w w w . b o r o u g e .

c o m
Polypropylene blown film
Advanced Packaging
www.borouge.com
About Us
Borouge is a leading provider of innovative, value creating plastics solutions.
A joint venture between the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC),
one of the world’s major oil and gas companies, and Austria based Borealis,
a leading provider of chemical and innovative plastics solutions, Borouge
is a groundbreaking international partnership at the forefront of the next
generation of plastics innovation.
Borouge has its headquarters in the United Arab Emirates and Singapore,
employs approximately 1,600 people representing more than 40
nationalities and serves customers in more than 50 countries across the
Middle East, Asia-Pacific, Indian sub-continent and Africa.
Building on Borealis’ unique Borstar
®
technology and experience in
polyolefins for more than 50 years, Borouge provides innovative, value
creating plastics solutions for the infrastructure (pipe systems, and power
and communication cables), automotive and advanced packaging markets.
In 2010, Borouge tripled its annual production capacity in Abu Dhabi to 2 million
tonnes and an additional 2.5 million tonnes per year is scheduled for completion
by the end of 2013 to create the world’s largest integrated polyolefins plant.
Borouge is also investing in plants and logistics hubs in Asia and an Innovation
Centre in Abu Dhabi. Today Borouge and Borealis manufacture over 5.4 million
tonnes of polyethylene and polypropylene annually. Focused on Value Creation
through Innovation they ensure that their customers throughout the value chain,
around the world, can always rely on superior products and security of supply.
Borouge is committed to the principles
of Responsible Care
®
and together with
Borealis proactively contributes towards
addressing the world’s water and
sanitation challenges through their Water
for the World™ initiative.
Visit www.borouge.com and see how
we are Shaping the Future with Plastics.
01
Contents
02 Your success is our motivation
03 Introduction
04 Types of polypropylene
05 Characteristic data
07 Processability of PP on conventional
PE blown film equipment with air cooling
09 Benefits of PP blown films compared to PE
11 Benefits of combining PP and PE in blown film
applications
12 Applications
14 Structures of Borouge PP films
15 Structures of Borouge PP/PE films
16 General troubleshooting guide for Borouge PP
02
Your success is our motivation
Borouge aims to provide added value beyond customer expectations.
Through interaction with our customers, and other key players in the value
chain, Borouge understands the needs and future trends in the film industry.
Our products in the film area are carefully designed to meet our customers’
demanding requirements, and we constantly focus on improving our products’
performance in order to fulfill the needs of the whole supply chain.
This brochure profiles how we view the film market, its challenges and what
we can do to help our customers’ businesses become even more success ful.
If you have questions or require further information, please contact our sales
representative in your area. See www.borouge.com for contact details.
Polypropylene blown film
03
Introduction
Polypropylene (PP) is a semi crystalline material. Until now, PP films were
almost exclusively manufactured by cast film technology: the polymer melt
was poured onto a chill roll and was cooled instantaneously, which caused the
melt to harden quickly.
When PP was used in the traditional blown film process with air cooling there
were three main problem areas:
1. Poor bubble stability due to low melt strength
2. Film has poor machine direction (MD) tear due to linear molecular structure
of PP
3. Poor optical properties, mainly caused by the slow cooling
of the blown film process
New polypropylene developments regarding polymer structure
(new co-polymers) and special nucleation systems now make it possible to
use PP much more economically in blown film technology with air cooling.
This opens new property windows for blown film, e.g. soft to stiff, transparent
to matt, tough to brittle, heat resistant to easily sealable... which until now
could only be achieved in cast film extrusion.
Latest developments in coex technology support the use of full potential in
polymer development.
• The PP blown film process with a water contact cooling ring for
highly transparent packaging films (e.g. textile packaging)
• As a sealing or temperature resistant layer in multi-layer
composites, mainly with barrier materials/primers (EVOH, nylon,
EVA, etc) or with polyethylene as supporting layer
Figure 1: Blown film process
Winder
Flattening
Calibrating
basket
Frost line
Tube
forming area
Extruder Process controls
Figure 2: Molecular structure of PE (LDPE) vs PP
PE (branched polymer chain) PP (linear polymer chain)
CH
3
H
C – C
H H






n
H H H H
C – C – C – C
H H H H












n
04
Types of polypropylene
PP homopolymers (homo, nucleated
1)
or non-nucleated) are characterised
by their high stiffness, excellent heat deflection temperatures, excellent H
2
O
barrier properties and good transparency, as well as high tensile strength for
film applications.
Random copolymers (nucleated and non-nucleated raco) are polypropylenes
with statistically incorporated C
2
comonomers. These grades are soft and
have excellent heat sealing properties at low gate sealing points, extremely
low stress whitening and the best optical properties (gloss and haze) of all
PP qualities. By using special nucleation systems, films with superior optical
properties can be produced in the blown film process.
Heterophasical copolymers (heco) have an ethylene propylene rubber as a
separate phase incorporated during polymerisation, which means that films
are characterised by a matt surface and low transparency. The high toughness
and good stiffness, as well as the extremely wide temperature range (from
freezing to sterilising) are the dominant properties of this material.
The newly developed Borsoft™ grades (rahecos) are random heterophasical
copolymers, which are a combination of both preceeding polymers, and
consequently also combine their properties. Films with high softness and
toughness can be produced from Borsoft. These polymers have much better
optical, heat sealing and stress whitening properties than hecos.
1)
Due to nucleation, the spherulite construction of the film becomes finer,
which increases the stiffness and improves the optical properties
PP non-nucleated
PP nucleated
PP homopolymers A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A- A
PP random copolymers A- A- B- A- A- A- B- A- A- B- A- A- A- A- B- A- A- A
PP heterophasical copolymers A- A- B- B- B- B- A- A- A- B- B- B- A- A- A- A- A- A
PP random heterophasical copolymers A- A- B- B- B- A- A- B- A- A- B- B- B- A- A- B- A- A
A = propylene monomer
B = ethylene comonomer
Figure 3: Types of PP
Polypropylene blown film
05
Characteristic data
Typical polymer parameters Block copolymers
Properties Test
standard
Unit BHC 5012 Borsoft™
SA233CF
BA110CF
Melt Flow Rate - MFR 230/2.16 ISO 1133 g/10 min 0.3 0.8 0.85
Melt range ISO 3146 °C 162-166 138 - 142 162 - 166
Density at 23°C ISO 1183 kg/m
3
905 905 905
Nucleation no no no
Film properties
Gloss (20°) ASTM % 3 3 3
Haze ASTMD1003 % 55 50 55
Tensile strength at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 75/45 55/45 70/45
Elongation at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 % 650/850 600/800 600/800
E-modulus MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 1,250/1,150 400/400 1,200/1,100
Dynatest - damaging force ISO 7765-2 N/mm 1,000 1,250 1,000
Dynatest - penetration energy J/mm 10 15 8
Typical polymer parameters Block copolymers
Properties Test
standard
Unit
Borpact™ BC918CF
Melt Flow Rate - MFR 230/2.16 ISO 1133 g/10 min 3.0
Melt range ISO 3146 °C 164-168
Density at 23°C ISO 1183 kg/m
3
905
Nucleation yes
Film properties
Gloss (20°) ASTM % 35
Haze ASTMD1003 % 14
Tensile strength at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 55/32
Elongation at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 % 640/480
E-modulus MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 1,550/1,350
Dynatest - damaging force ISO 7765-2 N/mm 1,000
Dynatest - penetration energy J/mm 7
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
The specific film properties were evaluated on blown films with a thickness of 40 µm, which were manufactured
under standard internal conditions (BUR 3:1). In comparison to films, which were manufactured under
other conditions, the film properties depend very much on the manufacturing conditions.
Polypropylene blown film 06 Polypropylene blown film
Typical polymer parameters Random copolymers
Properties Test
standard
Unit Borclear™
RB707CF
Melt Flow Rate - MFR 230/2.16 ISO 1133 g/10 min 1.5
Melt range ISO 3146 °C 143 - 147
Density at 23°C ISO 1183 kg/m
3
905
Nucleation yes
Film properties
Gloss (20°) ASTM % 65
Haze ASTMD1003 % 7
Tensile strength at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 40/45
Elongation at break MD/TD ISO 527-3 % 750/850
E-modulus MD/TD ISO 527-3 MPa 900/950
Dynatest - damaging force ISO 7765-2 N/mm 870
Dynatest - penetration energy J/mm 5
Table 5
Table 6 The specific film properties were evaluated on blown films with a thickness of 40 µm, which were manufactured
under standard internal conditions (BUR 3:1). In comparison to films, which were manufactured under
other conditions, the film properties depend very much on the manufacturing conditions.
07
Processability of PP on conventional
PE blown film equipment with air cooling
Processing
Borouge PP may be processed on all conventional equipment for
manufacturing films with suitable tooling.
Screw configuration
Borouge PP film grades should be processed using screws with a shear and
a mixing part and a length of 25 - 33 D. Screw lengths < 25 D are in principle
also suitable, but not recommended.
Processing temperature guidelines
It must be remembered that Borouge PP have higher melting temperatures
than Polyethylene (PE), hence it is important to ensure that the feed zone
is hotter to promote sufficient polymer melting. However, this temperature
cannot be too high, otherwise, surging can occur and the bubble may dance.
Melt temperature
In general, the melt temperature depends on the MFR of the processed
material. The lower the MFR, the higher the temperature required in the
extruder (figure 5). It has to be considered that this temperature can vary
depending on the screw design and the layout of the extruder.
Die gap/Blowup ratio
For PP we recommend die gaps in the range 1.2 and 2.0 mm. Narrow die gaps
support higher tear resistance in MD. According to experience, the blowup
ratio should be between 2:1 and 3:1.
Cooling
To achieve the best film properties (best optical properties and toughness)
it is required to cool the film as quickly as possible.
Other processing recommendations
Too high melt temperatures could cause thermal damage and impair
material properties. It should be ensured that there is adequate ventilation
during processing. The addition of processing aids or master batches can
influence the properties of the final film. Films made from Borouge PP may
be processed with customary welding equipment if international and national
regulations are followed. Again, adequate ventilation of the workplace is
essential as for all PO conversions in general.
Figure 4: General blown film extrusion guide
for Borouge PP
Figure 5: Processing temperatures of PP
grades as a function of MFR
Notched feeding section, Barrier screws, L/D > 28
Chilled internal +
external cooling air
(recommended 10 - 15°C)
BUR 2:1 to 3:1
Die gap 1 - 2 mm
190
200
210
220
230
240
0.3 – 0.5 0.8 – 1.8 2.0 – 3.0
MFR 230/2,16 [g/10´]
Melt Temp. [°C]
Extrusion temperature:
Typical temperature profile for RB707CF
/ BC918CF :
Barrel Adapter Die Head
190-220°C 215-220°C 225°C
Polypropylene blown film 08
09
Benefits of Borouge PP blown films
compared to PE
Compared to PE, PP provides the following advantages:
High stiffness of Borpact™ BC91BCF or Borclear™ RB707CF
grades, in pure blends or as co-extrusion layer
Benefits
Excellent water vapour barrier of Borpact™ BC918CF
Benefits
• Improved heat resistance
• Widens sealing window
• Downgauging potential
• Very good conversion on packaging equipment
• Good planarity/layflat (punching quality)
• Downgauging potential
• Substitution of other materials such as PE blends, PVC, PET, nylon
• New applications possible (e.g. cereal packaging etc.)
Figure 6: Stiffness of various PP and PE blown
film products
Data based on 40 µm films
Extruder parameters: Ø 90/25 D, BUR = 3:1,
output: 85 - 125 kg/h
Figure 7: Water vapour permeability of various
PP and PE blown film products
Data based on 40 µm films.
Extruder parameters: Ø 90/25 D, BUR = 3:1,
output: 85 - 125 kg/h
Borsoft™
SA233CF
HDPE bimod
(0.945)
Borpact™
BC918CF
Borclear™
RB707CF
LDPE
(0.924)
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

m
o
d
u
l
u
d
[
M
P
a
]

I
S
O

5
2
7
-
3
Borpact™
BC918CF
Borclear™
RB707CF
Borsoft™
SA233CF
HDPE bimod
(0.945)
LDPE
(0.924)
10
Borclear™ RB707CF/
Borpact™ BC918CF/
Borclear™ RB707CF
Borclear™ RB707CF LDPE/LLDPE
(Density 0.924)
Higher heat deflection temperature of polypropylene
Benefits
Good optical properties of film
specially nucleated racos Ú mainly adjustable by coextrusion.
Benefits
• Sterilisable (depending on individual PP grade and conditions)
up to 145°C
• Semi and fully retortable for 35 minutes at 135°C
• Advance into hot fill applications possible
• High temperature gradient possible for coextrusion solutions
• Good surface gloss
• High transparency
Figure 8: Heat deflection temperature
Evaluated on 4 mm injection moulded
specimens (standard B)
Figure 9: Data based on 40 µm coex films.
A ( Ø 65/25 D)/B ( Ø 90/25 D)/C ( Ø 65/25 D),
BUR = 3:1, output: 300 kg/h
Polypropylene blown film
Borpact™
BC918CF
Borclear™
RB707CF
Borsoft™
SA233CF
HDPE bimod
(0.945)
LDPE
(0.924)
11
Benefits of combining PP and PE
in blown film applications
Due to its different chemical and polymer construction, PP offers different
film properties.
Benefits of PP and PE combinations
The combined use of PP and PE in blown film makes it possible to combine
typical advantages of PP like:
with typical advantages of PE like:
Possibilities of combining PP with PE
• high stiffness
• high heat resistance
• high H
2
O-barrier
• broader sealing window
Borsoft™
• high tear resistance in MD
• good sealability
• broad sealing window
• high gloss, good optical properties, easy printing
• Blending / compounding
Can be used on monolayer extrusion lines as well as on multilayer
extrusion lines.
• Coextrusion
Combining pure PP with pure PE layers in a multilayer film typically
requires a modifier, e.g. plastomers to prevent interlayer delamination.
This will be a lower cost alternative versus extruding a tie layer
comprising of a polar material, e.g. EVA or compounded PP/PE.
Figure 10: Property window
of PP and PE blown film
Polypropylene blown film 12
Stiff packaging film
e.g. for textiles, cigarettes, food, lamination
• High stiffness
• Excellent appearance (gloss, haze)
• Substitute for laminates g cost savings
• Good heat sealing properties
Stand up pouch
• Balanced film properties for both stiffness and toughness
• Good optical properties (display window) – high gloss, low haze
• Downgauging g cost savings
• Substitute for glass/aluminium containers g cost savings
• High seal strength
• Broad sealing window
• Increased heat resistance
• Low taste and odour
Label film
• Good planarity/layflat
• High gloss/matt surface possible
• Good punching quality, die cutting
• Good printability
• Monomaterial solution with PP bottles/containers possible
Food packaging film / Form-Fill-Seal (FFS)
e.g. snack, food, frozen food, hygiene films, dry food
• Good barrier properties
(H
2
O and O
2
in combination with barrier materials)
• Good optical properties (especially gloss)
• Good planarity/conversion
• Broad sealing window
• Downgauging g cost savings
• Increased heat resistance
• Allow hot fill
• Low taste and odour
Applications
13
Lidding Film
• Good optics
• Low taste and odour
• Stiffness
• Retortable at 135°C
• Good mechanical properties
• Downgauging
Heavy Duty Shipping Sacks
• Increased stiffness
• Improved creep resistance
• Good mechanical properties
• Downgauging g cost savings
Retortable Films
• Space savings vs. cans
• Lighter weight
• Retortable at 135°C
Industrial Films
e.g. protective films, shrink film
• Release layer
• High clarity Film
• Anti-tacky layer
• Increased heat resistance
Applications
Hygiene films
e.g. diaper films
• Soft touch/embossing
• Softness
• High tenacity
• Good mechanical properties/downgauging
14
Structures of Borouge PP films
Typical structures, where the benefits of PP are useful:
As a heat resistant outer layer
As a high stiffness, high transparency film with good heat sealing properties
As a highly tenacious, sterilisable transparent film
As a tough, stiff film with good heat sealing behaviour
Borclear™ RB707CF or
Borsoft™ SA233CF as
substrate
Borpact™
BC918CF for
stiffness
Borclear™ RB707CF or
Borsoft™ SA233CF for
high tenacity
Borclear™ RB707CF or
Borpact™ BC918CF
for a balanced ratio
between stiffness
and tenacity
Borpact™ BC918CF
Borclear™ RB707CF
for good optical and heat
sealing properties
Borclear™ RB707CF
for good optical,
sterilising and heat
sealing properties
Borclear™ RB707CF
Borpact™ BC918CF for
stiffness and high heat
deflection temperature
with the aim of achieving
temperature gradients of
up to 40°C
Polypropylene blown film
15
Structures of Borouge PP/PE films
Typical structures, where the benefits of PP and PE are useful:
Combining water vapour barrier with good transparency
and excellent heat seal properties
Combining heat resistance with high tenacity
Combining anti-lamination effect and good shrinking properties
Combining high stiffness and excellent gloss
Gas barrier layer
(e.g. PA, EVOH,…)
Blend Borclear™ RB707CF
or Borsoft™ SA233CF
with Borstar
®
Enhanced PE
for extremely high tenacity
EVA as tie layer
Borpact™ BC918CF or
Borclear™ RB707CF and
metallocene LLDPE or a
combination for highest
stiffness
Borpact™ BC918CF or
Borclear™ RB707CF
Borpact™ BC918CF
for high heat resistance
Metallocene LLDPE
for extremely high gloss
and low haze
Tie layer
(e.g. g-MAH)
PE sealant layer
with low SIT
(e.g. PE based EBA copo)
Borstar
®
Enhanced PE and
LDPE because of balanced
shrinkage
Borclear™ RB707CF as
anti-lamination layer with
good shrinkage at low
temperatures
Tie layer
16 Polypropylene blown film
General troubleshooting guide for
Borouge PP
Problem Reason Solution
Melt fracture Too low melt temperature Change to a more narrow die gap 1.2 - 1.5
Poor Microstructure Too wide die gap or Add PPA (~1%) Polybatch P AMF 905 or similar
Oxidation in the die head Remove and clean the die insert
Stripes in the film Check the height of the calibration basket
Increase the temperature on the die head
Creases/Wrinkles in Too low temp at nip rolls Increase the output or lower distance between
MD / TD and A- frames the die head and nip rolls.
Higher the melt temperature
Delaminating Common problem when Add > 30% mLLDPE in all layers for improved
contributing PE / PP adhesion
Poor bubble stability Too much air cooling or Reduce the air or adjust air flow / design
too high melt temp
Too wide die gap Lower melt temperature
Change to a more narrow die gap 1.2 - 1.5
Blocking Too high temp Decrease melt temperature
Modify additive package (slip + AB)
Poor optical Too high FLH and air temp Lower the FLH
Old product left in the extruder Purging of the extruder can take approx. 30 min
Use refrigerator air
Disclaimer The information contained herein
is to our knowledge accurate and reliable as
of the date of publication. Borouge extends
no warranties and makes no representations
as to the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein, and assumes
no responsibility regarding the consequences
of its use or for any printing errors. It is the
customer’s responsibility to inspect and
test our products in order to satisfy himself
as to the suitability of the products for the
customer’s particular purpose. The customer
is also responsible for the appropriate, safe
and legal use, processing and handling
of our products. Nothing herein shall
constitute any warranty (express or implied,
of merchantability, fitness for a particular
purpose, compliance with performance
indicators, conformity to samples or models,
non-infringement or otherwise), nor is
protection from any law or patent to be
inferred. Insofar as products supplied by
Borouge are used in conjunction with third-
party materials, it is the responsibility of the
customer to obtain all necessary information
relating to the third-party materials and ensure
that Borouge products, when used together
with these materials, are suitable for the
customer’s particular purpose. No liability can
be accepted in respect of the use of Borouge
products in conjunction with other materials.
The information contained herein relates
exclusively to our products when not used in
conjunction with any third-party materials.
Borstar is a registered trademark of Borealis
group.
Shaping the Future with Plastics, Borclear,
Bormod, Borsoft and Borpact are trademarks
of Borealis group.
Borouge Film specialises in supplying innovative plastics polyolefin’s for the manufacture
of film, fibre, coating and thermoforming solutions through introduction of technologies
and solutions such as Borstar
®
, Borclear™ and Bormod™. Together with Borealis, Borouge
benefits from over 50 years of experience in the film markets across Europe, Middle East
and Asia. Borouge believes that customer-driven innovation is the only way to achieve and
sustain progress.
In the film industry, Borouge has pioneered the development of innovative solutions.
Borclear polypropylene for blown PP film with higher heat stability, stiffness and
excellent optical properties has opened up new opportunities for blown film producers on
conventional air cooled production lines. For cast polypropylene film applications, Bormod
has set a new standard of stiffness benefiting multiple packaging end uses.
Through foresight and focus on customer needs, Borouge continues to provide innovative
PP and PE solutions for the film industry that add real value throughout the value chain.
We also know the high value that our customers in the film industry place on product
consistency and processability. We pride ourselves on the performance of our products,
and through ongoing investment in upgrades and new plant programmes, we continue
to set new records for output efficiency and product reliability. Borouge believes that
responsiveness is the foundation of fruitful customer partnerships. Borouge ensures this
through highly skilled and experienced technical, marketing and product development
people located in Australia, New Zealand, India, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Abu
Dhabi, as well as a diverse sales and agent network around the World.
w w w . b o r o u g e . c o m
Borouge Pte Ltd 1 George Street | #18-01 | Singapore 049145
Tel +65 6275 4100 | Fax +65 6377 1233 | www.borouge.com
B
o
r
o
u
g
e

©

2
0
1
0

1
0

F
F

B
R

2
0
0

Y

G
B

B
R
G