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Effect of fabric structure and the inter yarn friction on fabric shear properties

Prof. Dr. Magdi El-Messiry and Dr. Shaimaa El-Tarfawy
Textile Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; shaimaayoussef!""
The frictional $ehavior of fi$rous assem$lies greatly affects their processing, properties, and the mechanical
properties of the final products. The importance of friction has led to extensive investigations a$out the yarn nature
determining fa$ric properties performance. The com$ined effects of yarn tensile strength, inter%yarn friction, &ill
affect the pro$a$ilistic impact response. 'oreover, frictional properties of fa$rics are determined $y yarn friction
and fa$ric structure. The effects of fa$ric structure on yarn friction have $een evaluated $y varying &eaves.
Furthermore, friction force $et&een yarns in the fa$ric influences the shear stress, and found to $e highly correlated
&ith inter yarn friction. The aim of this research is to find out the relation $et&een the friction yarn properties the
fa$ric structural parameters and ho& it reflex on the fa$ric shear properties.
eywords; (arn friction, Fa$ric structure, )hear modulus, )ingle and multiple yarn pull%outs
!. "ntroduction
*n practical use, textile fa$rics are su$+ected to a &ide range of complex deformations, so the
shear properties of &oven fa$rics are of main importance in practical applications. To understand
the mechanisms of fa$ric shear $ehavior, El%'essiry and )heta
, Dre$y
, .o et al.
, and
,1, 2-
, each introduced a shear apparatus to measure fa$ric shear properties. *n addition,
the existing literature proves that the shear mechanism is one of the important properties
influencing the draping and handle of &oven fa$rics
,!, 3, 4-
)u$ramaniam et al
investigated the shear properties of fa$rics using the t&ist method. The
investigation sho&ed that shear $ehavior depended critically on applied tension, specimen si6e,
and fa$ric sett. As the applied tension increased, the shear rigidity increased, o&ing to the
restriction on yarn movement.
)hear rigidity increased &ith pic7s per inch; this result might $e explained $y a restriction on
yarn movement in fa$rics &ith more pic7s per inch. 8ali6adeh et al
said that the movement of
yarns in a fa$ric is a phenomenon occurring in different types of deformation of fa$rics. The yarn
pull%out test is an experimental approach to investigate the interactions $et&een yarns &ithin a
fa$ric and to evaluate the yarn resistance against movement
The fa$ric sample &as modeled &ith solid elements for the &eft and &arp yarns in the
interlacing points, &hich are directly involved in the yarn pull%out, plus shell elements for the
parts of the fa$ric that undergo only shear deformation. The effects of the geometrical model and
material anisotropy &ere investigated and the predicted force9displacement profiles of the yarn
pull%out tests &ere compared &ith experimental measurements. :ilisi7
tested <olyester satin
fa$rics to define fa$ric shear $y the pull%out method, and analytical relations &ere developed to
calculate the fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity. )hear strength increased &hen the fa$ric
&idth and length, and the num$er of pulled ends increased. *t &as found that the &eft shear force
angle values &ere higher than the &arp shear force%angle values. =n the other hand, &hen the
num$er of pull%out ends, fa$ric &idth, and length increased, the shear rigidity values generally
increased. .ros$erg and <ar7
demonstrated that the modes of deformation involve several
forms depending upon the degrees of shear imposed upon the fa$ric. These are> ?#@ Deformation
due to rigid intersections &hen the shear force is too small to overcome the friction; ?!@ (arn
slippage at the intersection. This only ta7es place &hen the shear force overcomes the friction;
?/@ An elastic deformation &hen slipping is complete; ?1@ Aamming in the structure.
sho&ed that the yarn pull%out test is suita$le for measuring fa$ric shear. 8arious fa$ric
types &ere tested to define fa$ric shear $y this method. Fa$ric shear, in general, depends on fi$er
modulus, yarn linear density, fa$ric density, fa$ric interlacement, and yarn or fa$ric surface
finish. During shear testing $y pull%out it &as found that fa$ric &idthBlength ratio and the num$er
of pull%out ends &ere important parameters. )hear strength increased as the fa$ric &idthBlength
ratio decreased, as &ell as &ith the increase of the num$er of pulled ends. Fa$ric &idthBlength
ratio and the num$er of pull%out ends influenced fa$ric shear rigidity. *n general, as the num$er
of pull%out ends increased, shear rigidity also increased. =n the other hand, as the fa$ric
&idthBlength ratios decreased, shear rigidity again increased. The num$er of pull%out ends and
the fa$ric &idthBlength ratios are therefore seen to influence fa$ric shear rigidity.
illustrated that plain fa$ric &eave sho&ed high single and multiple pull%out forces
compared &ith ri$s and satin fa$ric &eaves. The multiple yarn ends pull%out test in all fa$rics
indicated high pull%out forces compared &ith that of single yarn end pull%out test. The shear
properties of the fa$ric have a significant effect on the strain in several applications
*n this &or7 the results of the experimental &or7 are divided into t&o parts. The first part is to
study the effect of num$er of pulled%out yarns ?one, t&o, three &arp yarns@. The mechanisms of
shear are a function of &eave pattern; the yarn pulled out force for different fa$ric designs is
measured to calculate the shear properties. *n the second part, the shear properties for different
fa$ric designs are measured using shearing frame device.
#. Material and Method
#.! Material
To measure the yarn pulled%out yarn force, fa$ric samples ?!2 cmC!2 cm@ &ere prepared as
sho&n in Figure ?#@. The specimen &as cut to let the &arp yarn free to $e pulled%out. Ta$le #
sho&s fa$ric specifications of different samples used in this &or7.

Figure #. Dimensions of the specimen
Sample no
Ends&cm Pic(s&cm )m! )m#
#;2.2 ".34 22 1" 2" 1"
#;/ ".32 22 1" 2" 1"
Deft ri$
! x !
!53 ".3! !2 !2 !2 !"
Deft ri$
1 x 1
!/1 ".53 !2 !2 !2 !"
Darp ri$
! x !
!!5 ".31 !2 !2 !2 !"
Ta$le #. Fa$ric )pecifications of Different )ample
#.# Apparatus
*n this &or7 a $iaxial tensile tester, Figure ?!@, &as used
to measure the yarn pull%out force in
different &oven fa$rics. The $iaxial tensile tester is eEuipped &ith t&o independent motors
controlled $y a remote control. *n addition, load in each direction is measured and displayed
digitally $y a load cell of 2"""F capacity.
Figure !. )chematic dra&ing of the :iaxial Tensile Tester
#%dc motor, !%load cell, /% scre& drivers, 1%force indicators, 2%+a&, 3% fa$ric sample, 5%pulled yarn, ;%
fa$ric cut line

L fabric
The fa$ric can $e pre%tensioned in the direction perpendicular to the tested yarn direction and $e
ad+usted. Figure ?!@ illustrates a schematic of the $iaxial tensile tester
. The sample, as
mentioned previously, &as fixed on the apparatus then &arp yarn is pull%out from the specimen.
The force indicator records yarns pull%out force. The test &as repeated &ith one yarn, t&o yarns,
and three yarns pulled%out from different samples of &oven fa$rics. The results &ere the average
of three specimens.
To test the shear properties for the different fa$rics, a simple shear device fixed to $iaxial tensile
tester &as used to measure the shear in a fa$ric. The frame sho&n in Figure ?/.a@ &ith sample
dimension ?2 cm C 2 cm@ is used.

a@ )hearing frame device $@ Forces acting on the sample
Figure /. )hearing frame device used in shear test
Figure ?/.$@ represents forces acting on the sample. )hear property &as tested using a $iaxial
tensile fa$ric tester, the frame &ith the fa$ric is fixed in the t&o +a&s of the tester in one
direction. The relation $et&een the frame pulling force F and the fa$ric shear properties is given
$y the follo&ing eEuations;
FG frame pulling force
G shear angle G ?#5"B!@ %I
JG shear force ?F@ GFB?! K=) ?IB!@@
L Gshear stress ?FBcm
@G J sin
I B? M fa$ric cm Nt thic7ness cm @
)train GOlB M
)hear modulus G L B strain

*. .esults and Discussions
Any &eave repeat contains a definite num$er of ends and pic7s. The num$er of ends and pic7s in
a repeat may $e eEual or uneEual. The value of yarn pulling force in the fa$ric pattern varied
according to the num$er of intersections and float length, as sho&n in Figure ?1@.
Figure 1. <ulling force in &arp ri$ design !B!
Dhen the yarn in the fa$ric is loaded $y force in &eft direction, then force on the yarn reEuired
to overcome the friction force at the &eft and &arp intersections &ill $e;
Fint G i. f int
Dhere, ?i@ is the num$er of intersections, f int is the forces reEuired to overcome the friction
$et&een the yarns at one intersection.
*n many fa$rics, design consists of intersection and floats 6ones, as sho&n in Figure ?2@. An
additional friction force $et&een yarns at this 6one should $e overcome, &hich is eEual to Ff.
Figure 2. Example of regular &eaves
Pence, force reEuired to overcome the friction $et&een the pulled yarns and the surrounding
yarn at the points of contacts in the float 6one &ill $e;
Ff G m . ff
Dhere; m is num$er of yarns in contact &ith float yarn portion, ff is the friction force at the
points of contacts.
Figure 2. Example of contact 6ones
KonseEuently, the total friction force on the pulled yarn &ill $e;
F G Fint Q Ff
Dhen a yarn is pulled%out of the fa$ric, it &ill also $e deformed under shear force, as sho&n in
Figure ?3@. Further, it &as reali6ed that fa$ric sample dimensions as &ell as the num$er of pull%
out ends influenced fa$ric shear force and rigidity. The deformation of the fa$ric $efore any
slippage &ill lead to movement of t&o sets of yarns, &arp and &eft and the area of contacts &ill
change till the complete +amming conditions, as sho&n in Figure ?4@. )hear +amming angles &ere
found to $e $ased on the num$er of pulled ends 0adir,#" -. :ecause of the $ending resistance of
the yarns, &hich form the fa$ric, the yarn exerts a pressure at the crossover +oints, &hich, in turn,
produces a frictional resistance to shearing

Figure 3. Fa$ric under pulling force Figure 4. friction area under shear load
=nce the shear force Fshear ?)hear stress G FpB&, &here; Fp, is pulling force, & is fa$ric
&idth@, is too small to overcome the friction, the fa$ric &ill deform as the yarn is pulled%out
&ithout yarn slippage at the intersection and yarn decrimping may occur. The shear angle
increased &ith the increase of the pulling force. As soon as the shear force overcomes the
friction, i.e. F shear R Fint Q Ff, pulled yarn slippage is started, and due to elastic deformation slip%
stic7 phenomena may $e o$served ,7-. Dhen slipping is occurred depending on the specification
of the fa$ric and the length of the pulled yarn, the fa$ric +amming in the structure may happen.
After the fa$ric under shear force is reached the +amming condition, the value of the shear angle
reaches its maximum value. From this simple analysis and neglecting the elastic $ehavior of the
yarns, the value of the pulling force of yarn &ill $e the value of the friction force at intersections
and floating 6ones. This value can $e measured for one yarn or group of ad+acent yarns. Dhen
pulling t&o yarns together, it is expected to have a specific force slightly less than in the case of
pulling one yarn only, hence there is no relative motion $et&een the t&o ad+acent yarns &hile
moving together. <lain &eave num$er of intersections in $oth directions is the same, so the
pulling force in &eft and &arp directions is expected to $e eEual 7eeping the yarn properties and
crimp for &eft and &arp yarns also eEual.
*.! Effect of fabric design on the yarn pull-out force
The value of pulling force in the fa$ric pattern varied according to the num$er of intersections
and float length, as sho&n in Figure ?5@.
Figure 5. <ulling force in &arp ri$ design !B!
Figures ?;, #", and #/@ represent effect of num$er of pulled &arp yarns on the yarn pulled%out
force for different fa$ric designs. *t &as found that as the num$er of &arp yarns pulled%out from
the fa$ric increases, the yarn pull%out force increases. This is in consonance &ith the finding of
,7-. Po&ever, the specific force varies due to the pattern of the fa$ric and the num$er of the
ad+acent yarns. *t is due to the inter yarn friction increase on the fa$ric, so it &ill need a higher
force to pull the yarns from the fa$ric.

fabric design /&!# fabric design 0&!+

fa$ric design &eft ri$ &eave !C! fa$ric design &eft ri$ &eave 1C1
fa$ric design &arp ri$ &eave !C!
Figure ;. Effect of num$er of &arp yarns on the yarn pulled%out force for different &eave
/.! )hear properties of different fa$ric designs
0adir :ilisi7
,9 -,#!-
stated that the pull%out &as conducted to determine fa$ric shear in the frayed
edge of the plain fa$ric structure. *n order to compere this values &ith those measured $y using
shearing frame device, the fa$rics samples &ere tested. Figure ?#" a,$@ sho&s the effect of
different fa$ric designs on shear angle.
?a@ ?$@
Figure #". Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear angle
Figures ?#".a@ and ?#".$@ sho& that as the float length increases, the shear angle is increased for
different fa$ric designs, hence less yarn friction and more freedom $et&een the yarns in the
design allo& its movement under shear force. )hear force calculated from EEuation ?!@ decreases
as the yarn float increases for different fa$ric designs, as it is illustrated in Figure ?##@. The float
in the design decreased the num$er of yarn intersection per repeat, so the force needed for shear
decreases too.
?a@ ?$@
Figure ##. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear force
*.# Shear stress
?a@ ?$@
Figure #!. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear stress
Figure ?#! a,$@ illustrates the effect of different fa$ric designs on shear stress. *t is clear that the
designs &ith longer float gave less shear stress values than &ith shorter float.
/./ )hear modulus
The shear modulus decreases as the float yarns increases, as given in Figure ?#/@. *t is o&ing to
higher shear angle values for the designs &ith longer float length.
?a@ ?$@
Figure #/. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear modulus
Figure ?#1.a, $, c , d@ sho&s that t&ill 3B#1 gives less yarn pull%out force than t&ill 5B#! as the
longer float in t&ill 3B#1 than in t&ill 5B#! gives more freedom and less inter yarn friction. Mess
yarn pull%out force for &arp ri$ &eave !x! may $e due to the less &eight $y unit area of the &arp
ri$ !x!. The same effect is noticed considering the shear force. The correlation analysis of the
relation $et&een the shear force and the yarn pulling force indicates that the coefficient of
correlation reaches ".3/ $et&een shear force and single yarn pulling force and increases to ".352
&hen pulling t&o yarns together, &hile the coefficient of correlation reaches ".4/ for three yarns
pulled out. This indicates that the yarn pulling force is the pull%out method can $e used for
determining fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity.
?a@ ?$@
?c@ ?d@
Figure #1. (arn pulled%out force and the shear force for different fa$ric designs
+. 1onclusion
The yarn pull%out method can $e used for determining fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity.
=utcomes of this study are that as num$er of &arp yarn pulled%out increases, the yarn pulled%out
force increases too. Fa$ric designs &ith longer yarn floats gave higher fa$ric shear properties
than fa$ric designs &ith shorter yarn floats. 'oreover, &hile shear angle increases, shear force,
shear stress, and shear modulus decreases in fa$ric designs &ith longer float. Koefficient of
correlation $et&een shear force and the yarn pulling force reaches ".4/ &hen three yarns are
pulled out.
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