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02

SUBJECT: TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

SUBMITTED TO: DR.H. ANWAR SB

SUBMITTED BY: SALMAN HAROON

(MSC-13-S-07)

ICET,UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB

COMMENTS ON CONTINUITY EQUATION:

A continuity equation in physics is an equation that describes the transport of a conserved quantity.

Since mass, energy, momentum, electric and other natural quantities are conserved under their respective

appropriate conditions; a variety of physical phenomena may be described using continuity equations.

Continuity equations are a stronger, local form of conservation laws. For example, it is true that

"conserved”. But this statement does not immediately rule out the possibility that energy could disappear

from Earth while simultaneously appearing in another galaxy. A stronger statement is that energy

is locally conserved: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, nor can it "teleport" from one place to

another it can only move by a continuous flow. A continuity equation is the mathematical way to express this

kind of statement.

Continuity equations more generally can include "source" and "sink" terms, which allow them to describe

quantities that are often but not always conserved, such as the density of a molecular species which can be

created or destroyed by chemical reactions. In an everyday example, there is a continuity equation for the

number of living humans; it has a "source term" to account for people being born, and a "sink term" to

account for people dying.

Any continuity equation can be expressed in an "integral form" (in terms of a flux integral), which applies to

any finite region, or in a "differential form" (in terms of the divergence operator) which applies at a point.

Continuity equations underlie more specific transport equations such as the convection–diffusion

equation, Boltzmann transport equation, and Navier–Stokes equations.

This is expressed in the Continuity Equation:

Where:

Q = the volumetric flow rate

A = the cross sectional area of flow

V = the mean velocity

Calculation of flow rate is often complicated by the interdependence between flow rate and

friction loss. Each affects the other and often these problems need to be solved iteratively.

Once flow and depth are know the continuity equation is used to calculate velocity in the

culvert.

Because liquids are incompressible, the rate of flow into an area must equal the rate of flow

out of an area. This is known as the equation of continuity.

The equation of continuity can show how much the speed of a liquid increases if it is forced

to flow through a smaller area. For example, if the area of a pipe is halved, the velocity of

the fluid will double.

Although gases often behave as fluids, they are not incompressible the way liquids are and so

the continuity equation does not apply.

VECTOR FIELD:

In vector calculus, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset

of space. A vector field in the plane, for instance, can be visualized as a collection of arrows

with a given magnitude and direction each attached to a point in the plane. Vector fields are

often used to model, for example, the speed and direction of a moving fluid throughout space,

or the strength and direction of some force, such as the magnetic or gravitational force, as it

changes from point to point.

The elements of differential and integral calculus extend to vector fields in a natural way. When

a vector field represents force, the line integral of a vector field represents the work done by a

force moving along a path, and under this interpretation conservation of energy is exhibited as

a special case of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Vector fields can usefully be thought of

as representing the velocity of a moving flow in space, and this physical intuition leads to

notions such as the divergence (which represents the rate of change of volume of a flow)

and curl (which represents the rotation of a flow).

In coordinates, a vector field on a domain in n-dimensional Euclidean space can be represented

as a vector-valued function that associates an n-tuple of real numbers to each point of the

domain. This representation of a vector field depends on the coordinate system, and there is a

well-defined transformation law in passing from one coordinate system to the other. Vector

fields are often discussed on open subsets of Euclidean space, but also make sense on other

subsets such as surfaces, where they associate an arrow tangent to the surface at each point

(a tangent vector).

More generally, vector fields are defined on differentiable manifolds, which are spaces that

look like Euclidean space on small scales, but may have more complicated structure on larger

scales. In this setting, a vector field gives a tangent vector at each point of the manifold (that is,

a section of the tangent bundle to the manifold). Vector fields are one kind of tensor.

As vector fields exist at all points of space, they can be specified along curves and surfaces as

well. This is especially important because all laws of electricity and magnetism can be

formulated through the behavior of vector fields along curves and surfaces.

Let us start with curves. An arbitrary curve can be uniquely defined by the dl vector field along

the curve. The magnitude of this vector is an infinitely small length element of the curve at a

certain location and the direction of it is tangential to the curve at the same location. (Please

note that on this page vectors are denoted by bold letters in the text but they have arrows

above them in the formulae and figures. It is very important to distinguish between vectors and

scalars!). As our arbitrary vector field V also exists at all points of the curve (Figure 2), we can

form the dot product of the two vectors that is equal to the tangential

Component of V multiplied by the magnitude of dl (remember the geometrical meaning of the

dot product):

The integral of this quantity along the entire length of the curve is called the circulation of the

vector field V along the curve:

(

Where L is the length of the curve and the average tangential component of V along the curve

is defined as

SCALAR FIELD:

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space.

The scalar may either be a mathematical number or a physical quantity. Scalar fields are

required to be coordinate-independent, meaning that any two observers using the same units

will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same point in space (or space-time). Examples

used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space,

the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These

fields are the subject of scalar field theory.

Mathematically, a scalar field on a region U is a real or complex-valued

function or distribution on U. The region U may be a set in some Euclidean space, Minkowski

space, or more generally a subset of a manifold, and it is typical in mathematics to impose

further conditions on the field, such that it be continuous or often continuously

differentiable to some order. A scalar field is a tensor field of order zero, and the term "scalar

field" may be used to distinguish a function of this kind with a more general tensor

field, density, or differential.

Physically, a scalar field is additionally distinguished by having units of measurement associated

with it. In this context, a scalar field should also be independent of the coordinate system used

to describe the physical system—that is, any two observers using the same units must agree on

the numerical value of a scalar field at any given point of physical space. Scalar fields are

contrasted with other physical quantities such as vector fields, which associate a vector to

every point of a region, as well as tensor fields and spinor fields. More subtly, scalar fields are

often contrasted with pseudo scalar fields.

Examples in quantum theory and relativity:

In quantum field theory, a scalar field is associated with spin-0 particles. The scalar field

may be real or complex valued. Complex scalar fields represent charged particles. These

include the charged Higgs field of the Standard Model, as well as the

charged pions mediating the strong nuclear interaction.

In the Standard Model of elementary particles, a scalar Higgs field is used to give

the leptons and massive vector bosons their mass, via a combination of the interaction and

the spontaneous symmetry breaking. This mechanism is known as the Higgs mechanism. A

candidate for the Higgs boson was first detected at CERN in 2012.

In scalar theories of gravitation scalar fields are used to describe the gravitational field.

Scalar-tensor theories represent the gravitational interaction through both a tensor and a

scalar. Such attempts are for example the Jordan theory as a generalization of the Kaluza–

Klein theory and the Brans–Dicke theory.

Scalar fields like the Higgs field can be found within scalar-tensor theories, using as scalar

field the Higgs field of the Standard Model. This field interacts gravitationally and Yukawa-

like (short-ranged) with the particles that get mass through it.

Scalar fields are found within superstring theories as dilaton fields, breaking the conformal

symmetry of the string, though balancing the quantum anomalies of this tensor.

Scalar fields are supposed to cause the accelerated expansion of the universe (inflation ),

helping to solve the horizon problem and giving a hypothetical reason for the non-

vanishing cosmological constant of cosmology. Mass less (i.e. long-ranged) scalar fields in

this context are known as inflations’. Massive (i.e. short-ranged) scalar fields are proposed,

too, using for example Higgs-like fields.

DIVERGENCE AND CURL OF VECTOR FIELDS:

DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD:

The divergence of a vector field F=<P(x,y,z),Q(x,y,z),R(x,y,z)>, denoted by div F, is the scalar

function defined by the dot product

Here is an example. Let

The divergence is given by:

Curl of a Vector Field:

The curl of a vector field F=<P(x,y,z),Q(x,y,z),R(x,y,z)>, denoted curl F, is the vector field defined

by the cross product

An alternative notation is

The above formula for the curl is difficult to remember. An alternative formula for the curl is

det means the determinant of the 3x3 matrix. Recall that the determinant consists of a bunch

of terms which are products of terms from each row. The product of the terms on the diagonal

is

As you can see, this term is part of the x-component of the curl.

Consider the following example: F=<xyz,ysin z, ycos x>.

curl F = <cos x - ycos z, xy + ysin z, -xz>.

GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD:

The gradient of a scalar field is a vector field and whose magnitude is the rate of change and

which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar field. If the vector is

resolved, its components represent the rate of change of the scalar field with respect to each

directional component. Hence for a two-dimensional scalar field ∅ (x,y).

And for a three-dimensional scalar field ∅ (x, y, z)

The gradient of a scalar field is the derivative of f in each direction. Note that the gradient of a

scalar field is a vector field. An alternative notation is to use the del or nabla operator, ∇f = grad

f.

For a three dimensional scalar, its gradient is given by:

Gradient is a vector that represents both the magnitude and the direction of the maximum

space rate of increase of a scalar.

dV =(∇V)∙ dl,

where dl = a

i

∙dl

In Cartesian

In Cylindrical

In Spherical

Properties of gradient

we can change the vector field into a scalar field only if the given vector is differential. The

given vector must be differential to apply the gradient phenomenon.

The gradient of any scalar field shows its rate and direction of change in space.

Example 1: For the scalar field ∅ (x,y) = 3x + 5y,calculate gradient of ∅.

Solution 1: Given scalar field ∅ (x,y) = 3x + 5y

Example 2: For the scalar field ∅ (x,y) = x

4

yz,calculate gradient of ∅.

Solution: Given scalar field ∅ (x,y) = x

4

yz

Example 3: For the scalar field ∅ (x,y) = x

2

sin5y,calculate gradient of∅.

Solution: Given scalar field ∅ (x,y) = x

2

sin5y

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