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Concrete-1

CE-314

Sieve Analysis

Sixth Term

Civil Engineering

SIEVE ANALYSIS ON AGGREGATES

Sieve analysis is performed on fine and coarse

aggregates in order to check their gradation.

Sieves are placed one above the other, starting

from the larger size at the top and then gradually

reducing the size.

The minimum sieving time must be two minutes

and the sample is usually of 2 kg weight.

The sieve shaking must include four types of

motion, i.e., forward-backward motion, left-right

motion, clockwise and counterclockwise motion

and frequent vertical jolting.

A standard set of sieves consists of a 75mm

sieve and all subsequent sieves are obtained

by approximately reducing the size of the

upper sieve to half.

Sometimes, certain non-standard sieves are

also introduced in-between the standard set

to more clearly capture the gradation.

The set of sieves used for coarse aggregate

is given in Table 22.4.

Pan

2.38

4.75

9.5

Non-standard sieve 12.5

19

Non-standard sieve 25

37.5

Non-standard sieve 50

Non-standard sieve 63

75

Comments Sieve Size

(mm)

Table 22.4. Sieves Used For Coarse Aggregates.

The coarse aggregate size is specified in

terms of maximum size particles present in

it.

For example, a 19 mm down aggregate is

that for which majority of the particles pass

the 19mm sieve but are partially retained

on nest smaller size sieve.

The biggest sieve used for the sieve

analysis of coarse aggregates is usually

one size larger than the size of the

aggregate.

This means that the sieves of sizes 75mm,

63mm and 50mm may be omitted for the

sieve analysis of a 25mm size aggregate.

-do- Pan

-do- 150 mic

-do- 300 mic

-do- 600 mic

-do- 1.18

-do- 2.38

Standard sieves 4.75

Comments Sieve Size

(mm or mic)

Table 22.5. Sieves Used For Fine Aggregates.

Total under

the given

conditions

Total = m

t

C5 C4 C3 C2 C1

Cumulative

Percentage

Retained

Cumulative

Percentage

Passing

Percentage

Retained

Mass

Retained

(g)

Sieve Size

(mm)

Table 22.6. Standard Sieve Analysis Table.

The first two columns are directly filled

from the observations during the test.

The total mass of the second column (m

t

)

must be close to the originally taken

mass of the sample.

The values in the third column (C3) are

filled by using the following expression

but up to one decimal place only:

C3 = C2 / m

t

× 100, where

C2 is the corresponding value in the 2nd column

The values in the fourth column (C4) are filled

by using the following expression and are

reported in whole numbers:

C4

i

= (C4

i

–1 – C3

i

), where i is the row

number and C4

i

–1 for the calculation of

first row is taken equal to 100.

The last column readings are found by

subtracting the previous column readings

from 100, as shown below:

C5 = 100 – C4

The total of cumulative percentages passing

given in the last column is made subjected to

the following conditions:

a) The value for each sieve below 150 mic is not

included in the total.

b) The values for the non-standard sieves are not

included in the total.

c) Values for missing standard sieves above 150

mic should be considered equal to the next

higher sieves values and should be considered

in making the total.

d) Values for missing standard sieves above the

aggregate size automatically get zero value by

using the procedure of third condition. So,

these values may be omitted.

ASTM Grading Requirements

10 2 150

30 10 300

60 25 600

85 50 1.18

100 80 2.38

100 95 4.75

100 100 9.5

Maximum Minimum (mm or mic)

Percentage Passing Sieve Size

Table 22.7. ASTM Grading Requirements For Fine Aggregates.

5 0 5 0 − − 2.38

15 0 10 0 5 0 4.75

70 40 55 20 30 10 9.5

100 90 − − − − 12.5

100 100 100 90 70 35 19

− − 100 100 − − 25

− − − − 100 95 37.5

− − − − 100 100 50

Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. mm or

mic

12.5mm Down

Aggregate

19.0mm Down

Aggregate

37.5mm Down

Aggregate

Sieve

Size

Percentage Passing

Table 22.8. ASTM Grading Requirements For Coarse Aggregates.

Standard Grading Curves

In case of grading curves for the aggregates,

the cumulative percentages passing are

taken along the vertical axis and the sieve

sizes are taken along the horizontal axis on

log scale.

However, for the standard sieves, the every

time half size is equal to uniform interval for

the ordinary length and hence ordinary graph

paper may be used.

The non-standard sieves may be shown

between the standard sieves with some

approximation.

Every two consecutive points are joined

by straight lines and smoothing of the

curves is not employed.

Besides the actual curve for the

aggregate, the upper and lower limits of

ASTM are also plotted using dashed

lines.

If the actual curve lies between the

limiting curves for all the points, the

aggregate grading is considered

satisfactory.

0

20

40

60

80

100

150 300

600 1.18 2.36 4.75 9.5

Sieve Size on Log Scale

C

u

m

u

l

a

t

i

v

e

P

e

r

c

e

n

t

a

g

e

P

a

s

s

i

n

g

Lower Limit Curve

Upper Limit Curve

Gradation Curve

Fineness Modulus

Fineness modulus is an indication of the surface

area.

It is defined as the sum of the cumulative

percentages retained on the sieves of the

standard series, above 150 mic inclusive, divided

by 100.

It means that the sum of the last column of the

gradation table under the already mentioned

conditions divided by 100 will the value of

fineness modulus.

This also approximately tells us whether a

particular aggregate is well-graded or gap-

graded.

The workability of concrete depends upon

the fineness modulus.

Its value, if calculated for the coarse

aggregates will be greater.

Usually it is only calculated for the fine

aggregate only and is used for

classification of the fine aggregates in

some standards.

Typical values of fineness modulus for

fine aggregates range from 2.3 to 3.0.

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