Summary of Chemistry Textbook: Section 2.

4 – Covalent Bonding in Network Lattices
- Elements exist in different structural forms e.g. Carbon
- Carbon can be found in the form of diamond, graphite and fullerene molecule (C
60
)
- Allotropes  different structural forms of an element
- Appearance and physical properties of these three forms of carbon are vastly different
- Diamond exists as a covalent network lattice and graphite as a covalent layer lattice,
whereas fullerene exists as discrete, soccer-ball-shaped molecules
Allotropes of Carbon
Allotrope Bonding Structure Properties Uses
Diamond (Silicon
is the same)
Covalent bonding
throughout giant
covalent network
lattice
Giant covalent
network lattice
each carbon
surrounded by
four other
carbon atoms in
a tetrahedral
arrangement
Very hard,
sublimes (At very
high
temperatures
bonds between
the carbon atoms
are overcome
and they have so
much energy that
the atoms move
straight to a
gaseous state),
non-conductive
(no delocalised
electrons as all 4
valence electrons
are bonded),
brittle
Jewellery, cutting
tools, drills
Graphite Covalent bonding
in layers and
delocalised
electrons that
allow
electrostatic
attraction
between layers
Giant covalent
layer lattice, each
carbon bonded
to three other
carbons; one
delocalised
electron per
carbon atom
Conductive,
lubricant, soft,
greasy
Lubricant,
pencils,
electrodes,
reinforcing fibres
Fullerenes Covalent bonding
throughout
covalent
macromolecule
Large, almost
spherical shape,
hexagonal and
pentagonal
covalently
bonded carbon
rings
Not yet fully
understood,
discovered very
recently
Catalyst, medical
uses,
electromagnetic
devices, other
possible uses





Silicon and silicon dioxide
- Silicon  member of group 4
- Forms four covalent bonds with other silicon atoms creating a network structure
- Crystals are blue-grey
- Ability to behave as a semiconductor when it has had boron gallium, phosphorus or arsenic
added to it
- Silicon is larger atom than carbon and therefore Si-Si bond length is considerably longer than
the C-C in diamond
- Shorter the bond = higher its bond enthalpy thus longer bond length means that the Si-Si
bond will have a lower bond enthalpy than the C-C bond making silicon more reactive than
diamond
- Silicon dioxide is amajor constitute of sand and is used to make glass
- Has a network lattice structure made up of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms
- Occurs commonly in nature as sandstone
EXERCISES: SECTION 2.4
1. A) Describe the structure in diamond.
Giant covalent network lattice in which each carbon atom is surrounded by four other
carbon atoms bonded in a tetrahedral lattice structure
B) Describe the properties of diamond to which this structure gives rise.
Very hard  bonding forces are very strong in all three dimensions
Sublimes  At extremely high temperatures bonds between the carbon atoms are
overcome causing atoms to have so much energy that the atoms move straight into the
gaseous state
Non-conductive  Carbon has no extra valence electrons
2. Describe the structure of fullerene and state its properties.
Large, almost spherical shape, hexagonal and pentagonal covalently bonded carbon rings.
Potential applications involving superconductivity and the production of micro-scale
semiconductors
3. A) State the type of structure displayed in silicon.
Able to form four covalent bonds with other silicon atoms to create a network lattice
structure.
B) The Si-Si bond length is 235.2 pm; that of C-C in diamond is 142.6 pm. Explain how this
difference in bond length affects its reactivity.
The general trend is that the shorter the bond the higher the enthalpy therefore the longer
bond length between Si-Si bond in comparison to a C-C bond means that less energy is
required to break a Si-Si bond than a C-C bond, making silicon more reactive.
4. A) Silicon dioxide occurs commonly in nature and in a number of different forms. State the
different names for all these forms.
Sandstone, sand, quartzite and quartz
B) State the name given to the structure of silicon dioxide.
Tetrahedral lattice structure similar to that of diamond