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Krzysztof Urbanowicz∗

Faculty of Physics and Centre of Excellence for Complex

Systems Research, Warsaw University of Technology

Koszykowa 75, PL-00-662 Warsaw, Poland

Peter Richmond†

School of Physics, Trinity College

Dublin 2, Ireland

Janusz A. Holyst‡

Faculty of Physics and Centre of Excellence for Complex

Systems Research, Warsaw University of Technology

Koszykowa 75, PL-00-662 Warsaw, Poland

(Dated: April 12, 2007)

Abstract

We propose a route for the evaluation of risk based on a transformation of the covariance matrix.

The approach uses a ‘potential’ or ‘objective’ function. This allows us to rescale data from different

assets (or sources) such that each data set then has similar statistical properties in terms of their

probability distributions. The method is tested using historical data from both the New York and

Warsaw Stock Exchanges.

PACS numbers: 05.45.Tp, 89.65.Gh

Keywords: financial risk, stochastic processes, probability distribution, stock market data, correlations

∗

†

**Electronic address: urbanow@pks.mpg.de
**

Electronic address: richmond@tcd.ie

‡

Electronic address: jholyst@if.pw.edu.pl

1

Introducing even a constant value for the skewness may yield more reliable portfolio weights than a calculation in which only the variance or second moment of the distribution is used and where the risk of extreme values is seriously underestimated. Portfolio allocations are then computed by maximizing a suitably constructed utility function [19–21]. Moreover. An important outcome of studies basing on Markowitz approach is the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) [10. in both cases. 18] and the Markowitz analysis equate risk with the co-variance matrix. Techniques based on Random Matrix Theory developed and used in nuclear physics have been applied to reveal the linear dependencies between stock market data for both the US and UK markets [4. This builds in aspects of the deviation of the probability distribution from the Gaussian as well as the asymmetry. 23] in which portfolio weights are computed via maximization of these different utility functionals.I. is to arrive at optimal diversified portfolios. One interesting result obtained in [25] was the identification of new classifications introduced in the FTSE index ahead of their formal introduction by the London authorities. Computation of Sharp ratios [17. who proposed using the mean-variance as a route to portfolio optimization [1–16]. Many economists have sought to use other utility functions and invoke additional objectives [22. the approach taken by Markowitz and many other authors [1. 2]. 5]. 23]. The overall aim. More recently other workers including one of the present authors have used Minimum Spanning Trees methods [24–26] for the same purpose. 2] is essentially only appropriate for stochastic processes that follow random walks and exhibit Gaussian distributions [3–5]. Others have introduced additional features of the probability distribution such as the third moment or skewness of the returns [22. 27–29] that relates risk to correlations within the market port2 . In recent years a number of physicists have begun to study the effect of correlations on financial risk. INTRODUCTION Optimization of portfolios has been much studied since the pioneering work of Markowitz [1. Similar comments could be made about the introduction of the kurtosis which is a first order route to addressing the issue of ‘fat’ tails. Spanning tree methods seem to yield results that are similar to those obtained using random matrix theory but with less effort and the use of less data in the sense that only a subset of the correlation matrix is actually used to construct the tree. However the basic construction of the portfolio has not changed much as a result.

we can construct values for a renormalised objective function. from data. These are then used in section III to obtain both covariance matrices and weights for portfolios of stocks. Having established this we show how. w(x) is defined in terms of the stationary probability distribution for returns. viz: P (x) = 1 −w(x)/D e . In a real market not all investors have the same or complete information and arbitrage is possible. The method exploits the full character of the distribution function for each asset in the portfolio and seeks to maximize the impact of correlations. Merton [30] has discussed this and in so doing has extended CAPM theory to deal more effectively with small firms for which information is not always readily available. This is essentially the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT). Such functions are familiar to physicists and may be derived by minimizing a ‘free energy’ functional. The calculations are illustrated in section IV by examples from both the US and Warsaw stock exchanges. OBJECTIVE FUNCTION Consider an asset. key issues remain unresolved.folio [10. The objective function. Here we concern ourselves with a new approach to the exploitation of datasets for the computation of portfolio weights within a diversified portfolio. Z (1) where Z is a normalization factor. 27–29] of course the risk now is that all investments will collapse simultaneously. viz: Z w(x) F = dxP (x)[ln P (x) + − λ] D R 3 (2) . S(t) and return x(t) = ln S(t + 1)/S(t). II. characterized by a price. F (w(x)). subject to constraints on the mean value of the objective function. One weakness of CAPM and APT theories is that they assume efficiency in the proliferation of market information. Furthermore it is assumed that risk that achieves premiums in the long term should not be reducible otherwise arbitrage is possible [28]. In the next section we discuss the background to our approach and introduce the so-called objective function. P (x). However. We also show how the approach modifies the underlying distribution of eigenvalues enhancing the correlations for larger values.

Nevertheless this limitation. 2x ν f (x) g(x) w(x)/D P (x) · Z −sgn(x) 1 |x| /D e−|x|/D −x 1 x2 /D e−x λgg 0 g(x) 6= const 2 (1 − λ/D) ln g 1 + x2/ν (ν + 1) /2 ln 1 + x2/ν 1 + x2/ν 2 /D 1 g 2(1−λ/D) 1 (1+x2 /ν)(ν+1)/2 Such a form for the probability distribution is also the outcome of a model that assumes x is governed by a generalised Markovian stochastic process of the form x(t) ˙ = f(x) + g(x)ε(t) (3) hε(t)ε(t0)i = Dδ(t − t0) (4) The Gaussian process. t) = g (x)P (x. The solution to such a stochastic process has been deduced elsewhere [31–33]. On the other hand. associated with the process is given by the Fokker Planck equation: ∂2 D 2 ∂ ∂P (x. t)) 2 ∂t ∂x 2 ∂x (5) The stationary solution is: Z dx 2f Dgg 0 − f 1 2 e (Dg2 ) dx P (x) = = exp − Z · g 2 (x) Z D g2 (6) Z is a normalization factor.TABLE I: Examples of objective values w(x) and corresponding probability distributions. Row 4 is obtained from row 3 by choosing g = (1 + x2 /ν). t). ε. P (x. f = gg 0 and (ν + 1) /2 = 2(1 − λ/D) when we see that the distribution function reduces to a Student distribution. because w(x) is well defined 4 . we can normalize the distribution function. satisfies: hε(t)i = 0 For the moment we leave the form of the functions f and g unspecified except to say that they only depend on x(t). P for different choices of f and g. the distribution function. t) − (f(x)P (x. A number of different cases are evident as expressed in table I. that stochastic process can not be defined for ν > 3. we know that Student distribution is defined for ν > 2 in order the variance to be finite. For D > 0 we see that ν < 3. Adopting the Ito convention.

Anteneodo and Tsallis [35] have shown that for many financial processes where fat tailed probability functions are empirically observed these Student or Tsallis distributions are good choices.j Z j P where Z = (C−1 )i. PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION As we have noted above it is usual for a portfolio of M stocks to compute portfolio weights. Tsallis and Anteneodo [34] have shown how similar multiplicative stochastic processes based on other non-analytic choices for the function f and g can lead to q-exponentials. xi (tj ) for all i from 1 to M and j from 1 to N are drawn from a common distribution. More recently Queiros.N P i. pi using the covariance matrix. R.j pi pj (7) i.j .g. Having computed these renormalised objective 5 . as: X R= Ci.j N P j wi (xtj ) (9) wi (xtj ) In effect we are renormalising the objective value with its mean value w¯ i relative to the overall mean value. (8) i.j Optimizing this in the absence of risk free assets yields the weight of stock i: 1 X −1 pi = C i. In developing our methodology in the next sections we shall focus on the use of the student distribution that seems to offer a good fit to the data we consider. We exploit this by introducing a particular transformation that increases correlations by renormalising the objective values such that the total set of values. correla- tions of |xi | decrease much slower than xi [5]. To effect this change. We then compute for each value of the return x i (tj ) the corresponding objective value. (1). w. ˆ of the entire data set. III. we first compute for each asset the probability distribution by fitting the data for each asset using a student distribution characterised by the power law index. C and defining the risk.for whole spectrum of ν > 2 using Eq.j It is known that a nonlinear transformation of data can change correlations e. wi (xtj ). These objective values are then transformed to yield a set of renormalised objective values as follows: wˆ w˜i (xtj ) = wi (xtj ) = wi (xtj ) w¯i 1 MN 1 N M.

First we selected 60 stocks from the NYSE as before over the period January 1999 to December 2000 and implemented the prescription over a moving 75 day window using 1500 points for each window.i p˜k p˜i C (11) k. The overall changes as a result of our renormalisation process are small but we show in figure 5 that they can lead to significant changes in the distribution of eigenvalues for large eigenvalues. For each stock we used 12500 data points extending over the time period January 1999 to December 2000. imposed the limit pi < 0. It can be seen that the student distributions for each stock are different prior to renormalisation but are the same after renormalisation. We have checked that a precise value of thus limit is not crucial for optimization procedure. 6 .values we can now obtain the corresponding set of values for x˜ i (t) by inverting the values according to a new student distribution that characterises the entire data set consisting of one value of ν and MxN values. what corresponds to quarter of hour returns.e. We followed up this computation by renormalising data for two different groups of stocks. in our calculations. Figure 4 gives the results of a similar set of calculation for a portfolio of 33 stocks from the Warsaw stock exchanges over the period May 2001 to February 2006. ˜ using Thus we can compute for our portfolio of M stocks a new covariance matrix.15. ILLUSTRATIVE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We show in Figures 1 and 2 the outcome of implementing the method for a simple portfolio of 2 stocks (i. This yields a new minimized value for the risk: ˜= R M X ˜ k. In this way we could compute the various elements of the correlation matrix and the associated optimum weights for the different stocks in the portfolio as a function of time. M = 2).i=1 IV. In order to prevent situations arising where all the money is invested in just one stock we have. The results are shown in Figure 3. Student distributions are fitted separately to the positive and negative returns. C these renormalised values of x˜ i (tj ). Specifically we used data for NYSE stocks General Electric and Boeing. Hence using the result in row 4 of table 1: q x˜i (tj ) = ± ν(1 − e2w˜i (xtj )/(ν+1) ) (10) where ν is now the tail exponent that characterises the Pdf of the entire data set.

Additional insight into the procedure is provided when we compare the distribution of eigenvalues for the standard covariance matrix with the corresponding distribution for the renormalised covariance matrix. in both cases it does seem that using data based on our renormalisation procedure we have a route to greater overall returns. We claim that correlations calculated with standard method underestimate the linear dependencies between stocks. so risk as a whole is smaller. we claim. The covariance matrix is now widely used for the analysis of portfolios. by Levy and Duchin [16].Although we have not included transaction costs (we have changed our portfolio every day. usually by a very small amount). Our approach to the exploitation of this matrix that yields new and correct linear dependencies clearly has wide application and will. we believe. These are shown in Figure 5. Of course an empiricist could still insist that our approach does not yield the best fit and other choices for example for the entropy might improve our results. One could ask why the procedure we have used reduces the risk associated with the portfolio? This is because having evaluated the risk connected to each stock then we have a better estimation the weights in the portfolio. 134/E-365/SPB/COST/KN/DWM105/2005-2007). so the error of the corresponding portfolio risk is much higher. V. Using this approach they obtained different distributions for different stocks then also obtained different distributions for the same stock at different times. It can be seen that the transformation procedure enhances correlations as anticipated and this enhancement occurs at larger eigenvalues. etc. for example. that we reduce the error related to risk evaluation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Grant No. To our mind this is not a very satisfactory approach and ignores the evidence from groups led by physicists such as Stanley [5. To answer this question requires a more extensive study that we have presented here. Further. 24] that financial data exhibits universal behaviour such as scaling. prove to be of considerable benefit to industry practitioners. Krzysztof Urbanowicz thanks Eu7 . It might also be argued at this point that we could by-pass the entire background given in section II and simply fit the ‘best’ distribution function to the data as was done. power law tails.

M. [2] H. (John Wiley & Sons 1997). H.E. (Cambridge University Press 2000). 1: Plot of the histogram of returns and normalized returns in the case of General Electric counted in NYSE in years 1999 and 2000 and corresponding Student distributions with ν + = 3. 77-99 (1952). [1] H. An Introduction to Econophysics.P. 8 .from statistical physics to risk management. A new view of cycle. Stanley. Potters. [6] E. J. (Springer-Verlag 2001). Theory of financial risks .2 respectively. Mantegna. ropean COST concerted action P10 for financial support that facilitated this collaboration between the Warsaw University of Technology and Trinity College Dublin. Markowitz. New York (1959). ν− = 3. [4] J. Peters.11. The Statistical Mechanics of Financial Markets. [3] J. Price.N.FIG.07 and ν = 3.E. Bouchaud. Markowitz. (Cambridge University Press 2000). [5] R.Voit. Chaos and Order in the Capital Markets. Journal of Finance 7. and Market Volatility. Portfolio selection. Wiley & Sons. Portfolio selection: Efficient diversification of investments. Correlations and Complexity in Finance.

smartquant. 2: Plot of the histogram of returns and normalized returns in the case of Boeing counted in NYSE in years 1999 and 2000 and corresponding Student distributions with ν + = 2. [11] V.H. arXiv:math. Krzych Automatic trading agent.php. Kellezi. Cochrane.A. Risk and utility in portfolio optimization.php (2001). http://www.smartquant. Holyst. Gallagati. RMT based portfolio theory and portfolio selection. M.PR/0506621 (2006). Proceedings of the Third Nikkei Conference. arXiv:physics/0608293 (2006). 284-288 (2004).05 and ν = 3. Holyst. ν− = 3.2 respectively. Physica A 344.D. F.FIG. Snarska and J. Gili and E. [10] J. Springer (2005). [9] M. Urbanowicz and J.54. Application of noise level estimation for portfolio optimization. Urbanowicz and J. Cluster analysis for portfolio optimization. A global optimization heuristic for portfolio choice with VaR and Expected shortfall http://www. Nakano. Cohen and V.com/references. arXiv:cond- 9 . Inoue and Y. and R. arXiv:physics/0507006 (2005) [12] M. Optimal long term investment model with memory. Natoli. [14] M.N. [13] A. [7] K. Economic Perspectives. New facts in finance.H. Mantegna.com/references.A. [8] K. Lillo. Tola.

Calculation of investment portfolios with risk free borrowing and lending. Management science. Ziemba. The Journal of portfolio management. Asset return distributions and investment horizon. Sharp. [17] W. 3. [16] H. No.E Ferson. [18] W. No. 209-222 (1974). 3: Portfolios runaway of 60 stocks at New York Stock Exchange from May 1999 to December 2000. Large-scale portfolio optimization. Perold. 30. 2. mat/0212187 (2002). A. C.G. 21. Management Science. 967-982 (2001). (8) (solid squares) and portfolio with weights calculated from normalized covariance matrix are presented. 29. 1257-1276 (1983). Ziemba.F. Vol.T.F. Comparison of alternative utility functions in portfolio selection problems. Duchin. Vol. Levy and R. [15] A. 47-62 (Spring 2004). [19] J. Kallberg. No. Levy. W. The efficiency analysis of choices involving risk. The Journal of Finance. 10. No. Equally distributed portfolio (open circles) and portfolio with weights calculated from standard covariance matrix Eq. Hanoch and H. The Review of 10 . Siegel.FIG.T. Brooks-Hill. Parkan and R. 11. Vol. 56. Capital asset prices: a theory of market equilibrium under conditions of risk. Journal of Finance 1. Management Science Vol. [21] G. 11431160 (1984). [20] W. The efficient use of conditional information in portfolios. 425-442 (1964).F.

[22] P. 36. K. Guhr and H. [24] V. T. Richmond. Martin. P. 615-626 (2007). 21.N. Journal of Banking and Finance Vol. B.E. S. Chunhachinda. 30. Dandapani. T. Vol. 066125 (2002). P. No. (8) (solid squares) and portfolio with weights calculated from normalized covariance matrix are presented. 797-809 (1975). Portfolio efficiency in three moments: The Multiperiod Case. Amaral. Hutzler. Richmond and S. Hamid and A. V. C. Arditti and H. RosenowA. The Journal of Finance. Prakash. P. Coelho. 455-466 (2007).G.L.J. S. Gopikrishnan.A. Levy. Covariability. 3. Stanley Random Matrix approach to cross correlations in financial data . B. 4: Portfolios runaway of 33 stocks at Warsaw Stock Exchange from May 2001 to February 2006. [25] R. [23] F. multivariability and flexibility: con- 11 . Sector analysis for a FTSE portfolio of stocks Physica A 373.L.C. Lim. Portfolio selection and skewness: Evidence from international stock markets. Phys Rev E 65. economic studies Vol. Repetowicz and P. McCurdy. D. Plerou. Coelho. 335-346 (1969).H. No. Gilmore.Lucey. Equally distributed portfolio (open circles) and portfolio with weights calculated from standard covariance matrix Eq. 143-167 (1997). The evolution of interdependence in world equity markets-Evidence from minimum spanning trees. Hutzler. 3. [26] R.FIG. Physica A 376. [27] G.

Merton. Eur J Phys B 4. ”Power Law Distributions and Dynamic Behaviour of Stock Markets”. International J Mod Phys C 12 (3). Oxford University Press. C.smartquant. The Journal of economic perspective. ”Multiplicative noise: A mechanism leading to 12 . [29] H. No. Vol.December 2000).com/references.1. Sornette. Miller and Sharp.C. Vol. 42. Tsallis and A. Richmond. Self-consistent asset pricing models. Anteneodo. 4.php (1998) [28] Y. Zinn-Justin ”Quantum field theory and critical phenomena”. A portfolio of Nobel laureates: Markowitz. 5: Distribution of eigenvalues of covariance matrices of 78 stocks in NYSE (January 1999 . Eigenvalues of standard covariance matrix (solid squares) and of covariance matrix from renormalised data (open circles) are presented in the graph. chap. [33] J. 1-11 (2001). ditional CAPM and time-varying risk premia http://www. 7. A Simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information. 483-510 (1987). 159-169 (1993). 3. Malevergne and D. ”Power Laws are Disguised Boltzmann Laws”. Solomon and P. [34] C. Varian. Ozord (2002). Martinez. arXiv:physics/0608284 (2006). [31] P. [30] R. Richmond. 523 (2001).S. No. [32] S.FIG. The Journal of Finance.

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