International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –

6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
1










AIS DYMO: AIS BASED SECURE DYMO ROUTING IN MANET


Parvinder
1
& Dr. V.K. Suman
2


1
Research Scholar, Shri Venkateshwara University, U.P.
2
Professor & Dean, IIMT-IET, Meerut.




ABSTRACT

This paper modifies the DYMO protocol and develops the AIS-DYMO protocol that is
capable to handle the network layer attack. It means the performance of the network doesn’t get
degraded under the attack. Various immune algorithms can be used to enhance the performance of
the DYMO protocol, but the clonal selection algorithm is used in this work to enhance the
performance of the DYMO protocol. Overall the DYMO protocol is modified to handle the network
layer attacks by using the clonal selection immune algorithm.

Keywords: MANET, Routing, Attacks, DYMO, AIS, Clonal selection.

I. INTRODUCTION

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) are comprised of mobile nodes (MNs) that are self-
organizing and cooperative to ensure efficient and accurate packet routing between nodes (and,
potentially, base stations).Figure1 shows the structure of MANETS. There are no specific routers,
servers, access points for MANETs. Because of its fast and easy of deployment, robustness, and low
cost, Typical MANETs applications could be find in the following areas like Military applications
(i.e. a temporary network in the battlefield), Search and rescue operations, Temporary networks
within meeting rooms, airports, Vehicle-to-vehicle communication in smart transportation, Personal
Area Networks connecting mobile devices like mobile phones, laptops, smart watches, and other
wearable computers etc. Design issue for developing a routing protocol for wireless environment
with mobility is very different and more complex than those for wired network with static nodes [1].

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
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ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08
© IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/IJECET.asp
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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
2

Figure 1: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks-MANETs. [2]

Routing is the process to send information from one host to another host. Routing means
route packet to its destination using efficient path. Protocols are set of rules. Ad-Hoc network is
known as Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) because of motion of nodes in network. They are
IBSS (Independent Basic Service Set), because they do not need AP (Access Point) for
communication in nodes [3]. MANETs is a self-constructing network and form an unaware topology.
Every node acts as routers in network to route the packet. MANETs are used in those areas where
wire and wireless infrastructures are unreachable i.e. disaster area, war zone. Due to rapid change of
topology in MANETs, MANETs routing protocols are required. The routing protocol is required
whenever the source needs to communicates with destination.

MANETs routing protocols are classified as:-

A. Reactive protocols
B. Proactive protocols
C. Hybrid protocols

a. Reactive Routing Protocols
The reactive routing protocols are based on some sort of query-reply dialog. Reactive
protocols proceed for establishing route(s) to the destination only when the need arises. They do not
need periodic transmission of topological information of the network.

b. Proactive Routing Protocols
Proactive protocols continuously learn the topology of the network by exchanging
topological information among the network nodes. Thus, when there is a need for a route to a
destination, such route information is available immediately. If the network topology changes too
frequently, the cost of maintaining the network might be very high. If the network activity is low, the
information about actual topology might even not be used.

a. Hybrid Routing Protocols
Often reactive or proactive feature of a particular routing protocol might not be enough;
instead a mixture might yield better solution. Hence, in the recent days, several hybrid protocols are
also proposed.



International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
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II. DYMO

Dynamic MANET On-demand Routing (DYMO) [4] is a reactive routing protocol under
development by the Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working Group from IETF and is intended for use by
mobile routers in wireless, multi-hop networks. It offers adaption for topology changes and
determines unicast routes on-demand. Its main activities are the route discovery and route
maintenance mechanisms, achieved through its route requisition (RREQ), route reply (RREP) and
route error (RRER) messages. It employs sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom and also to
avoid the dissemination of ancient routing information, and its basic operation consists of sending
RREQ messages through the network for finding the routes it needs. The intermediate nodes
receiving a RREQ message store the route for the node that originated it and then reforward the
RREQ. The destination node, upon receiving a RREQ message, replies with a unicast RREP one.
The same way, every intermediate node receiving a RREP message stores the route for the node that
originated it. To adapt to topology changes, after receiving a packet that should be sent to a link that
is no longer available, the node notifies the message sender by sending back a RERR message. IF the
source node still wants to send packets to given destination, a new route discovery process is to be
initiated [5]. The DYMO protocol works with source routing, meaning nodes read the routing
messages to acquire knowledge on the paths involved in the search process, as well as write in the
search packet the necessary hops needed to reach its destination. This method clearly increases the
size of the routing packets, with the intention of reducing the number of retransmissions.

III. ATTACKS In MANET’s

Due to dynamic, distributed infrastructure less nature of MANETs, and lack of centralized
authority, the ad hoc networks are vulnerable to various kinds of attacks. The challenges to be faced
by MANETs are over and above to those to be faced by the traditional wireless networks. The
accessibility of the wireless channel to both the genuine user and attacker make the MANET
susceptible to both passive eavesdroppers as well as active malicious attackers. The limited power
backup and limited computational capability of the individual nodes hinders the implementation of
complex security algorithms and key exchange mechanisms. There is always a possibility of a
genuine trusted node to be compromised by the attackers and subsequently used to launch attacks on
the network. Node mobility makes the network topology dynamic forcing frequent networking
reconfiguration which creates more chances for attacks [6]. Layer wise attack is further categorized
into five layers in which an active attack is one where the attacker modifies network packets while
they are in transit, or sends forged network packets.

Table 1: Layer wise categorization of attacks


International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
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IV. AIS

Artificial immune systems can be defined as abstract or metaphorical computational systems
developed using ideas, theories, and components, extracted from the immune system. Most AIS aim
at solving complex computational or engineering problems, such as pattern recognition, elimination,
and optimization. This is a crucial distinction between AIS and theoretical immune system models.
While the former is devoted primarily to computing, the latter is focused on the modelling of the IS
in order to understand its behaviour, so that contributions can be made to the biological sciences. It is
not exclusive, however, the use of one approach into the other and, indeed, theoretical models of the
IS have contributed to the development of AIS [8]. There are various algorithm in AIS. Form all
clonal selection is as:

Clonal Selection Algorithm
Immune Algorithm is derived through the study of immune response. In short, it models how
antibodies of the immune system learn adaptively the features of the intruding antigen and act upon.
Clonal Selection Algorithm is a special class of Artificial Immune Systems. The algorithm starts by
defining a purpose function f(x) which needs to be optimized. Some possible candidate solutions are
created, antibodies will be used in the purpose function to calculate their affinity and this will
determine the ones which will be cloned for the next step. The cloned values are changed, mutated
with a predefined ratio and the affinities are recalculated and sorted.

V. PROPOSED WORK

The existing DYMO protocol is not capable of handling any type of attack. It means the
performance of the protocol gets degraded under attacks. The attacks at the network layer leads to
the most degradation in the performance. Various network layer attacks are wormhole attack, black
hole attack, gray hole attack, Sybil attack etc. Any external agent may disturb the nature of any
particular node that leads to the routing disruption and results in degraded performance. The
proposed work modifies the DYMO protocol and develops the AIS-DYMO protocol that is capable
to handle the network layer attack. It means the performance of the network doesn’t get degraded
under the attack. Various immune algorithms can be used to enhance the performance of the DYMO
protocol, but the clonal selection algorithm is used in this work to enhance the performance of the
DYMO protocol. Overall the DYMO protocol is modified to handle the network layer attacks by
using the clonal selection immune algorithm.

VI. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

The working of the AIS-DYMO can be understood by the following algorithm:

1. Select S and D in the network of node N
2. Determine the routing path from S to D using the DYMO routing protocol.
3. If length of path > average length path
4. Discard the path
5. go to step 2
6. end if
7. Mark each node in the routing path as antibody
8. When an antigen invades(attack occur)
9. Avdelay=0;
10. AVForwarding_ratio=0;

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
5

11. For each node in the routing path say i
12. Avdelay=Avdelay+ current node delay
13. AVForwarding_ratio=AVForwarding_ratio +current node forwarding ratio
14. End
15. Avdelay=Avdelay/number of nodes in routing path
16. AVForwarding_ratio= AVForwarding_ratio/number of nodes in routing path.
17. For each node in the routing path say i
18. If forwarding ratio<AVForwarding_ratio || delay>Avdelay
19. Then mark node as antigen
20. End if
21. End for
22. Discard the antigen node
23. Go to step 2.

The above algorithm is capable to handle various attacks. The attack which increases the delay or
attract the data packet to pass through wrong path or the attack in which any node consumes all or
some data packets. All of these attacks can be easily handled by using above algorithm.


VII. RESULTS

Table 2: Parameter analysis of AODV













Table 3: Parameter analysis of DYMO













Number
of Nodes
Packet
delivery
ratio
Loss ratio End 2 End
delay(ms)
Throughput Routing
Overhead
20 87.4575 0.1254252 3.47 440.27 0.16
40 84.3813 0.1561872 4.42 392.42 0.16
50 82.4872 0.1751275 5.52 320.68 0.16
100 80.1684 0.1983158 5.93 256.53 0.15
Number
of
Nodes
Packet
delivery
ratio
Loss ratio End 2 End
delay(ms)
Throughput Routing
Overhead
20 91.6245 0.0428516 2.21 471.56 0.16
40 91.4112 0.0589323 3.33 441.84 0.16
50 91.3565 0.0766925 3.78 421.63 0.16
100 88.8025 0.0794268 4.03 410.05 0.13

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
6
Table 4: Parameter Analysis of AIS-DYMO
















Figure 2: Comparison of PDR between AODV, DYMO, AIS-DYMO



Figure 3: Comparison of Loss ratio between AODV, DYMO, AIS-DYMO

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
20 40 50 100
PDR
AODV
DYMO
AIS-DYMO
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
20 40 50 100
Loss Ratio
AODV
DYMO
AIS
Number
of Nodes
Packet
delivery
ratio
Loss ratio E2 E
delay(ms)
Throughput Routing
Overhead
20 98.1352 0.018648 1.61 663.37 0.16
40 97.7291 0.0227091 1.88 661.57 0.16
50 97.1422 0.0285782 2.19 662.25 0.16
100 96.1074 0.0389257 3.03 580.05 0.13

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
7

Figure 4: Comparison of E2E Delay between AODV, DYMO, AIS-DYMO



Figure 5: Comparison of Through put between AODV, DYMO, AIS-DYMO



Figure 5: Comparison of Throughput between AODV, DYMO, AIS-DYMO


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
20 40 50 100
E2E Delay
AODV
DYMO
AIS
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
20 40 50 100
Throughput
AODV
DYMO
AIS-DYMO
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
20 40 50 100
Routing Overhead
AODV
DYMO
AIS-DYMO

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 01-08 © IAEME
8

CONCLUSION

This paper proposes AIS-DYMO algorithm and compare the performance of the of DYMO ,
AODV and AIS-DYMO protocol by using e2edelay, routing overhead, pdr and the throughput. The
performance of the AIS-DYMO is better than the existing protocols. The improved PDR and
throughput shows the better performance. In future the algorithm can be applied to handle other layer
attacks.

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