkle. Fig 6 & 7 shows that the theoretical and practical values are very close to each other in both the cases. Practical values of distillate output are always greater than the theoretical values for both the water depths. Its shows our results are genuine and satisfactory.

REFRENCES

1. Rheinlander J., (1982) “Numerical calculation of heat and mass transfer in solar stills”, Solar Energy, 28, pp 173-179.

2. Yadav, Y.P. and Tiwari. G.N., (1987) Monthly comparative performance of solar still coupled to various designs, Desalination, 67, 5 65.

3. Tiwari G. N., Thomas J. M., Khan Emran (1995) “the maximum efficiency of single-effect solar stills”, Solar Energy, pp 205-214.

4. Kumar S. and Tiwari G.N. (1996a) Performance evaluation of an active solar distillation system, Energy. Vol 21, 805-808.

5. Kumar S. and Tiwari G. N., (1996b) “Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation system”, Solar Energy 57, 459-464.

6. Kumar S., Tiwari G.N., Singh H.N. (2000). Annual performance of an active solar distillation system, © Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Solar Energy Conversion and Photo Energy systems – Vol. II - Solar Distillation - Gopal Nath Tiwari and Hriday Narayan Singh Desalination 127(2000), 79-88.

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9. Farid Mohammed et al. (1993), “Performance of a single-basin solar still”. productivity, temperature of water, glass cover, and ambient air were recorded.

10. Tiwari G.N., Khan Emran, (1994) “Optimization of glass cover inclination for maximum yield”.

11. G.N.Tiwari, J.M.Thomas, (1995) “The maximum efficiency of single-effect solar stills”.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 90-100 © IAEME

12. Later on Kumar and Tiwari (1996), “Estimation of a convective mass transfer”.

13. Miguel Angel Porta-Gandara, (1998), “Experimental validation of thermal modeling of solar still” Tiwari and Tripathi (2003), “A study of a heat and mass transfer indoor simulation”.

14. Further, Anil Kr. Tiwari, G.N. Tiwari (2005). “Effect of the condensing cover’s slope on internal heat and mass transfer in distillation”. The oldest relation formulated by Dunkle (1961) is a semi-empirical relation for internal heat and mass transfer in solar distillation units. Those proposed values for C and n were 0.075 and 0.33, respectively, and for Gr >3.2 × 105. However, this Relation has its own limitations which have been discussed by many researchers.

15. S.K. Shukla and A.k. Rai, (2010) “Estimation of Solar Still Output under Indoor Environment”.

16. Omar Badran*(2011) “Theoretical Analysis of Solar Distillation Using Active Solar Still”.

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18. Ajeet Kumar Rai, Ashish Kumar and Vinod Kumar Verma, “Effect of Water Depth and Still Orientation on Productivity of Passive Solar Still”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 740 - 753, ISSN Print:

0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

19. Hitesh N Panchal, Dr. Manish Doshi, Anup Patel and Keyursinh Thakor, “Experimental Investigation On Coupling Evacuated Heat Pipe Collector On Single Basin Single Slope

Solar Still Productivity”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 1 - 9, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online:

0976 – 6359.

20. Ajeet Kumar Rai, Nirish Singh and Vivek Sachan, “Experimental Study of a Single Basin

Solar Still with Water Cooling of the Glass Cover”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 1 - 7, ISSN Print:

0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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