Effect of Zinc Chloride (LC-50) on physicochemical parameters of water

upon exposure to Ophiocephalus punctatus
Keywords:
Zinc, Physico-chemical parameter, Ophiocephalus punctatus.
007-012 | JRAS | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 1
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Authors:
Swapan S. Bacher and
Arun M. Chilke.

Institution:
Division of Toxicology and
Biomonitoring, Department
of Zoology, Shree Shivaji
Arts, Commerce and Science
College, Rajura-442805
(India).


Corresponding author:
Arun M. Chilke.


Email:
achilke.2011@rediffmail.com














Web Address:
http://ficuspublishers.com/
documents/AS0007.pdf
Dates:
Received: 05 Mar 2012 /Accepted: 15 Mar 2012 /Published: 04 Apr 2012
Article Citation:
Swapan S. Bacher and Arun M. Chilke.
Effect of Zinc Chloride (LC-50) on physicochemical parameters of water upon exposure
to Ophiocephalus punctatus.
Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1: 007-012
An International Online Open Access
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Original Research
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Journal of Research in Animal Sciences
ABSTRACT:


Zinc is an essential element and cause deleterious effect at high
concentration to both the animals and plants. In the present study, we observed that
the Zinc chloride at lethal concentration fifty alters the behavior of fish which also
change the physico-chemical properties of water. It was observed that the Zinc
chloride steadily increased the pH, conductivity, free carbon dioxide and total
alkalinity of water from 24 to 96 hrs, whereas the dissolved oxygen concentration in
water was gradually decreased. It is concluded that the increase in pH, conductivity,
free carbon dioxide and total alkalinity of water and decrease in oxygen could be due
to increase in the metabolic processes of Ophiocephalus punctatus upon exposure to
zinc chloride at lethal concentration 44.25 mg/l.
Journal of Research in
Animal Sciences
An International Open Access Online
Research Journal


INTROCUTION:
Heavy metals accumulate in the aquatic
organism through various sources like sediments, soil
erosion and runoff, air depositions of dust, aerosol, and
discharge of waste water (Labonne et al., 2001; Goodwin
et al., 2003). But majority of aquatic ecosystems are
greatly affected by the industrial waste containing variety
of heavy metals. Heavy metals from industries not only
disturb the aquatic environment but leads to
environmental health hazards (Shukla et al., 2007; Gupta
and Srivastava, 2006; Agtas et al., 2007; Yoon et al.,
2008).
Zinc is a common trace metal essential in minute
quantities for mammal and fish (Frieden, 1972 and
Holcombe et. al., 1979), and is generally regarded as one
of the less hazardous element, though its toxicity may be
enhanced by the presence of other heavy metals like
cadmium, copper and ferrous etc. However small
quantities of zinc are required for normal development
and metabolism of organisms, if levels exceed the
physiological requirements, zinc can act as a toxicant.
Exposure to excess zinc has been reported to bring about
biochemical as well as histological changes in various
organs of fishes (Agrawal and Srivastava, 2003;
Srivastava and Verma, 2009). Indeed, much work is
available on the effect of zinc on various aspects of
animal behavior, histopathology, biochemical and
histochemical variation etc. But very little work has
been done with respect to effect of heavy metal on
physicochemical change of water (Bacher and Chilke,
2012) upon exposure to fish in general. In the present
work the attempt was made to fill out the lacunae by
correlating the effect of zinc on alteration of
physicochemical properties of water upon exposure to
Ophiocephalus puctatus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Healthy fingerlings of Ophiocephalus puctatus
measuring the size 12-15cm were purchased from
fisherman of Mulchera (District-Gadchiroli). It was
carried to the laboratory in hygienic condition and
acclimatized for fifteen days. During this period of
acclimatization fish were fed with boiled eggs and rice
bran. Zinc LC-50 for 96 hrs was carried out thrice to
confirm exact dose of LC-50. Then the fish were divided
into six groups. Each group was contained twenty fish
each. Later all these fish were exposed to lethal
concentration of Zinc for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The
estimation of water was carried out at the interval of 24
hrs after real start time. All the physicochemical
parameters were tested according to APHA (1989).
Values were calculated by one way ANOVA with
software Graph pad-5 demo version.

RESULTS:
It fact the zinc is an essential inorganic element
requires to perform normal physiological function.
Deficiency of this element affects the general
physiology. However the higher concentration causes
the detrimental effect to all the aquatic organisms. In the
present study we observed that the Ophiocephalus
punctatus exhibited 50% mortality at 44.25mg/l of zinc
chloride.
At 50% lethal concentration of zinc chloride fish
exhibited notable changes in its behavior like continuous
fin movement, intermittent twitch and rapid opening and
closing of operculum and mouth. All these activities
were much more frequent in initial time of exposure
compared to the later period but remained higher than the
control throughout the experimental period. It was
observed that the exposed fish secreted large quantity of
mucus from 24 hrs to 96 hrs and till 96 hrs caudal region
became blood red colored (Fig. 1).
Atmospheric temperature was constant (25°C)
during experimental tenure i.e. from 24 to 72 hours of
exposure. However, the water temperature was gradually
increased from 24 to 72 hrs. and at 96 hrs it was
observed to decrease (Table-1, Fig. 2).
Bacher and Chilke, 2012
008 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1: 007-012
The water conductivity was steadily increased
(Table-1, Fig. 3) from 24 to 96 hrs, the maximum
conductivity (0.519 ± 0.006) was observed at 96 hrs. and
lowest at 24 hrs (0.379 ± 0.011). However the pH
(negative logarithmic hydrogen ion concentration) also
increased perpetually from 24 to 96 hours of exposure
(Fig. 4). The maximum pH (6.84 ± 0.013) was noticed
on fourth day (96 hrs) of exposure and minimum (6.35 ±
0.009) at 24 hrs.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) in water was maximum
(Fig. 5) at 24 hrs (0.68 ± 0.87 mg/l) and minimum (0.28
± 0.60 mg/l) was recorded at 98 hrs. The DO was
observed decreasing consistently from 24 to 96 hrs of
exposure. But opposite results were obtained for the free
carbon dioxide. The free carbon dioxide was
continuously increased from 48 to 96 hrs. (Fig. 6), it was
recorded minimum at 24 hrs and maximum at 96 hrs of
exposure.
It was also observed that the total alkalinity as
calcium carbonate increased consistently similar to free
carbon dioxide from 24 to 96 hrs. The total alkalinity
was noted minimum at 24 hrs and maximum at 96 hrs
(Fig. 7).

DISCUSSION:
Zinc has been recognized to play a vital role in
almost all aspects of living systems either directly or
indirectly (Alabaster and Lloyd, 1982 and Shukla et al.,
2003). When zinc occurs at higher levels than normal, it
can act as a pollutant (Agrawal and Srivastava, 2003).
However, no report is available on the extent of changes
in the physicochemical factors of water after exposure of
fish to the LC-50 of Zinc chloride. Therefore the present
study was undertaken to find out the induction of change
in the physicochemical factors of water upon exposure of
Bacher and Chilke, 2012
Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1: 007-012 009
Fig 1. Ophiocephalaus punctatus showing an excess
secretion of mucous and redness of caudal fin on
exposure to Zinc Chloride LC-50 up to 96 hrs.
Fig 2. Showing the difference in Ambient and Water
Temperature during the experiment from 24hrs to
96hrs upon exposure of Ophiocephalaus punctatus to
Zinc LC-50.
Fig 3. Showing change in Water Conductivity from
24hrs to 96hrs upon exposure of Ophiocephalaus
punctatus to Zinc LC-50.


Ophiocephalus punctatus to the Zinc chloride.
The murrel O. punctatus is well known to live in
oxygen deficit polluted water in the Indian fresh water
ecosystem due to presence of accessory respiratory
organs. Bacher and Chilke (2012) have reported the
effect of Cadmium LC-50 on the alternation of
physicochemical characteristics of water.
It has been observed that the ambient
temperature influence the temperature of aquatic media
and in general temperature of water is always lower than
the ambient temperature. The Zinc at LC-50 were
observed to decrease initially value of temperature till 72
hrs of exposure and later in 96 hrs that got insignificantly
increased. This decrease in temperature could be due to
decrease in basic metabolic rate of fish. It was observed
that the fish showed continuous movement of mouth,
operculum and fins but fish was quiescent. However in
the last period of experiment from 72 to 96 hrs the entire
activity was seemed to increase as compared to earlier
period along with excessive secretion of mucus. This
could be implicated to slightly increase in basic
metabolic rate of fish till 96 hrs of incubation.
The overall conductivity of water consistently
increased from 24 to 96 hrs of exposure and this increase
in water conductivity could be due to successive increase
in the ionic strength of water. It could be concluded that
the zinc at above tolerance capacity induce the loss of
ions by the fish. The pH of water gradually changed from
the first day of exposure till 96 hrs was reported (Bacher
and Chilke, 2012) upon exposure of fish to cadmium
chloride LC-50. The same was observed in the present
study that zinc also induces the loss of protons by the
Bacher and Chilke, 2012
010 Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1: 007-012
Fig 5. Showing alternation in Dissolved Oxygen in
water during the experiment from 24hrs to 96hrs
upon exposure of Ophiocephalaus punctatus to Zinc
LC-50.
Table-1. Effect of Zinc chloride (LC-50) on Physicochemical Parameters of Water
Sr.No. Parameters 24-Hrs 48-Hrs 72-Hrs 96Hrs.
1 Ambient Temp. 25 °C 25°C 25°C 25°C
2 Water Temp. 24°C 24°C 23.2°C 23.3°C
3 Conductivity 0.379 ± 0.011 0.452 ± 0.006 0.483 ± 0.008 0.519 ± 0.006
4 pH 6.35 ± 0.009 6.43 ± 0.011 6.70 ± 0.013 6.84 ± 0.013
5 Dissolved O
2
0.68 ± 0.87 0.58 ± 0.60 0.45 ± 0.60 0.28 ± 0.60
6 Free CO
2
15.48 ± 0.14 21.51 ± 0.28 23.39 ± 0.11 27.69 ± 0.15
7 Total Alkalinity 23.67 ± 0.42 25.5 ± 0.43 27.33 ± 0.49 32.67 ± 1.05
Fig 4. Showing change in pH (logarithmic hydrogen
ion concentration) during the experiment from 24hrs
to 96hrs upon exposure of Ophiocephalaus punctatus
to Zinc LC-50.
fish at lethal concentration-50.
The gases like the oxygen and the carbon dioxide
exhibited dramatic change from 24 to 96 hrs. It was
observed that quantitatively the level of oxygen
decreased and contrary to this the level of carbon dioxide
increased. This finding indicates the rate of oxygen
consumption increased and hence the carbon dioxide
level in water increased might be due to increase in
metabolic rate of fish. The total alkalinity as calcium
carbonate was also increased from 24 to 96 hrs of
exposure could be due to loss of calcium by the fish
which reacts with the excess of carbonic acid to form the
calcium carbonate.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are very thankful to the Principal, Shree
Shivaji Arts, Commerce and Science College, Rajura
(M.S.) for providing the laboratory facilities.

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Bacher and Chilke, 2012
Journal of Research in Animal Sciences (2012) 1: 007-012 011
Fig 7. Showing change in Total Alkalinity in water
during the experiment from 24hrs to 96hrs upon
exposure of Ophiocephalaus punctatus to Zinc
LC-50.
Fig 6. Showing variation in Free Carbon dioxide in
water fom 24hrs to 96hrs upon exposure of
Ophiocephalaus punctatus to Zinc LC-50.
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