International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print

),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 43-47 © IAEME
43











HYBRID CRYPTOGRAPHY ALGORITHMS FOR SECURE EAACK IN
MANET


Swati R. Salunke, Prof. S. Pratap Singh

Student Professor




ABSTRACT

Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a network without
using any existing infrastructure. MANET is a collection of mobile nodes along with wireless
transmitter and receiver that with each other via a bi-directional links either directly or indirectly. A
new intrusion detection system named communicates Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment
(EAACK) specially designed for MANETs. It is based on the digital signature algorithm (DSA). To
enhance the security in the mobile adhoc networks, we introduce a new approach called Hybrid
cryptography algorithm that provides integrity, confidentiality and authentication. This hybrid
cryptography algorithm is based on two cryptography algorithms such as RSA and AES. Encryption is
achieved by using, RSA algorithm for authentication and symmetric algorithm for the integrity. By
using the symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic algorithm, we can achieve better security and
integrity than the EAACK.

Index Terms: AES, Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), Enhanced Acknowledgment (EAACK),
Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), RSA.

I. INTRODUCTION

Now a days wireless network has much more preferences than the wired network due to the
mobility and scalability nature of wireless network made it possible in many applications. All the
contemporary wireless networks, Mobile Ad hoc Network is one of the most important and unique
applications. MANET is a collation of independent nodes along with transmitter and the receiver that
can directly communicate with each other via a bidirectional link. MANET does not require a fixed
infrastructure. MANET is a self-configuring network that is formed automatically by a collection of
mobile nodes without the help of a centralized management. Each node is equipped with a wireless
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transmitter and receiver, which allow it to communicate with other nodes in its radio communication
range. In order for a node to forward a packet to a node that is out of its radio range, the cooperation of
other nodes in the network is needed, this is known as multi-hop communication. Therefore in
MANET each node acts as both a host and a router at the same time.
MANET consists of two types i.e. single hop and multi hop [1]. In single hop MANET all node
are present in a same communication range and they can directly communicate with each other and in
multihop, where several intermediate nodes relay the packets sent by the source node before they reach
the destination node. But due to the open nature of the MANET it is vulnerable to the various types of
attacks. To prevent from the malicious attacks on the MANET a new scheme is introduce i.e. Intrusion
Detection System (IDS).

II. RELATED WORK

Each node in MANETs assumes that other nodes always work together with each other to relay
data. Due to the open nature of the MANET attackers get the significant impact on the network with
just one or two compromised nodes. To eliminate the potential damages caused by compromised
address this problem, Intrusion Detection System (IDS) [2] should be added to enhance the security
level of the MANETs. If MANET can detect the attackers as soon as they enter in to the network and
IDS acts as a second layer in a MANETs. IDS consist of three approaches such as Watchdog,
TWOACK and AACK.
The watchdog scheme is proposed by the Marti et al. [3]. It consists of two parts, namely
Watchdog and Path rates. Watchdog serves as an intrusion detection system for MANETs. It is
responsible for detecting malicious nodes in the network. Watchdog detects malicious is behavior by
promiscuously listens to its next hops transmission. If Watchdog node overhears that its next node fails
to forward the packet within a certain period of time, it increases its failure counter. If the nodes are not
successes in a predefined threshold, the watchdog node reports it as misbehaving. In this case, the Path
rater cooperates with the routing protocols to avoid the reported nodes in future transmission. But
Watchdog faces many problems such as receiver collision, partial dropping, limited transmission
power, false misbehavior report, ambiguous collisions.
TWOACK scheme is proposed by Liu et al [4]. TWOACK is neither an agreeable nor a
Watchdog based scheme. It is able to solve the receiver collision and limited transmission power
problem of Watchdog. TWOACK finding misbehaving links by acknowledging every data packets
transmitted over each one after the other three nodes along the path from the source to destination. And
the third, Adaptive ACKnowledgement (AACK) new scheme proposed by Sheltami et al. [5]. AACK
is based on the TWOACK, which provides an end to end acknowledgement scheme called ACK. As
compared to TWOACK, AACK significantly reduced network overhead while still capable of
maintaining or surpassing the same network throughput [8].

III. EXISTING SYSTEM

EAACK is a new acknowledgement based scheme. EAACK removes all six weakness of the
Watchdog scheme. The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is to prevent the attacker from forging
acknowledgement packets. EAACK is consisted of three major parts, namely, ACK, S-ACK (Secure
ACK) and MRA (Misbehavior Report Authentication) [1]. ACK is basically end to end
acknowledgement scheme. In ACK mode, node S first sends out an ACK data packet to the destination
node D. IF all the intermediate nodes along the route between nodes source S to destination D node are
cooperate with each other and node D successfully receives a packet send by sending a Secure ACK
(S-ACK) data packet to detect the misbehaving nodes in the route.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 43-47 © IAEME
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ACK is basically end to end acknowledgement scheme. In ACK mode, node S first sends out an ACK
data packet to the destination node D. IF all the intermediate nodes along the route between nodes
source S to destination D node are cooperate with each other and node D successfully receives a packet
send by sending a Secure ACK (S-ACK) data packet to detect the misbehaving nodes in the route.
Secure-ACK is a improved version of ACK scheme proposed by Liu et al [6]. In the S-ACK
scheme to detect the misbehaving nodes every three successive nodes work in a group. In the three
successive nodes the S-ACK acknowledgement packet is sent by the third node to the first node. This
S-ACK scheme is able to detect the misbehaving nodes in a MANET along with the receiver collision
and low transmission power.
In watchdog scheme, it fails to detect the misbehaving node due to the presence of a false
misbehavior report. Because of this false report information the Watchdog reports a normal node as
malicious node. To overcome this drawback of the watchdog MRA (Misbehavior Report
Authentication) scheme is used. MRA scheme is to authenticate whether the destination node has
received the reported missing packet through a different route. For this the source node seeks its local
knowledge base and identifies the other route to the destination node. If there is no route to the
destination by using the DSR routing request to find the alternate route. Where the MRA packet is
received by the destination node, it compares with using the local knowledge base whether the reported
packet was received or not. If already received it make a decision, and it is a false misbehavior report.
In EAACK, Digital Signature is used to prevent the attackers from acknowledgment packets.
The three schemes of the EAACK are ACK, S-ACK and MRA are acknowledgement based detection
systems. To detect the misbehaviors in the network, this all three schemes are relay on the
acknowledgement packets. All acknowledgement packets in the EAACK are authentic. Otherwise the
attackers will give the false acknowledgement; all three schemes are susceptible. So, the digital
signature in EACCK to ensure the integrity of the intrusion detection system [7]. It requires all
acknowledgment packets to be digitally signed before they are sent out and verified until they are
accepted. But it requires additional resources due to the digital signature in mobile adhoc network.

IV. PROPOSED WORK

In EAACK scheme we use a digital signature algorithm for to ensure the integrity of the
intrusion detection system. In EAACK scheme all acknowledgement packets to be digitally signed
before they are sent out and verified until they accepted [9]. If attackers are able to send the false
acknowledgement packets, all of the schemes of EAACK are vulenerable and existing system cannot
able to reduce the network overhead caused by digital signature. To enhance the security in the
MANET, we introduce a new approach called Hybrid Cryptography algorithm that provides integrity,
confidentiality and authentication.
Our proposed system, hybrid cryptography algorithms consists of symmetric and asymmetric
algorithm. The public key cryptography is also known as asymmetric cryptography, which means
requires two separates keys such as private (secret) key and another is public key. In symmetric
algorithm, there is only one key which is used for both encryption and decryption. In our system we use
the symmetric algorithm, AES used for encryption of data and generate AES key for encryption. The
symmetric cryptography techniques are used to achieve both the confidentiality and integrity in our
system. The asymmetric algorithm, RSA is used for encryption of symmetric AES key. The public
cryptography is used to achieve secure authentication in our system.




International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 43-47 © IAEME
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V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS



Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) is a ratio of the number of packets received by the destination
node to the number of packets sent by the source node .The graph of packet Delivery Ratio shown in
figure in which PDR ranging from 0 to 1 is taken along y-axis and malicious nodes are taken on the
x-axis. We can infer as the number of malicious nodes are decreases then the PDR will increases.
Among the two response mechanisms, we also notice the packets delivery ratio of hybrid cryptography
of EAACK response is higher than those of other approach EAACK (DSA and RSA).

VI. CONCLUSION

To increase the security level in the mobile ad hoc networks, we use a intrusion detection
system called as EAACK. Along with the Digital signature algorithm in EAACK is to prevent the
attackers from forged acknowledgement attacks. In the EAACK all the packets are digitally signed
before they send out and verified after they are accepted. But the DSA in EAACK consumes more
resources and also the security level will decrease. To enhance the security level and increase the
integrity, confidentiality and authentication we use a hybrid cryptography algorithm. In our system,
hybrid cryptography techniques consist of RSA and AES algorithm.

REFERENCES

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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 43-47 © IAEME
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[8] T. Sheltami, A. Al-Roubaiey, E. Shakshuki, and A. Mahmoud, Video transmission
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