Document of Textile Engg.

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Effect of Fabric Structure and the Inter Yarn Friction on Fabric Shear Properties

Document of Textile Engg.

© All Rights Reserved

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By

Prof. Dr. Magdi El-Messiry and Dr. Shaimaa El-Tarfawy

Textile Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

mmessiry@yahoo.com; shaimaayoussef!""#@yahoo.com

Abstract

The frictional $ehavior of fi$rous assem$lies greatly affects their processing, properties, and the mechanical

properties of the final products. The importance of friction has led to extensive investigations a$out the yarn nature

determining fa$ric properties performance. The com$ined effects of yarn tensile strength, inter%yarn friction, &ill

affect the pro$a$ilistic impact response. 'oreover, frictional properties of fa$rics are determined $y yarn friction

and fa$ric structure. The effects of fa$ric structure on yarn friction have $een evaluated $y varying &eaves.

Furthermore, friction force $et&een yarns in the fa$ric influences the shear stress, and found to $e highly correlated

&ith inter yarn friction. The aim of this research is to find out the relation $et&een the friction yarn properties the

fa$ric structural parameters and ho& it reflex on the fa$ric shear properties.

eywords; (arn friction, Fa$ric structure, )hear modulus, )ingle and multiple yarn pull%outs

!. "ntroduction

*n practical use, textile fa$rics are su$+ected to a &ide range of complex deformations, so the

shear properties of &oven fa$rics are of main importance in practical applications. To understand

the mechanisms of fa$ric shear $ehavior, El%'essiry and )heta

,#-

, Dre$y

,!-

, .o et al.

,/-

, and

0a&a$ata

,1, 2-

, each introduced a shear apparatus to measure fa$ric shear properties. *n addition,

the existing literature proves that the shear mechanism is one of the important properties

influencing the draping and handle of &oven fa$rics

,!, 3, 4-

.

)u$ramaniam et al

,5-

investigated the shear properties of fa$rics using the t&ist method. The

investigation sho&ed that shear $ehavior depended critically on applied tension, specimen si6e,

and fa$ric sett. As the applied tension increased, the shear rigidity increased, o&ing to the

restriction on yarn movement.

)hear rigidity increased &ith pic7s per inch; this result might $e explained $y a restriction on

yarn movement in fa$rics &ith more pic7s per inch. 8ali6adeh et al

,##-

said that the movement of

yarns in a fa$ric is a phenomenon occurring in different types of deformation of fa$rics. The yarn

pull%out test is an experimental approach to investigate the interactions $et&een yarns &ithin a

fa$ric and to evaluate the yarn resistance against movement

,#"-

.

The fa$ric sample &as modeled &ith solid elements for the &eft and &arp yarns in the

interlacing points, &hich are directly involved in the yarn pull%out, plus shell elements for the

parts of the fa$ric that undergo only shear deformation. The effects of the geometrical model and

material anisotropy &ere investigated and the predicted force9displacement profiles of the yarn

pull%out tests &ere compared &ith experimental measurements. :ilisi7

,;-

tested <olyester satin

fa$rics to define fa$ric shear $y the pull%out method, and analytical relations &ere developed to

calculate the fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity. )hear strength increased &hen the fa$ric

&idth and length, and the num$er of pulled ends increased. *t &as found that the &eft shear force

angle values &ere higher than the &arp shear force%angle values. =n the other hand, &hen the

1

num$er of pull%out ends, fa$ric &idth, and length increased, the shear rigidity values generally

increased. .ros$erg and <ar7

,1-

demonstrated that the modes of deformation involve several

forms depending upon the degrees of shear imposed upon the fa$ric. These are> ?#@ Deformation

due to rigid intersections &hen the shear force is too small to overcome the friction; ?!@ (arn

slippage at the intersection. This only ta7es place &hen the shear force overcomes the friction;

?/@ An elastic deformation &hen slipping is complete; ?1@ Aamming in the structure.

:ilisi7

,#"-

sho&ed that the yarn pull%out test is suita$le for measuring fa$ric shear. 8arious fa$ric

types &ere tested to define fa$ric shear $y this method. Fa$ric shear, in general, depends on fi$er

modulus, yarn linear density, fa$ric density, fa$ric interlacement, and yarn or fa$ric surface

finish. During shear testing $y pull%out it &as found that fa$ric &idthBlength ratio and the num$er

of pull%out ends &ere important parameters. )hear strength increased as the fa$ric &idthBlength

ratio decreased, as &ell as &ith the increase of the num$er of pulled ends. Fa$ric &idthBlength

ratio and the num$er of pull%out ends influenced fa$ric shear rigidity. *n general, as the num$er

of pull%out ends increased, shear rigidity also increased. =n the other hand, as the fa$ric

&idthBlength ratios decreased, shear rigidity again increased. The num$er of pull%out ends and

the fa$ric &idthBlength ratios are therefore seen to influence fa$ric shear rigidity.

:ilisi7

,#!-

illustrated that plain fa$ric &eave sho&ed high single and multiple pull%out forces

compared &ith ri$s and satin fa$ric &eaves. The multiple yarn ends pull%out test in all fa$rics

indicated high pull%out forces compared &ith that of single yarn end pull%out test. The shear

properties of the fa$ric have a significant effect on the strain in several applications

,#/-,,#1-,,#2-,,#3-

.

*n this &or7 the results of the experimental &or7 are divided into t&o parts. The first part is to

study the effect of num$er of pulled%out yarns ?one, t&o, three &arp yarns@. The mechanisms of

shear are a function of &eave pattern; the yarn pulled out force for different fa$ric designs is

measured to calculate the shear properties. *n the second part, the shear properties for different

fa$ric designs are measured using shearing frame device.

#. Material and Method

#.! Material

To measure the yarn pulled%out yarn force, fa$ric samples ?!2 cmC!2 cm@ &ere prepared as

sho&n in Figure ?#@. The specimen &as cut to let the &arp yarn free to $e pulled%out. Ta$le #

sho&s fa$ric specifications of different samples used in this &or7.

Figure #. Dimensions of the specimen

2

Sample no

$abric

design

$abric

weight

%gm&m

#

'

$abric

thic(ness%mm'

Ends&cm Pic(s&cm )m! )m#

!

T&ill

5B#!

#;2.2 ".34 22 1" 2" 1"

#

T&ill

3B#1

#;/ ".32 22 1" 2" 1"

*

Deft ri$

! x !

!53 ".3! !2 !2 !2 !"

+

Deft ri$

1 x 1

!/1 ".53 !2 !2 !2 !"

,

Darp ri$

! x !

!!5 ".31 !2 !2 !2 !"

Ta$le #. Fa$ric )pecifications of Different )ample

#.# Apparatus

*n this &or7 a $iaxial tensile tester, Figure ?!@, &as used

,#/-

to measure the yarn pull%out force in

different &oven fa$rics. The $iaxial tensile tester is eEuipped &ith t&o independent motors

controlled $y a remote control. *n addition, load in each direction is measured and displayed

digitally $y a load cell of 2"""F capacity.

Figure !. )chematic dra&ing of the :iaxial Tensile Tester

,!*-

#%dc motor, !%load cell, /% scre& drivers, 1%force indicators, 2%+a&, 3% fa$ric sample, 5%pulled yarn, ;%

fa$ric cut line

3

Q F Q

L fabric

The fa$ric can $e pre%tensioned in the direction perpendicular to the tested yarn direction and $e

ad+usted. Figure ?!@ illustrates a schematic of the $iaxial tensile tester

,#/-

. The sample, as

mentioned previously, &as fixed on the apparatus then &arp yarn is pull%out from the specimen.

The force indicator records yarns pull%out force. The test &as repeated &ith one yarn, t&o yarns,

and three yarns pulled%out from different samples of &oven fa$rics. The results &ere the average

of three specimens.

To test the shear properties for the different fa$rics, a simple shear device fixed to $iaxial tensile

tester &as used to measure the shear in a fa$ric. The frame sho&n in Figure ?/.a@ &ith sample

dimension ?2 cm C 2 cm@ is used.

a@ )hearing frame device $@ Forces acting on the sample

Figure /. )hearing frame device used in shear test

Figure ?/.$@ represents forces acting on the sample. )hear property &as tested using a $iaxial

tensile fa$ric tester, the frame &ith the fa$ric is fixed in the t&o +a&s of the tester in one

direction. The relation $et&een the frame pulling force F and the fa$ric shear properties is given

$y the follo&ing eEuations;

FG frame pulling force

H

"

G shear angle G ?#5"B!@ %I

JG shear force ?F@ GFB?! K=) ?IB!@@

L Gshear stress ?FBcm

!

@G J sin

!

I B? M fa$ric cm Nt thic7ness cm @

)train GOlB M

)hear modulus G L B strain

4

*. .esults and Discussions

Any &eave repeat contains a definite num$er of ends and pic7s. The num$er of ends and pic7s in

a repeat may $e eEual or uneEual. The value of yarn pulling force in the fa$ric pattern varied

according to the num$er of intersections and float length, as sho&n in Figure ?1@.

Figure 1. <ulling force in &arp ri$ design !B!

Dhen the yarn in the fa$ric is loaded $y force in &eft direction, then force on the yarn reEuired

to overcome the friction force at the &eft and &arp intersections &ill $e;

Fint G i. f int

Dhere, ?i@ is the num$er of intersections, f int is the forces reEuired to overcome the friction

$et&een the yarns at one intersection.

*n many fa$rics, design consists of intersection and floats 6ones, as sho&n in Figure ?2@. An

additional friction force $et&een yarns at this 6one should $e overcome, &hich is eEual to Ff.

Figure 2. Example of regular &eaves

,#4-

Pence, force reEuired to overcome the friction $et&een the pulled yarns and the surrounding

yarn at the points of contacts in the float 6one &ill $e;

Ff G m . ff

5

Dhere; m is num$er of yarns in contact &ith float yarn portion, ff is the friction force at the

points of contacts.

Figure 2. Example of contact 6ones

KonseEuently, the total friction force on the pulled yarn &ill $e;

F G Fint Q Ff

Dhen a yarn is pulled%out of the fa$ric, it &ill also $e deformed under shear force, as sho&n in

Figure ?3@. Further, it &as reali6ed that fa$ric sample dimensions as &ell as the num$er of pull%

out ends influenced fa$ric shear force and rigidity. The deformation of the fa$ric $efore any

slippage &ill lead to movement of t&o sets of yarns, &arp and &eft and the area of contacts &ill

change till the complete +amming conditions, as sho&n in Figure ?4@. )hear +amming angles &ere

found to $e $ased on the num$er of pulled ends 0adir,#" -. :ecause of the $ending resistance of

the yarns, &hich form the fa$ric, the yarn exerts a pressure at the crossover +oints, &hich, in turn,

produces a frictional resistance to shearing

,#4-

.

Figure 3. Fa$ric under pulling force Figure 4. friction area under shear load

6

=nce the shear force Fshear ?)hear stress G FpB&, &here; Fp, is pulling force, & is fa$ric

&idth@, is too small to overcome the friction, the fa$ric &ill deform as the yarn is pulled%out

&ithout yarn slippage at the intersection and yarn decrimping may occur. The shear angle

increased &ith the increase of the pulling force. As soon as the shear force overcomes the

friction, i.e. F shear R Fint Q Ff, pulled yarn slippage is started, and due to elastic deformation slip%

stic7 phenomena may $e o$served ,7-. Dhen slipping is occurred depending on the specification

of the fa$ric and the length of the pulled yarn, the fa$ric +amming in the structure may happen.

After the fa$ric under shear force is reached the +amming condition, the value of the shear angle

reaches its maximum value. From this simple analysis and neglecting the elastic $ehavior of the

yarns, the value of the pulling force of yarn &ill $e the value of the friction force at intersections

and floating 6ones. This value can $e measured for one yarn or group of ad+acent yarns. Dhen

pulling t&o yarns together, it is expected to have a specific force slightly less than in the case of

pulling one yarn only, hence there is no relative motion $et&een the t&o ad+acent yarns &hile

moving together. <lain &eave num$er of intersections in $oth directions is the same, so the

pulling force in &eft and &arp directions is expected to $e eEual 7eeping the yarn properties and

crimp for &eft and &arp yarns also eEual.

*.! Effect of fabric design on the yarn pull-out force

The value of pulling force in the fa$ric pattern varied according to the num$er of intersections

and float length, as sho&n in Figure ?5@.

Figure 5. <ulling force in &arp ri$ design !B!

Figures ?;, #", and #/@ represent effect of num$er of pulled &arp yarns on the yarn pulled%out

force for different fa$ric designs. *t &as found that as the num$er of &arp yarns pulled%out from

the fa$ric increases, the yarn pull%out force increases. This is in consonance &ith the finding of

,7-. Po&ever, the specific force varies due to the pattern of the fa$ric and the num$er of the

ad+acent yarns. *t is due to the inter yarn friction increase on the fa$ric, so it &ill need a higher

force to pull the yarns from the fa$ric.

7

fabric design /&!# fabric design 0&!+

fa$ric design &eft ri$ &eave !C! fa$ric design &eft ri$ &eave 1C1

fa$ric design &arp ri$ &eave !C!

Figure ;. Effect of num$er of &arp yarns on the yarn pulled%out force for different &eave

designs

/.! )hear properties of different fa$ric designs

0adir :ilisi7

,9 -,#!-

stated that the pull%out &as conducted to determine fa$ric shear in the frayed

edge of the plain fa$ric structure. *n order to compere this values &ith those measured $y using

shearing frame device, the fa$rics samples &ere tested. Figure ?#" a,$@ sho&s the effect of

different fa$ric designs on shear angle.

8

?a@ ?$@

Figure #". Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear angle

Figures ?#".a@ and ?#".$@ sho& that as the float length increases, the shear angle is increased for

different fa$ric designs, hence less yarn friction and more freedom $et&een the yarns in the

design allo& its movement under shear force. )hear force calculated from EEuation ?!@ decreases

as the yarn float increases for different fa$ric designs, as it is illustrated in Figure ?##@. The float

in the design decreased the num$er of yarn intersection per repeat, so the force needed for shear

decreases too.

?a@ ?$@

Figure ##. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear force

*.# Shear stress

9

?a@ ?$@

Figure #!. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear stress

Figure ?#! a,$@ illustrates the effect of different fa$ric designs on shear stress. *t is clear that the

designs &ith longer float gave less shear stress values than &ith shorter float.

/./ )hear modulus

The shear modulus decreases as the float yarns increases, as given in Figure ?#/@. *t is o&ing to

higher shear angle values for the designs &ith longer float length.

?a@ ?$@

Figure #/. Effect of different fa$ric designs on shear modulus

Figure ?#1.a, $, c , d@ sho&s that t&ill 3B#1 gives less yarn pull%out force than t&ill 5B#! as the

longer float in t&ill 3B#1 than in t&ill 5B#! gives more freedom and less inter yarn friction. Mess

yarn pull%out force for &arp ri$ &eave !x! may $e due to the less &eight $y unit area of the &arp

ri$ !x!. The same effect is noticed considering the shear force. The correlation analysis of the

relation $et&een the shear force and the yarn pulling force indicates that the coefficient of

correlation reaches ".3/ $et&een shear force and single yarn pulling force and increases to ".352

&hen pulling t&o yarns together, &hile the coefficient of correlation reaches ".4/ for three yarns

pulled out. This indicates that the yarn pulling force is the pull%out method can $e used for

determining fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity.

10

?a@ ?$@

?c@ ?d@

Figure #1. (arn pulled%out force and the shear force for different fa$ric designs

.

+. 1onclusion

The yarn pull%out method can $e used for determining fa$ric shear strength and shear rigidity.

=utcomes of this study are that as num$er of &arp yarn pulled%out increases, the yarn pulled%out

force increases too. Fa$ric designs &ith longer yarn floats gave higher fa$ric shear properties

than fa$ric designs &ith shorter yarn floats. 'oreover, &hile shear angle increases, shear force,

shear stress, and shear modulus decreases in fa$ric designs &ith longer float. Koefficient of

correlation $et&een shear force and the yarn pulling force reaches ".4/ &hen three yarns are

pulled out.

.eferences

#% '.A. El%'essiry, A. )heta, 'easurement of fa$ric shear a$ility $y t&isting method, The

*ndian Textile Aournal ?#;54@, pp.#!!9 #!;.

!% Dre$y, E. K., The <lanoflex> A )imple Device for Evaluating the <lia$ility of Fa$rics, Am.

Dyest. Sep. /"?#;1#@, pp.32#% 333.

/% .o, (., )hitrohara, A., and 'atsuhashi, F., 8iscoelastic )tudies of Textile Fa$rics, <art /> =n

the )hearing :uc7ling of Textile Fa$rics, )en%i .a77aishi #/? #;24@, pp.13"%#32.

1% 0a&a$ata, )., Fi&a, '., *to, 0., and Fitta, '., Application of =$+ective 'easurements to

Klothing 'anufacture, *nt. A. Klothing )ci. Technol. ! ?/B1@, pp.#5%/# ?#;4!@.

2% 0a&a$ataTs Evaluation )ystem for Fa$ric ?0E)%F:@ 'anual, 0ato Tech Ko. Mtd., #;4!.

3% Kusic7, .. E., The Sesistance of Fa$rics to )hearing Forces, A. Textile *nst. 2! ?;@ ?#;3#@,

T/;2%1"3.

4% 0il$y, D. F., )hear <roperties in Selation to Fa$ric Pand, Textile Ses. A. /#?#;3#@, pp. 4!%4/.

5% )u$ramaniam 8., )iva7umar '., )rinivasan 8. and )asi7ala '., Determining Factors That

Affect Fa$ric )hear :ehavior &ith the T&ist 'ethod, Textile Ses. A. Aune ?#@ ?#;;"@, pp. /35%

/4".

11

;% 0. :ilisi7, *n%plane shear properties of polyester satin fa$ric $y yarn pull%out method, Textile

Sesearch Aournal,5!?#!@ ,? !"#!@, pp.#!3/9#!5#

#"% 0. :ilisi7, Experimental determination of fa$ric shear $y yarn pull%out method, Textile

Sesearch Aournal, 5!?#"@ ?!"#!@, pp.#"2"9#"31.

##% '. 8ali6adeh, ). Momov, ). A. P. Savandi, '. )alimi and ). U. Sad, Finite Element

)imulation of a (arn <ullout Test for <lain Doven Fa$rics, Textile Sesearch Aournal, 5"?#"@ ,

!"#", pp.5;!%;"/

#!% 0. :ilisi7, Effect of interlacement freEuency on the single and multiple yarn end pull%out

properties of &oven fa$rics, Textile Sesearch Aournal, 5#?3@ ?!"##@, pp. 252%2;4.

#/% E. El%Tahaan, study the effect of architectural fa$rics structural properties on their

mechanical properties, <h.D, Alexandria University, faculty of engineering, !"#!.

#1%T.8 )agar, < <otluri,, A.D.) Pearle, 'esoscale modelling of interlaced fi$re assem$lies using

energy method Komputational 'aterials )cience, 8olume !5, *ssue #, Auly !""/, pp. 1;93!

#2%El%'essiry '. and (oussef )., Analysis of stress9strain of architect &oven fa$ric under

$iaxial extensions, Alexandria Engineering Aournal, !"#!

#3%Puiyu )un, Fing <an, )hear deformation analysis for &oven fa$rics, Komposite )tructures 34

!""2, pp./#49/!!

#4%:. 0. :ehera, Airi 'ilit7y, Sa+esh 'ishra and Dana 0remena7ova, 'odeling of Doven

Fa$rics .eometry and <roperties, &&&.intechopen.com

12

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