Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation
of animals,plants, fungi,andotherlifeformfor food, fiber, biofuel, medicinals a
nd other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization,
whereby farming ofdomesticated species created food surpluses that
nurtured the development ofcivilization. The study of agriculture is known
as agricultural science.


The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its
development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates,
cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on
techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising
domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form
of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming. Livestock are
raised in a combination of grassland-based and landless systems, in an
industry that covers almost one-third of the world's ice- and water-free area.
In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-
scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming,
although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture,
including permaculture anAgricultural practices such as irrigation, crop
rotation, application of fertilizers andpesticides, and the domestication of
livestock were developed long ago, but have made great progress in the
past century. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human
history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in
worldwide socio-economic change. Division of labour in agricultural
societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-
gatherer cultures, which allowed the growth of towns and cities, and the
complex societies we call civilizations. When farmers became capable of
producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their
society were free to devote themselves to projects other than food
acquisition. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the
development of agriculture made civilization possible. According to
geographer Jared Diamond, the costs of agriculture were: "the average
daily number of work hours increased, nutrition deteriorated, infectious
disease and body wear increased, and lifespan shortened

Organic farming

Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such ascrop
rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control. Depending on
whose definition is used, organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides (which
include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) if they are considerednatural (such
as bone meal from animals or pyrethrin from flowers), but it excludes or strictly limits the
use of various methods (includingsyntheticpetrochemical fertilizers and pesticides; plant
growth regulators such ashormones; antibiotic use in livestock; genetically modified
human sewage sludge; and nanomaterials.) for reasons
including sustainability,openness, independence, health, and safety.
Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many
nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of
Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an internationalumbrella organization for
organic farming organizations established in 1972. The USDA National Organic
Standards Board (NOSB) definition as of April 1995 is:
“Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and
enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on
minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and
enhance ecological harmony.
Since 1990 the market for organic food and other products has grown rapidly, reaching
$63 billion worldwide in 201 This demand has driven a similar increase in organically
managed farmland which has grown over the years 2001-2011 at a compounding rate
of 8.9% per annum. As of 2011, approximately 37,000,000 hectares (91,000,000 acres)
worldwide were farmed organically, representing approximately 0.9 percent of total
world farmland


Agriculture is also called agrifarms. It is the cultivation of
animals,plants,fungi and other life forms for food,fiber
biofuel,medicine etc.Agriculture has played a major role in human