IndexTopic € € € € € € € € € € € € Certificate of authenticity Acknowledgement Objective of pr

oduction Factors influencing rate of Evaporation Application Theory Experiment n
o.1 Experiment no.2 Experiment no.3 Experiment no.4 Bibliography Page no. 1 2 3
3 4 5 5 7 8 9 10 11
Chemistry project 
Certificate of Authenticity
This is to certify that ªParvez Hassan Ansariºa
Different Liquidsº under the guidance of Mr.R.N.Chauhan.
research project on the topic ªRate of Evaporation of
student of class 11th `A' has successfully completed the
This project is absolutely genuine and does not
indulge in plagiarism of any kind. The references the end of this project.
taken in making this project have been declared at
Signature (subject teacher)
Signature (examiner)
Chemistry project 
I feel proud to present my investigatory project in chemistry on the ªRate of Evap
oration of Different Liquidsº. This project would not have been feasible without t
he proper rigorous guidance of chemistry teacher Mr.R.N.Chauhan who guided me th
roughout this project in every possible way. An investigatory project involves v
arious difficult lab experiments, which have to obtain the observations and conc
lude the reports on a meaningful note. These experiments are very critical and i
n the case of failure may result in disastrous consequences. Thereby, I would li
ke to thanks both Mr.R.N.Chauhan and lab assistant Mr.Damoder for guiding me on
a systematic basis and ensuring that in completed all my experiments with ease.
Rigorous hard work has put in this project to ensure that it proves to be the be
st. I hope that it proves to be the best. I hope that this project will prove to
be a breeding ground for the next generation of students and will guide them in
every possible way.
Chemistry project 
Rate of Evaporation of Different Liquids
Objective of the Project
In this project, we shall investigate various factors such as nature of liquid,
surface of liquid and temperature and find their correlation with the rate of ev
aporation of different liquids.
When liquid is placed in an open vessel. It slowly escapes into gaseous phase ev
entually leaving the vessel empty. This phenomenon is known as vaporization or e
vaporation. Evaporation of liquids can be explained in the terms of kinetic mole
cular model although there are strong molecular attractive forces which hold mol
ecules together. The molecules having sufficient kinetic energy can escape into
gaseous phase. If such molecules happen to come near the surface in a sample of
liquid all the molecules do not have same kinetic energy. There is a small fract
ion of molecules which have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractive for
ces and escapes into gaseous phase. Evaporation causes cooling. This is due to t
he reason that the molecules which undergo evaporation have high kinetic energy
therefore the kinetic energy of the molecules which are left behind is less. Sin
ce the remaining molecules which are left have lower average kinetic energy. The
refore temperature is kept constant the remaining liquid will have same distribu
tion of the molecular kinetic energy and high molecular energy will kept one esc
aping from liquid into gaseous phase of the liquid is taken in an open vessel ev
aporation will continue until whole of the liquid evaporates.   Evaporation is an es
sential part of the water cycle. Solar energy drives evaporation of water from o
ceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water. In hydrology, ev
aporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) ar
e collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation is caused when water is ex
posed to air and the liquid molecules turn into water vapor which rises up and f
orms clouds.
Chemistry project 
Factors influencing rate of Evaporation:1. Concentration of the substance evapor
ating in the air. If the air Already has a high concentration of the substance e
vaporating, then the given substance will evaporate more slowly. 2. Concentratio
n of other substances in the air. If the air is already saturated with other sub
stances, it can have a lower capacity forth substance evaporating. 3. Temperatur
e of the substance. If the substance is hotter, then evaporation will be faster.
4. Flow rate of air. This is in part related to the concentration points above.
If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then the concentration
of the substance in the air is less likely to go up with time, thus encouraging
faster evaporation. In addition, molecules in motion have more energy than those
at rest, and so the stronger the flow of air, the greater the evaporating power
of the air molecules. 5. Inter-molecular forces. The stronger the forces keepin
g the molecules together in the liquid or solid state the more energy that must
be input in order to evaporate them. 6. Surface area and temperature. The rate o
f evaporation of liquids varies directly with temperature. With the increase in
the temperature, fraction of molecules having sufficient kinetic energy to escap
e out from the surface also increases. Thus with the increase in temperature rat
e of evaporation also increases. Molecules that escape the surface of the liquid
s constitute the evaporation. Therefore larger surface area contributes accelera
ting evaporation.
Chemistry project 
6. Nature of Liquids. The magnitude of inter-molecular forces of attraction in l
iquid determines the speed of evaporation. Weaker the inter-molecular forces of
attraction larger are the extent of evaporation. In diethyl ether rate of evapor
ation is greater than that of ethyl alcohol. 7. Composition of Environment. The
rate of evaporation of liquids depends upon the flow of air currents above the s
urface of the liquid. Air current flowing over the surface of the liquid took aw
ay the molecules of the substance in vapour state thereby preventing condensatio
8. Density. The higher the density, the slower a liquid evaporates. In the US, t
he National Weather Service measures the actual rate of evaporation from a stand
ardized "pan" open water surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. Othe
rs do likewise around the world. The US data is collected and compiled into an a
nnual evaporation map. The measurements range from under 30 to over the120 inche
s (3,000 mm) per year. 9. Pressure. In an area of less pressure, evaporation hap
pens faster because there is less exertion on the surface keeping the molecules
from launching themselves
Chemistry project 
Applications:When clothes are hung on a laundry line, even though the ambient te
mperature is below the boiling point of water, water evaporates. This is acceler
ated by factors such as low humidity, heat (from the sun), and wind. In a clothe
s dryer hot air is blown through the clothes, allowing water to evaporate very r
Theory:For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they must be located near the sur
face, be moving in the proper direction, and have sufficient kinetic energy to o
vercome liquid-phase intermolecular forces. Only a small proportion of the molec
ules meet these criteria, so the rate of evaporation is limited. Since the kinet
ic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, evaporation proceeds
more quickly at higher temperatures. As the faster-moving molecules escape, the
remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of t
he liquid thus decreases. This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling. Th
is is why evaporating sweat cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proc
eed more quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and
in liquids with higher vapor pressure. For example, laundry on a clothes line w
ill dry (by evaporation) more rapidly on a windy day than on a still day. Three
key parts to evaporation are heat, humidity and air movement. Evaporative equili
Vapor pressure of water vs. temperature. 760 Torr = 1 atm.
7  7  
Chemistry proje ect 
If e evaporati takes place in a closed v ion vessel, th escapin molecu he ng ule
s accum mulate as s av vapor abo the liq ove quid. Man of the molecules return t
the liqu with ny s to uid, ret turning m molecules becoming more fr g requent a
s the den nsity and pressure of the vap increa por ases. When the pr rocess of e
escape an return reaches a equilib nd an brium, the vapor is said to be "satura
e s b ated," and no furth chang in either vapor pressure d her ge and density o
r liquid tempera y d ature will occur. For a syste consis l em sting of va apor
and liquid of a p pure subs stance, this equilib brium sta is directly relat to
the vapor ate ted pre essure of the subst tance, as given by the Clau usius-Clap
peyron re elation:
Wh here P1, P2 are the vapor pr e ressures a temper at ratures T1, T2 resp pecti
vely, ΔHvap is the enthalp of vapo e py orization, and R is the unive ersal gas co
nstant The rate of t. eva aporation in an op system is relat to the vapor pr n p
en m ted e ressure fo ound in a closed sys stem. If a liquid is heated, w when t
he vapor pr e ressure re eaches th ambien he nt pre essure the liquid will boil.
w Th ability for a mol he lecule of a liquid to evapora is larg o ate gely base
d on the a d amount of k kinetic en nergy an individua particle may pos al e sse
ss. Ev at low tempe ven wer eratures, ind dividual m molecules of a liqu can ev
s uid vaporate i they ha more than the if ave minimum a amount of kinetic e f en
ergy required fo vaporiz or zation. Bu vaporiz ut zation is not only t proces of
a change of st n the ss tate from liquid to gas but m o it i also a c is change
of state fro a solid to gas. T f om d This proce is also known a ess o as sub b
limation but can also be k n known as vaporization.
Chemistry project 
Experiment no. 1
Aim: To compare the rates of evaporation of acetone, benzene and chloroform. Req
uirement: Three same size Petri dishes of diameter 10 cm, 10 ml. pipettes, stop
watch, acetone benzene and chloroform. Procedure: 1. Clean and dry all Petri dis
hes and identify them as A, B and C. 2. Pipette out of 10 ml. acetone in Petri d
ish "A" with stopper similarly pipette out of 10 ml. of benzene and chloroform i
n each of Petri "B" and "C". 3. Remove the cover plates from all Petri dishes an
d start the stop watch. 4. Let the Petri dishes remain exposed for 10 minute. No
w cover each of the Petri dish and note the volume of remaining material in them
. Observation: Petri dishes Marked A B C Results: Liquid Taken (V1) ml. 10 10 10
Time: 10 min. = 600 Sec. Volume remaining (V2) ml. 2 3 4 Vol. Evap. V=V1±V2 8 7 6
Rate (V/T) ml./s 8/600=0.0133 7/600=0.0116 6/600=0.010
Rate of evaporation of Acetone is 0.0133 ml/s. Rate of evaporation of Benzene is
0.0166 ml/s. Rate of evaporation of Chloroform is 0.010 ml/s.
Conclusion: The intermolecular forces of acetone, benzene and chloroform are in
order. Chloroform > Benzene > Acetone.
Chemistry project 
Experiment no. 2
Aim: To study the effect of surface area on the rate of evaporation of diethyl e
ther. Requirement: Three Petri dishes of diameter 2.5 cm, 5 cm, 7.5 cm. with cov
er 10 ml. of pipette and stop watch. Procedure: 1. Clean and dry all Petri dishe
s and mark them as A, B and C. 2. Pipette out of 10 ml. diethyl ether in each of
the Petri dishes A, B and C and cover them immediately. 3. Uncover all three Pe
tri dishes and start the stop watch. 4. Note the remaining volume after 10 min.
vaporization of diethyl ether from each Petri dish.
Observation: Time: 10 min. = 600 Sec.
Petri dishes Marked A B C Diameter of P.T.Ds. 2.5 5.0 7.5 Volume Taken (ml.) 10
10 10 Remaining Vol. (ml.) 4 2 0 Evaporated volume 6 8 10
Results: The order of evaporation of acetone in three Petri dishes as 7.5 > 5.0
> 2.5 cm. Conclusion: Larger the surface area more is evaporation.
Chemistry project 
Experiment no. 3
Aim: To study the effect of temperature on the rate of evaporation of acetone. R
equirement: Two Petri dishes of 5 cm. diameter each stop watch, 10 ml. pipette,
thermometer and thermostat. Procedure: 1. Wash and Clean, dry the Petri dishes a
nd mark them as A, B. 2. Pipette out of 10 ml. of acetone to each of Petri dishe
s A and B and cover them. 3. Put one Petri dish at room temperature and to the o
ther heat for same time. 4. Note the reading.
Observation: Time: 10 min. = 600 Sec.
Petri dishes Marked A B
Time (Sec.) 10 20
Temperature (0C) 30 40
Volume Taken (ml.) 10 10
Evaporated volume (ml.) 10 10
Results: The order of evaporation of acetone in two Petri dishes as given Room T
emperature < Heating. Conclusion: Observation clearly shows that the evaporation
increases with temperature.
Chemistry project 
Experiment no. 4
Aim: To study the effect of air current on the rate of evaporation of acetone. R
equirement: Two Petri dishes acetone. Procedure: 1. Clean and dry the Petri dish
es and mark them as A and B. 2. Keep one dish where no air current and other und
er a fast air current. 3. Note the reading.
Observation: · Initial Volume 10 ml. of Acetone.
Petri dishes Marked A B
Conditions With fan without fan
Time (Sec.) 40 50
volume Evaporated (ml.) 10 10
Results: The order of evaporation of acetone in two Petri dishes as given With f
an > Without Fan. Conclusion: The rate of evaporation of liquid increases with t
he increase in rate of flow of air current.
Chemistry project 
Bibliography€ € € € www.chemi € Comprehensive practical book of 11th