International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –

6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
39











STUDY THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT OPERATING PARAMETERS ON
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN GAS-SOLID FLUIDIZED BED USING
HORIZONTAL HEAT TRANSFER PROBE


Basma Abdulhadi Beddai
1
, A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta
2
, M.T.Naik
3
, Ammar Arab Beddai
4

1
Center for Energy Studies, College of Engineering, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, A.P
2
Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, A.P
3
Center for Energy Studies, College of Engineering, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, A.P
4
Material Engineering, Technical College- Baghdad, Iraq




ABSTRACT

Heat transfer studies were carried out in a laboratory scale gas-solid fluidized bed with 0.1m
ID x 1 m length column, using three sizes of local sand particles of 301, 454, and 560 µm. the bed
region was heated bya horizontal heat transfer probe. It was made of copper rod (15 mm ODx50 mm
long) and insulated at the ends by Teflon. A hole was drilled at the center of the rod to accommodate
a cartridge heater 200 W (6.5 mm OD x 42 mm long). Three bed inventories of sand 1.5 kg, 2.0 kg,
and 2.5 kg, four superficial air velocities of 1.0 m/s, 1.25 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 1.75 m/s were used. Three
heat fluxes of 1698.9, 2928.4, 4675.7 W m
-2
were employed. The data obtained showed how the heat
transfer coefficient effected by the above operating parameters. The heat transfer coefficient is
directly proportional with air superficial velocity as well as the bed inventory and heat fluxes but
inversely proportional with sand particles size.

Keywords: Heat Transfer Coefficient, Gas- Solid Fluidized Bed, Horizontal Probe, Fluidization,
Horizontal Probe.

1. INTRODUCTION

Fluidization is a unit operation, and through this technique a bed of particulate solids,
supported over a fluid-distributing plate (often called the grid), is made to behave like a liquid by the
passage of the fluid (gas, liquid, or gas–liquid) at a flow rate above a certain critical value. In other
words, it is the phenomenon of imparting the properties of a fluid to a bed of particulate solids by
passing a fluid through the latter at a velocity which brings the fixed or stationary bed to its loosest
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
40

possible state just before its transformation into a fluidlike bed
[1]
.There exist high heat transfer rate of
fluidized beds and immersed surface, and little temperature variation across the bed, and can be
obtained higher heat transfer coefficients compared to a conventional fluidized beds. Due to these
advantages, this technology has been applied commercially in various processes, such as fluidized
bed combustor, fluidized bed reactor, fluidized bed dryer, etc
[2]
.Three modes of heat transfer are
important with respect to surfaces immersed in fluidized beds: (1) Convection by particles carrying
heat conducted through the gas layer in contact with the exchange surfaces; (2) convection by gas,
and radiation. Many processes utilizing fluidized beds operate at temperatures below 500
o
C where
the radiation component is of secondary significance. Gas convective heat transfer becomes
significant when the superficial gas velocity is higher or the particle size is large
[3]
.
Kunii and Levenspiel pointed out that heat transfer in fluidized beds is a two part concern:
one deals with the bed to surface heat transfer such as heat transfer tubes and the other deals with the
gas to particle heat transfer
[4]
.Kiang et al.measured heat transfer coefficients using 19 mm diameter
and 57.2 mm high vertical probe located along the axis at various levels in a 102-mm diameter and
3.66-m-high cold CFB riser. Axial variation of heat transfer coefficients in the range of 45 to 230
W/m
2
.K were reported. B. V. Reddy, P. K. Nag investigated the effect of operating parameters on the
axial and radial variation of the heat transfer coefficient in circulating fluidized bed column. They
proposed an empirical model with help of dimensional analysis to predict the heat transfer coefficient
to a bare horizontal tube in a CFB riser column and they observed a good agreement between the
model results and the experimental data.Noor M. Jasem et al. investigated the steady state heat
transfer between gas and solid and the surface immersed in gas- solid CFBs. They used a bed column
of 76 mm in inside diameter and 1500 mm in height fitted with a horizontal heating tube with outer
diameter 28 mm heated electrically with different power supplies (105 W). The fluidizing medium
was air at different velocities (4.97, 5.56 and 6 m/s). They employed three different size of sand
particle (i.e 194, 295 and 356 µm). They used initial bed heights with different values (15, 25 and 35
cm). They found that the heat transfer coefficients increase with fluidized air velocity and, through
clear, with heat flux, but, they show an inverse dependence on particle size, and direct proportional
with initial bed height which representation the bed density
[5-7]
.
Sung Won Kim et al. carried out an experiments in a FBHE made of transparent acrylic plate.
The effect of gas velocity on the average and local heat transfer coefficients between a submerged
horizontal tube and a fluidized bed has been determined in a fluidized-bed-heat-exchanger of silica
sand particles. They measured the heat transfer coefficient around the tube circumference by
thermocouples and an optical probe. They concluded that the average heat transfer coefficient
exhibits a maximum value with variation of gas velocity, the local heat transfer coefficient exhibits
maximum values at the top of the tube and the average heat transfer coefficient increases with
increasing gas velocity toward a maximum value of the coefficient
[8]
.
Vanderschuren and Delvosalle (1980), Delvosalle and Vanderschuren (1985), as well as
Molerus (1997) reported that particle–particle and particle–surface collisional heat transfers may
play significant role in fluidized beds under certain conditions. Therefore, because of intensive
motion of particles in the turbulent fluidized regime, it appears to be of interest of modeling and
investigating heat transfer processes induced by particle–particle and particle–surface collisions in
order to study these phenomena separately of the remaining thermal characteristics of the bed
[9]
.
D. Karageorgieva, and R. Stanev studied the influence of some factors on total heat transfer
coefficient and the convective heat transfer one in low temperature circulating fluidized bed. They
compared their data with that in the literature, they found a very good agreement between them
[10]
.
The heat transfer characteristics between a circulating fluidized bed and a surface immersed
inside it were investigated by M. A. Al Busoul. He presented a statistical model describing the
mechanism of heat transfer and the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and the main
parameters of the bed. The proposed model yields a satisfactory representation of heat transfer
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
41

process in the circulating fluidized bed.Heat transfer from an immersed heating surface to a liquid-
solid and liquid-liquid solid fluidized beds were studied by Balasim A. Abid et.al. The experiments
were carried out in a (0.22) m column diameter fitted with an axially mounted cylindrical heater
heated electrically. They developed new correlations to predict the heat transfer coefficients in
liquid-solid and liquid-liquid-solid fluidized beds. They compared the obtained heat transfer
coefficients with those estimated from other correlations reported in the literature. The comparison
showed a good agreement with the data obtained for the gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds using low-
density particles
[11], [12]
.
Qin-Fu Hou, et al. investigated heat transfer characteristics of different powders in gas
fluidization were by means of a combinedapproach of discrete element method and computational
fluid dynamics. The results confirmed that the convective heat transfer was dominant, and radiative
heattransfer becomes important when the bed temperature is high. However, conductive heat transfer
also played a role depending onthe flow regimes and material properties
[13]
.
Many investigations were done to study the effect of particles sizes on heat transfer
coefficient and they obtained that the heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing particle size
[14-16]
.
Experiments were carried out by NimaMasoumifard, et al. in a fluidized bed in order to
verify the influence of the axial position, particle diameter and the superficial gas velocity on the
heat transfer coefficient from a small horizontal tube (D
t
= 8 mm) immersed in the fluidized bed. The
solid particles used were 280, 490 and 750 µm diameter sand particles, fluidized by air. They showed
that the heat transfer coefficient was increased with increasing the gas velocity, up to a maximum,
and then decreases with a slight slope. The heat transfer coefficient was found to decrease by
increasing the particle size. The probe position had less influence on the heat transfer coefficients
[17]
.
P. Neto et al. studied the heat transfer in a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed with
54.5mm ID, using five different sizes of silica sand particles of 107.5, 142.5, 180, 282.5, and 357.5
µm.The bubbling bed region was heated by a 2 kW electrical resistance and the heat was transfer
towards membrane cooling wall placed above the free surface bed. They found that there were two
heat transfer mechanisms are responsible for the thermal energy transportation towards the
membrane cooling walls (1) the convective heat transfer from the mainly fluidized air flow, (2) the
heat carried by the bed solid particles in the to-and-from movement created by their upward
projection, due to the bursting bubbles reaching the bed surface, their collisions against the
membrane walls and subsequent return to the hot bubbling bed
[18]
.The objective of the present study
is to investigate in detail heat transfer and to ascertain the effect of important parameters on the heat
transfer coefficient between the horizontal heat transfer surface and the fluidized bed in a lab-scale
fluidized bed system.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Laboratory scale fluidized bed setup can be shown in fig. 1, the experiments were conducted
in a 0.1 m ID and 1 m height mild steel fluidization column. Air was supplied by a compressor. The
air flow was measured by a rotameter. The air was passing through the plenum chamber filled by
glass beads to maintain uniform distribution of air through bed,with a height of 0.1m and upper
diameter of 0.1m and bottom diameter of 0.015m. The air was distributed by a perforated plate of
mild steel with a diameter of 0.1m and a thickness of 0.003 m will consists of 256 holes of 2.7 mm
diameter drilled on a 7.5 mm square pitch. An ultrafine mesh was fixed on the distributor plate to
prevent bed particles leakage. There were 10 pressure ports in the fluidized column for pressure drop
measurements. The heat transfer section consisted from horizontal heat transfer probe.
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
42

Fig. 1: Experimental setup of fluidized bed column, 1-compressoe, 2-Valve, 3-air rotameter,
4-plenum chamber, 5- Horizontal heat transfer probe, 6-thermocouples, 7- digital screen,
8- DC power supply, 9-five U manometers.

An ultrafine mesh was fixed on the top end of the column to avoid escaping the particles
from the top. Local sand of three different sizes 301µm, 454µm, and 560 µm were used as the bed
material. Three bed inventories of sand 1.5 kg, 2.0 kg, and 2.5 kg, four superficial air velocities of
1.0 m/s, 1.25 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 1.75 m/s were used. Three heat fluxes of 1698.9, 2928.4, 4675.7 W m
-2

were employed.
The local heat transfer coefficient along the probe were estimated from the equation:

݄


௏ூ


ቀ்


ି்








ି்


(4)

The probe average heat transfer coefficient was estimated from the local heat transfer coefficients:

݄
௔௩௚



ା௛

ା௛

ାڮା௛


(5)

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Effect of air superficial velocity on heat transfer coefficient
Fig. 3 shows the effect of superficial gas velocity of 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 m/s on the surface-to-
bed heat transfer coefficient in the fluidized column at heat fluxes of 1698.9, 2928.4, 4675.7 W m-2,
1.5 kg bed inventory and 301µm particles size. From the figure, it is noticed that the heat transfer
coefficient increased with increasing the fluidization velocity. The increase in heat transfer may be
due to enhanced turbulence in the column for higher velocity which in turn causes for intermixing of
solids and gas solid suspension.
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
43


Fig. 2: Effect of gas superficial velocity on heat transfer coefficient at I=1.5 kg, d
p
=301µm and
three different heat fluxes

3.2 Effect of bed inventories on heat transfer coefficient
The effect of bed inventories on heat transfer coefficient can be shown in fig. 4. Inventory in
the bed was varied as 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 kg. It is observed that increase in the inventory of sand in the
column increases the bed temperature and heat transfer coefficient. This is because sand particles
concentration increases with increase bed inventory. Consequently, more quantity of particles in the
lower splash region promotes more heat transfer through conduction because of which bulk
temperature of bed was observed to be higher than that of lower inventory. W/m
2


Fig. 3: Effect of bed inventories on heat transfer coefficient at q=1698.9 W m
-2
, d
p
=301µm and four
different gas superficial velocities



Fig. 4: Effect of bed inventories on heat transfer coefficient at q=2928.4 W m
-2
, d
p
=301µm and four
different gas superficial velocities
100
115
130
145
160
175
190
205
220
235
250
265
280
295
0 . 9 1 . 1 5 1 . 4 1 . 6 5 1 . 9
h

W
/
m
2
.

o
C
U
g
m/s
q=1698.9 W m-2
q=2928.4 W m-2
q=4675.7 W m-2
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
0.95 1.15 1.35 1.55 1.75 1.95
h

W
/
m
2
.
o
C
U
g
m/s
I=1.5kg
I=2.0kg
I=2.5kg
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
0.95 1.15 1.35 1.55 1.75 1.95
h


W
/
m
2
.
o
C
U
g
m/s
I=1.5kg
I=2.0kg
I=2.5kg
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
44


Fig. 5: Effect of bed inventories on heat transfer coefficient at q=4675.7 W m
-2
, dp=301µm and four
different gas superficial velocities

3.3 Effect of sand particle size on heat transfer coefficient
Fig. 7, 8, and 9 show the effect of particle size on the heat transfer coefficient between the
heat transfer probe and the bed particles. Sand particles size of 301, 454, and 560 µm were used.It is
found that the heat transfer coefficient decreases for large particles mainly because of the higher
thermal resistance offered by the particles. Also with increase of particle size, the gas gap thickness
between the surface and particles increases resulting in a decrease of the heat transfer coefficient.
Moreover the smaller particles can increase the effective heat transfer area covered by particle itself.


Fig. 6: Effect of particles size on heat transfer coefficient at q=1698.9 W m
-2
, I=1.5 kg, and four
different gas superficial velocities


Fig. 7: Effect of particles size on heat transfer coefficient at q=2928.4 W m
-2
, I=1.5 kg, and four
different gas superficial velocities
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
0.95 1.15 1.35 1.55 1.75 1.95
h

W
/
m
2
.
o
C
U
g
m/s
I=1.5kg
I=2.0kg
I=2.5kg
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9
h

W
/
m
2
.
o
C
U
g
m/s
dp=301µm
dp=450µm
dp=560µm
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9
h

W
/
m
2
.
o
C
U
g
m/s
dp=301µm
dp=450µm
dp=560µm
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 39-46 © IAEME
45


Fig. 8: Effect of particles size on heat transfer coefficient at q=4675.7 W m
-2
, I=1.5 kg, and four
different gas superficial velocities

3.4 Effect of heat fluxes on heat transfer coefficient
The variation of heat transfer coefficient for different heat flux conditions against gas
superficial velocity for a particular bed inventory is shown in fig. 3. The heat transfer coefficient is
high for higher values of heat flux and it is decreasing with the decrease in heat flux. For higher heat
flux condition, the bed temperature increases. This is due to increase of amount of the heat which
transferred to the fluidized bed system, which in turn tends to enhance the heat transfer coefficient.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The main focus of this study was the effect of different operating parameters on heat transfer
coefficient in gas-solid fluidized bed. Following conclusions obtained from the experimental results:

1. Heat transfer coefficient is found to be increasing with increase air superficial velocity.
2. Heat transfer coefficient is directly proportional to the heat fluxes and bed inventory.
3. Smaller particles size yield higher heat transfer coefficient and vice versa in present heat
transfer studies.
4. The data show trends similar to those in published literatures.

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