DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
DESIGN OF PRECAST TOP COVER
Design Data
Top of road = TOR = m
Invert level of culvert = IL = m
Clear span = L = mm
Thickness of wall = T
w
= mm
Thickness of base slab = T
bs
= mm
Effective span of top cover slab = Le = mm
Thickness of top cover slab = T
ts
= mm
Characteristic strength of concrete = f
cu
= N/mm
2
Characteristic strength of steel = f
y
= N/mm
2
Depth of soil inside culvert = D = m
Clear cover = c
min
= mm
Soil Data
Coefficient of active lateral earth pressure K
a
=
Coefficient of earth pressure at rest K
o
=
Coefficient of passive lateral earth pressure K
p
=
Density of concrete = kN/m
3
Density of soil ¸
s
= kN/m
3
Safe Bearing Capacity SBC = kN/m
2
6.0
2.450
0.750
2
2
5
6790
30
360
500
24
18
300
500
2.45
0.75
6000
400
500
6400
25
0.42
0.00
0.593
2
2
5
400 400 6000
2.37
500
1
1
4
0
PRECAST COVER SLAB
TYPICAL SECTION OF CULVERT
TOR
TOC
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
Thickness of top cover slab = T
ts
= mm
Dia of main reinforcement bar = 
1
= mm
Area of single bar = a
s
= mm
2
Effective depth of slab = d = 500  25  12  25 / 2 = mm
Effective width of cover slab = Load width + 2.4 x ( 1  x / l ) CL 3.5.2.2, BS 81101
where, x = distance from the nearer support to the section under considerd = m
l = effective span = m
As per 5.3.2.14, Specification for Civil design
Wheel load N = kN
This point load is distributed over the tyre contact area 250 mm x 500 mm
where, length of contact area = a = mm
width of contact area = b = mm
Hence effective width = 0.5 + 2.4 ( 3.2 ) ( 1  3.2 / 6.4 ) = m when wheel load is
at center of the precast panel
Effective width when wheel is at edge of the panel = 0.5 / 2 + 4.34 / 2 = m C.L. 3.5.2.2, BS 81101
a
Width of Precast panel considered for design = W = mm For moment
Length of precast panel = mm
Load Calculation
a ) Dead Load
Self weight of slab = 1.48 ( 0.5 ) 24 = kN/m
Total dead load = 6.4 ( 17.76 ) = kN
b ) Vehicle Load ( Live load )
Wheel load = 224 kN
Total Live load = = kN
Moment when wheel load is at center = 224 ( 6.4 ) / 4 = kN.m
Moment due to Dead Load = 17.76 ( 6.4 ) ^2 / 8 = kN.m
Total Factored moment = kN.m
Shear when Wheel is at " d " from face of wall = [( 113.67 / 2 ) + ( 224 ) ]
= kN
Factored Shear = kN
2.17
17.76
113.67
4.34
6.400
250.00
490.87
358.40
224.00
280.84
1480
450.50
6790
3.200
90.94
421.26
763.9
500
500.00
25
224
b
Vehicle movement
Wheel
PART PLAN OF PRECAST COVER
b
Vehicle movement
Wheel
PART PLAN OF PRECAST COVER
Precast cover slab
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL
Width of Precast panel considerd for design = mm
K = M / b d
2
f
cu
= ( 763.878 x 1000000 ) / ( 1480 x 450.5^2 x 30 ) = < 0.156
z = d { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  K / 0.9 ) } < 0.95 d
= 450.5 { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  0.0848 / 0.9 ) } = mm
0.95 d = 0.95 ( 450.5 ) = mm
Hence z = mm
A
s
= M / 0.95 f
y
* z
= ( 763.878 * 1000000 ) / ( 0.95 * 360 * 403.06 )
= mm
2
Minimum reinforcement : As per Table 3.25 of BS 81101 =
= 0.13 ( 1480 ) ( 500 ) / 100 = mm
2
Hence A
s
= mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
ss
) (W ) / A
s
= ( 490.87 ) ( 1480 ) / ( 5542 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 12 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 12 ( 490.87 ) = mm2
Distribution Rebar As per table 3.25 of BS 8110
Minimum reinforcement for flexure tension = 0.13 % of effective area = mm
2
Hence, Area of Distribution Reinforcement = mm
2
Use for Distribution reinforcement a
s
of Distribution bar = mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 113.1 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 650 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 113.1 ) = mm
2
CHECK FOR SHEAR (Ref. Table3.8, BS 81101)
Factored shear = kN
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 5890.44 ) / ( 1480 * 450.5 ) = 1.77 % < 3 ¸
m
=
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ ¸
m
v
c
= N/mm
2
for f
cu
= 25 N /mm
2
for f
cu
= 30 N /mm
2
v
c
= N/mm
2
Width of precast panel = mm
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.94 ) ( 1480 ) ( 450.5 ) / 1000 = kN OK
Utility ratio in Shear = 421.26 / 626.74 =
1.25
0.673
5542
962
0.13%
131
125
0.940
0.885
150
1480
5542
T 25
5890.44
650
1480
0.0848
650
113.1
626.74
174
791.70
403.06
427.98
403.06
421.3
T 12
T 12
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
DESIGN OF WALL
Thickness of wall T
w
= mm Dia of main reinforcement bar = mm
Effective depth of wall = 400  40  20 / 2 = mm Area of single bar = mm
2
Height of wall above base slab = m
Load calculation
a) Vehicle Load ( Live load )
As per Specification for Civil design, the loading has been considered
Wheel load N = kN Ref. Section 5.3.2.14
This point load is distributed over the tyre contact area (250mm x 250mm)
where, length of contact area = a = mm
width of contact area = b = mm
Depth at which effect of surcharge is calculated = h = m
a = m b = m
distance of point load from face of wall d = m Wheel touching the wall face
d = a / 2
0.5
=
B = ( 1.2 ) + 0.125 + 0.25 / 2 = L = 6.95 m Lateral
F
s
= 0.42 ( 448 ) / ( 0.125 + ( 0.25 / 2 ) ) = kN/m
This load will act on L
1
= 752.64 ( 0.46 ) = kN
This load will be distributed on length = m
Load per unit length = 346.22 / 6.95 = kN/m Lateral
UDL load due to wheel load on base slab = ( 448 ) / ( 6.95 ) = kN/m Vertical
Length of wall considered for design = m
This Lateral load will act at d / 1.2 from top of wall, Ref. Table 20 of Reinforced concrete handbook
hence this load will be acting at h
1
= 0.125 / 1.2 = m from top by Reynolds,
and at m from base slab
a ) Earth load ( calculated on 1.00 m width of wall )
Lateral Earth pressure at bottom of wall = 0.593 ( 18 ) 1.2 ( 1 ) = kN/m
Total Lateral earth pressure = 9.08 ( 1.2 ) / 2 = kN/m
Total lateral load at wall base = 5.45 + 49.82 = kN/m
Moment due to retained earth = 5.45 ( 1.2 ) / 3 = kN.m / m at bottom of wall
Moment due to Vehicle surcharge = 49.82 ( 1.1 ) = kN.m
Moment due to retained earth = [ ( 5.45 ) ( 1.2 ) / 3 ] = kN.m / m
Moment due to Vehicle surcharge = ( 49.82 ) 1.1 ] = kN.m / mat bottom
Total factored moment at bottom of wall = Muw = kN.m / m of wall
Factored shear at wall base = (1.5)*( ( 5.45 ) + ( 49.82 )) = kN.m / m of wall
85.49
752.64
64.47
250.00
0.125
346.22
9.08
82.91
1.20
49.82
0.25
1.45 m
350
6.95
2.18
54.81
2.18
54.81
1.20
400 20
314.2
1.100
0.25
448
1.00
0.105
7.0
250.00
5.45
55.27
N
d
a
d
/
1
.
2
h
TOR
Load concentrated on area ab
( As per " Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook" by Reynolds
2 / a d h B + + = wall
2
a
d
N K
F
a
s
+
=
N
b
TOR
b S h L + + =2
L = Length of wall affected by surcharge
b h L + =
1 1
2
h
1
N
b
h
S = 0.9
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL
Width of wall considered = mm
K = M / b d
2
f
cu
= ( 85.49 x 1000000 ) / ( 1000 x 350^2 x 30 ) = < 0.156
z = d { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  K / 0.9 ) } < 0.95 d
= 350 { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  0.0233 / 0.9 ) } = mm
0.95 d = 0.95 ( 350 ) = mm
Hence z = mm
A
s
= M / 0.95 f
y
* z
= ( 85.49 * 1000000 ) / ( 0.95 * 360 * 332.5 )
= mm
2
Vertical reinforcement : As per Table 3.25 of BS 81101 =
= 0.2 ( 1000 ) ( 400 ) / 100 = mm
2
Hence A
s
= mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 314.16 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 800 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 314.16 ) = mm
2
Therefore, provide T 20 @ 150 mm c/c both ways
CHECK FOR SHEAR ( Ref.Table 3.8, BS 81101 )
= kN for 1 m width Shear force has been calculated at base of wall, conservatively
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 2199.12 ) / ( 1000 * 350 ) = 0.63 %
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ g
m
¸
m
=
v
c
= N/mm
2
for f
cu
= 25 N /mm
2
for f
cu
= 30 N /mm
2
v
c
= N/mm
2
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.6 ) ( 1000 ) ( 350 ) / 1000 = kN OK
150
392
332.50
210.00
1.25
1000
800
340.70
332.50
800
T 20
0.600
82.91
0.56
2199.12
752
0.0233
0.20%
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
DESIGN OF BASE SLAB
CASE 1 WHEN TOP COVER IS IN PLACE AND WHEEL IS ON TOP OF WALL
Width of base slab = m Dia of main reinforcement bar = 25 mm
Length of base slab = m Area of single bar = 491 mm
2
Thickness of base slab = mm
Effective depth of base slab = 500  70  25 / 2 = mm
Wheel load = kN
= mm same as design width of wall
Intensity of wheel pressure = wheel load / ( Span of slab x design width of base slab (ie. 1.00 m ) )
= 448 / ( 6 ) ( 9.9 ) = kN/m
2
Weight of wall at supports = Height of wall x wall thickness x Length of wall x 24 = ( 2 ) ( 0.4 ) ( 9.9 ) 24
= kN single wall load
Weight of wall at 2.5m from end = Height of wall x wall thickness x Length of wall x 24 =
= kN
Walls are on both side hence wall load will be distributed uniformly through base slab
Intensity of wall pressure = Wall load / ( Span of slab x design width of base slab (ie. 1.00 m ) )
= 114.05 ( 2 ) / ( 6 ) 9.9 = kN/m
2
Pressure due to base slab = Thickness of slab x 24 = ( 0.5 ) 24 = kN/m
2
Pressure due to top slab = Thickness top slab x 24 = ( 0.5 ) 24 = kN/m
2
Uniform distributed pressure due to soil inside trench = 18 ( 0 ) = 0.0 kN/m
2
Total uniform distributed pressure due to dead load
= 0 + 3.85 + 12 + 12 = kN/m
2
Total uniform distributed pressure due to Live load ( vehicle ) = = kN/m
2
Total Uniform distributed pressure = kN/m
2
Moment due to wheel load = Wheel load x [ ( L / 2 ) + ( Tw /2 ) ]
= 448 ( 3.2 ) = kN.m
Section modulus = Z = b ( d )
2
/ 6 = 9.9 ( 6.8 ) ^2 / 6 = m
3
Design width of base slab considered = mm
P
max
= 35.4 + ( 1433.6 ) / 76.3 = kN/m
2
OK
P
min
= 35.4  ( 1433.6 ) / 76.3 = kN/m
2
OK NO TENSION
kN ( Vehiclepoint load )
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
1433.6
7.55
7.55
14.40
27.85
12.0
12.0
3.9
76.30
16.62
35.40
1000
16.62
6000
54.2
35.40
417.50
9.90
6.80
54
1000
448.0
500
114.05
448.0
( 1.5 ) ( 0.4 ) ( 1 ) 24
8.0
BASE SLAB
A B
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
CASE 2 WHEN TOP COVER IS REMOVED AND CRANE IS OPERATING NEAR WALL
Total uniform distributed pressure due to dead load = 27.85  12 = kN/m
2
Moment at base due to vehicular surcharge = 49.82 ( 1.1 + 0.5 ) = kN.m
Moment due to Passive Earth Pressure on opposite wall = Vehicular surcharge x ( h + T
bs
) / 3
= 49.82 ( 1.2 + 0.5 ) / 3
= kN.m
P
max
= 15.85 + [ 79.72 + ( 28.24 ) ] / 76.3 = kN/m
2
OK
P
min
= 15.85  [ 79.72 + ( 28.24 ) ] / 76.3 = kN/m
2
OK NO TENSION
kN/m
2
15.2 kN/m
2
kN/m
2
CALCULATION OF BENDING MOMENT
Assuming uniform bearing pressure i.e. average bearing pressure
Moment at End = [ 16.62 ( 6 ) ^2 / 12 ] + [ ( 54.19  16.62 ) ( 6 ) ^2 / 20 ]
= kN.m
Moment at End = kN.m
Moment at wall base due to retained earth = kN.m
Total moment at edge of slab 117.49 + 2.18 = kN.m
Factored Design Bending moment of Wall = kN.m
WHEN TOP COVER IS REMOVED AND CRANE IS OPERATING NEAR WALL
Moment at wall base due to crane surcharge = kN.m
Moment at wall base due to retained earth = kN.m
Base pressure due to dead load 27.85  12 = kN/m
2
Moment at base slab end = 15.85 ( 6 ) ^2 / 12 = kN.m
Moment at base slab end = [ 47.55 ] = kN.m
Total Factored moment at Base slab end = 54.81 + 2.18 + 47.55 = kN.m
Hence, Design moment = kN.m
16.53
85.49
48
156.8
15.85
79.72
16.53
15.18
28.24
6000
15.85
2.18
119.67
47.6
54.81
15.85
117.49
156.8
117.49
2.18
BASE SLAB
A B
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : JI187ASA320ECVCAL005
Revision No. : A
CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL
Width of wall considered = mm
K = M / b d
2
f
cu
= ( 156.81 x 1000000 ) / ( 1000 x 417.5^2 x 30 ) = < 0.156
z = d { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  K' / 0.9 ) } < 0.95 d
= 417.5 { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  0.156 / 0.9 ) } = mm
0.95 d = 0.95 ( 417.5 ) = mm
Hence z = mm
A
s
= M / 0.95 f
y
* z
= ( 156.81 * 1000000 ) / ( 0.95 * 360 * 324.36 )
= mm
2
Minimum reinforcement : As per Table 3.25 of BS 81101 =
= 0.13 ( 1000 ) ( 500 ) / 100 = 650 mm
2
Hence A
s
= mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 490.87 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 1414 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 490.87 ) = mm
2
Distribution Rebar As per table 3.25 of BS 8110
Minimum reinforcement for flexure tension = 0.13 % of effective area = mm
2
Hence, Area of Distribution Reinforcement = mm
2
Use for Distribution reinforcement a
s
of Distribution bar = mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 113.1 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 650 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 113.1 ) = mm
2
CHECK FOR SHEAR ( Ref.Table 3.8, BS 81101 )
Shear Force acting at d from support = [wheel load + wall load + 1/2 (selfweight of top slab)]  [base pressure acting over the area]
= [(448) + (114.05) + ((1/2)* 12 * 6.8 * 9.9)  [(16.62*6.8*(417.5+400)/1000)]
= kN
= kN per metre width
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 3436.09 ) / ( 1000 * 417.5 ) = 0.82 %
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ ¸
m
¸
m
= 1.25
v
c
= N/mm
2
for f
cu
= 25 N/mm2
for f
cu
= 30 N/mm2 v
c
= N/mm
2
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.58 ) ( 1000 ) ( 417.5 ) / 1000 = kN OK
0.586
0.13%
3436.09
174
260.0
650
113.1
150
650
791.70
0.62
347
150
0.0300
396.63
324.36
324
88.2
1414
T 25
T 12
1414
T 12
874
1000
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
DESIGN OF WING WALL
Design data and load calculation
Grade level of acces way = FGL = m
Top of the wall = EL = m
Thickness of base slab = T
bf
= mm
Length of wall straight portion = T
f
= mm
Width of base slab = W
H
= mm
Clear cover to reinforcement = c
min
= mm
Total height of wall above base slab = H = m
Depth of foundation below FGL = D = m
Soil Parameters
Density of soil = ¸
s
= kN/m
3
Angle of internal friction = q = deg
Coefficient of active earth pressure = K
a
=
Coefficient of passive earth pressure = K
p
=
Allowable bearing pressure = S
bc
= kN/m
2
Material Properties
Characteristic strength of concrete = f
cu
= kN/m
2
Characteristic strength of steel = f
y
= kN/m
2
Dia. of main Reinforcement bar = f = mm
Dia. of distribution Reinforcement bar = mm
Effective depth of section = 300  40  12 / 2 = d = mm
Area of single main reinforcement bar = a
s
= mm
2
Area of single distribution reinforcement bar = mm
2
LOAD CALCULATIONS AT BASE ( per m length )
Lateral earth pressure at bottom of wall = 0.42 ( 18 ) 2.7 ( 1 ) = kN
Total Lateral earth pressure = = kN/m
Moment due to retained earth = 27.57 ( 2.7 ) / 3 = kN.m / m
at bottom of wall
Total factored moment at bottom of wall = kN.m / m
Factored shear at wall base = 1.5 ( 27.57 ) = kN
Total lateral force at base = 20.42 = kN
11.0
3150.00
2.350
300.00
2.410
1300.00
30.00
40.00
0.42
2.37
2700
18.00
24
1.40
254.00
113.10
113.10
175.00
360.00
12.00
12.00
20.42
27.57 20.42 ( 2.7 ) / 2
20.42
37.23
41.36
24.82
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
STABILITY CHECK
Check against Overturning Moment
Total Overturning moment = kN.m
Restoring Vertical Forces due to
UDL due to Earth on base slab = 18 ( 2.7 )
= kN/m
Wall load ( straight portion) = ( 1.3 ) ( 2700 ) ( 1 ) 24
= kN EL 2.35
Base Slab Weight = ( 0.3 ) ( 3.15 ) 24
= kN/m
Wall load ( sloping portion) = ( 0.5 ) ( 2.7  1.4 ) ( 1.85 ) 24
= kN
FGL
3
0
0
Calculating restoring moment @ point "A"
Moment due to Earth load on base slab = 48.6 ( 3.15 ) ( 3.15 / 2 )
= kN.m
Moment due to Wall load ( straight portion ) = 84.24 ( 1.3 )
= kN.m
Moment due Base Slab = 22.68 ( 3.15 )^2 / 2
= kN.m
Total Restoring Moment = 241.12 + 109.51 + 112.52
= kN.m
Factor of Safety against Overturning = 463.15 / 37.23
= > 1.5 OK
Net Moment = Restoring Moment  Overturning moment
= 463.15  37.23 = kN.m
Check against Sliding
Sliding Forces = Lateral earth pressure at bottom of wall
= kN.m
Total load of Earth & self weight = 48.6 ( 3.15 ) + 22.68 ( 3.15 )
= kN
Total passive earth force force = 2.37 ( 18 ) ( 1.4 )^2 / 2 = kN
Coeff of friction between soil and concrete, ( m ) = tan(2/3f) =
Restoring force = m*W + Passive earth pressure on other side
= 0.287 ( 224.54 ) + 41.81
= kN
F.O.S = Restoring force / Sliding Force = > 1.5 OK
48.60
37.23
20.42
224.54
41.81
0.287
241.12
84.24
22.68
28.86
12.44
425.92
112.52
109.51
3150
463.15
106.25
5.203
1300
1
4
0
0
2
7
0
0
A
W
Wall1
W
Base
W
Earth
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
CHECK FOR BEARING PRESSURE
Total vertical load = Self Weight
P = = kN
Bearing pressure due to vertical load = 224.54 / ( 3.15 * 1 )
= kN/m
2
Additional pressure due to moment = M / Z
where, Z = section modulus = = m
4
Distance of resultant force, x = Net Moment / Total Vertical load
= 425.92 / 224.54 = m
Eccentricity, e = x  Width of base slab / 2
< L / 6 ( I.e. width of base / 6 ) = m
= 2.09  1.575 = m < OK < L / 6
Area of base A = 1 ( 3.15 ) = m
Moment due to eccentricity = Total vertical load x e
= 224.54 (0.515 ) = kN.m
Minimum pressure P
1
= P / A + Me / z
= ( 224.54 / 3.15 ) + ( 115.64 / 1.65 )
= kN/m
2
Maximum pressure P
2
= P / A  Me / Z
= ( 224.54 / 3.15 )  ( 115.64 / 1.65 )
= kN/m
2
< 175 kPa SAFE IN BEARING PRESSURE
P
1
= =
DESIGN OF RCC RETAINING WALL ( considering unit length of wall )
LOAD CALCULATIONS AT TOP OF BASE SLAB
Total lateral earth pressure = 0.42 ( 18 ) ( 2.11 )^2 / 2 = kN
Factored lateral earth force = 1.5 ( 16.83 ) = kN
Moment due to earth at base = 25.25 ( 2.11 ) ( 1 / 3 ) = kN.m
Total Factored lateral force ( Shear at base ) = ( 25.25 )
= kN
Total moment at base of wall = kN.m
CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL ( As per BS 81101 )
K = M / b d
2
f
cu
Cl. 3.4.4.4
= ( 26.64 * 1000000 ) / ( 1000 * 254^2 * 30 ) = < 0.156
z = d { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  k / 0.9 ) } < 0.95 d
= 254 { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  0.0138 / 0.9 ) } = mm
0.95 d = 0.95 ( 254 ) = mm
Hence z = mm
A
s
= M / 0.95 f
y
* z
= ( 26.64 * 1000000 ) / ( 0.95 * 360 * 241.3 )
= mm
2
Minimum reinforcement : As per table 3.25 of BS 81101
Min reinforcement for flexurel tension = 0.2 % of concrete area
= 0.2 ( 1000 ) ( 300 ) / 100 = mm
2
Hence A
s
= mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 113.1 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 600 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE BARS PER 1.0 m LENGTH OF THE WALL AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 6 ( 113.1 ) = mm
2
/ m length
16.83
25.25
17.76
141.37 kN 1.20 kN P
2
250.05
241.30
150
188
37.88
0.0138
26.64
678.60
241.30
323
600
6 T 12
3150
3.15
600
1.20
1.65
2.09
0.525
0.515 0.525
141.37
( 1 ) ( 3.15 ) ^2 / 6
225
71.29
115.64
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
CHECK FOR SHEAR (Res. Table 3.8, BS 81101)
Factored Shear force = SF due to Earth + SF due to Liquid + SF due to liquid surcharge
= kN for 1 m width Shear force is calculated at base of wall, conservatively
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 678.6 ) / ( 1000 * 254 ) = %
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ g
m
g
m
=
v
c
= 0 N/mm
2
for f
cu
= 25 N /mm
2
for f
cu
= 30 N /mm
2
v
c
= 0 N/mm
2
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.48 ) ( 1000 ) ( 254 ) / 1000 = kN OK
DESIGN OF BASE SLAB
Width of base slab = m
Length of base slab = m
Thickness of base slab = mm
Reinforcement bar used = mm Area of bar ( a
sb
) = mm
2
Effective depth of base slab = 400  70  20 / 2 = mm
Weight of wall = Height of wall x wall thickness x Length of wall x 24 = ( 2.7 ) ( 0.35 ) ( 1 ) 24
= kN single wall load
Walls are on both side hence wall load will be distributed uniformly through base slab
Intensity of wall pressure = Wall load / ( Span of slab x design width of base slab (ie. 1.00 m ) )
= 22.68 ( 2 ) / ( 6.2 ) 1 = kN/m
2
Pressure due to base slab = Thickness of slab x 24 = ( 0.4 ) 24 = kN/m
2
Total uniform distributed pressure due to dead load
= 7.32 + 9.6 = kN/m
2
Total Uniform distributed pressure = kN/m
2
Design width of base slab considered = mm
P
max
= kN/m
2
OK
P
min
= kN/m
2
OK NO TENSION
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
1.25
121.92
37.88
0.27
3.40
8.80
400.00
20
1000
16.9
16.9
16.92
314.16
320.00
22.68
7.32
16.92
8800
16.9
16.9
9.60
16.92
BASE SLAB
A B
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT
DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
CALCULATION OF BENDING MOMENT
Assuming uniform bearing pressure I.e. average bearing pressure
Moment at A = [ 16.92 ( 8.8 ) 62 / 12 ]
= kN.m
Factored moment at A = 1.5 ( 109.2 ) = kN.m
Factored Moment at wall base due to retained earth = kN.m
Total Factored moment at edge of slab 109.2 + 37.23 = kN.m
Hence, Design moment = kN.m
CALCULATION OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL
Width of wall considered = mm
K = M / b d
2
f
cu
= ( 175.716 x 1000000 ) / ( 1000 x 320^2 x 30 ) = < 0.156
z = d { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  K / 0.9 ) } < 0.95 d
= 320 { 0.5 + sqrt ( 0.25  0.0572 / 0.9 ) } = mm
0.95 d = 0.95 ( 320 ) = mm
Hence z = mm
A
s
= M / 0.95 f
y
* z
= ( 175.716 * 1000000 ) / ( 0.95 * 360 * 298.18 )
= mm
2
Minimum reinforcement : As per Table 3.25 of BS 81101 =
= 0.13 ( 1000 ) ( 400 ) / 100 = mm
2
Hence A
s
= mm
2
Diameter of reinforcement bar = 16 mm2
Area of single reinforcement bar = mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
sb
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 314.16 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 1724 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 314.16 ) = mm
2
Distribution Rebar As per table 3.25 of BS 8110
Minimum reinforcement for flexure tension = 0.13 % of effective area = mm
2
Hence, Area of Distribution Reinforcement = mm
2
Use for Distribution reinforcement a
s
of Distribution bar = mm
2
Spacing of rebar = ( a
s
) (1000 ) / A
s
= ( 113.1 ) ( 1000 ) / ( 520 ) = mm c / c
PROVIDE 7 BARS AT SPACING @ mm c/c
Area of steel provided = 7 ( 113.1 ) = mm
2
CHECK FOR SHEAR ( Ref.Table 3.8, BS 81101 )
= [(7/10)*(16.9216.92)*8.8] + [(1/2)*16.92*8.8]
= kN for 1 m width Shear force has been calculated, conservatively = P
max
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 2199.12 ) / ( 1000 * 270 ) = %
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ g
m
g
m
=
v
c
= N/mm
2
for f
cu
= 25 N /mm
2
for f
cu
= 30 N /mm
2
v
c
= N/mm
2
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.69 ) ( 1000 ) ( 270 ) / 1000 = kN OK
201.06
109.20
163.80
37.23
0.13%
520
1724
182
1724
175.72
175.7
1000
0.0572
0.814
1.25
520
T 20 150
2199.12
T 12 113.1
217
T 12 150
74.45
0.69
186.30
791.70
520
0.651
298.18
304.00
298.18
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
DESIGN OF KERB
As per AASHTO clause 3.14.2 kerb shall be designed for a lateral load of 500 lbs per linear foot of kerb.
Therefore load kN/m = kN/m
Wall thickness = mm
Effective span = mm
Cover to reinforcement = mm
Diameter of reinforcement used = mm
Effective depth =465  40  20 = mm
Horizontal moment due to load on kerb = 1.67 ( 7.49 ) ( 8.4 ) / 8
= kN.m
Self weight of the section = ( 0.465 ) ( 0.65 ) 24 = kN/m
Vertical moment due to self weight = ( 7.26 ) ( 8.4 )^2 / 8 = kN.m
As per AASHTO clause 2.7 Railing Design Load = 10.0 kips
Railing design loading = P = kips = kN
Torsion due to P = [ ( 22.8 ) ( 0.589 ) + ( 22.8 ) ( 0.208 ) ]
= kN.m
Horizontal moment due to P = 45.6 ( 8.4 ) / 4
= kN.m
Vertical shear = (7.26) ( 8.4 ) / 2
= kN
Horizontal Shear = ( 45.6 ) = kN
#
#
Reference 1 : BS 8110:2000 Part1
Ultimate moment Mu= kNm (Mz)
6
5
0
64.04
405
18.18
30.50
40
8400
45.6 18.18
465 7.49
400
95.76
13.14
108.9 64.04 Max Mom span
20
45.6
0 30.50
7.26
64.04
10.0 45.6
3
8
1
2
0
8
5
0
0
Axial
Force kN
ShearY kN
ShearZ
kN
Torsion
kNm
MomY
kNm
MomZ
kNm
10.0
Remark Section
Z h
Y
b
TOP OF ROAD
P/2
P/2
C
U
R
B
GUARD RAIL
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
Shear Force V= kN (Fy)
Max. torsion,T= kNm(Torsion)
Max axial force N = kN
N/bhfcu = < 0.1 Hence Ignore design for axial load
( Ref 1, CL 3.4.4.1 )
Design Parameter:
Characteristic strength of reinforcement bar,fy= N/mm2
Characteristic strength of concrete fcu= N/mm2
Ratio b
b
=
g
c
=
g
s
=
Depth of section,h= mm
Width of section,b = mm
Top concrete Cover= mm
Bot. concrete cover,d' = mm
Side concrete Cover = mm
Diameter of reinforcement bar= mm
Design for Vertical Bending : (Ref.1, CL.3.4.4.4)
Effective depth of member,d = mm
K ' =
( Ref CL 3.4.4.4 )
K = M
u
= < K'
b d
2
f
cu
Compression reinforcement not required
Z = d { 0.5 + sqrt(0.25  K / 0.9) } = mm > mm
Hence Z = mm
X = ( d  Z ) = mm
Tension steel required Ast = mm
2
Min Ast = mm
2
Nos of bar required = nos
Compression steel required Asc = mm
2
Min Asc = mm
2
Nos of bar required = 2 nos
Number of Tension reinf. bar provided = nos. dia
Area of tension reinf. provided = mm
2
Number of compression reinf bar provided = nos. dia
Area of compression reinf. provided = mm
2
Total reinforcement provided for bending Asp= mm
2
18.18
0.00
1.00
1.5
327 393
360
0
30.5
804
30
0.45
40
40
16
602
571.90
593.40
4 16
3 16 dia +
1608
804
1.05
650
465
40
66.89
0.156
0.013
16 1
393
571.90
2
0
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
Design for Shear & Torsion :
Diameter of link or stirrup bar = mm
y
1
= mm
x
1
= mm
h
max
= mm
h
min
= mm
Max. Shear stress developed v =V/bd= Vertical Shear
= ( 45.6 ) 1000 / ( 650 ) ( 409 ) = N/mm
2
Horizontal Shear
< 8 (fcu)^2 or 5 N/mm2 (Ref.1,CL.3.4.5.2) (Reinforcements are Indicative Only)
p
tt provided
= %
Permissible shear stress,v
c
= N/mm
2
> v (Ref 1, Table 3.8)
vc' = vc + 0.6NVh/AM
Vh/M = < 1
vc' = N/mm
2
Hence no shear reinforcement is required
Shear resistance required by link V
u
= kN
Vu = 0.4 b d Table 3.7 BS81101
For shear links N/mm
Shear stress due to torsion, N/mm
2
(Ref.2,CL.2.4.4,Eq2)
So, v + v
t
= N/mm
2
< vtu Hence ok
v
tu
= N/mm
2
(Ref 2, Table 2.3)
v
tmin
= N/mm
2
> vt
Hence reinforcement for torsion is not required.
For torsional links N/mm
K
u
= K
u1
+K
u2
= N/mm
Dia of link bar = mm
No of legs along the with of beam=
Total area of link bars= mm
2
Spacing of Links
for torsion & shear both mm c/c
Provide vertical link bar (4legs) of 10 mm dia @ mm c/c
Additional longitudinal reinf for
resisting torsion, mm
2
(Ref.2,CL.2.4.7)
(ref. Cl 2.4.7of BS 8110: Part2)
Total longitudinal reinforcement reqd. due to
moment and torsion Asr = mm
2
Total longitudinal reinforcement provide Asp = mm
2
Provide additional reinforcement
Design Summary :
Compression reinforcement 4 nos T16 bar
Tension reinforcement 3 nos T16 bar +1 nos T16 bar
Shear reinforcement 4Legged T10 bar @ 200c/c
368.21
108.21
560
375
650
465
0.52
0.00
260.00
0.287
0.400
0.000
0.400
0.180
0.109
0.34
10
4
292
1.38
0.37
200
1007
1727
1608
314
10
=
÷
=
) 3 / (
2
min max
2
min
h h h
T
v
t
= =
Ku
A f
s
sv yv
v
95 . 0
=
+
=
y v
yv sv
f s
y x f A
As
) 1 1 (
= = =
1 1
2
8 . 0
95 . 0
y x
T
s
A f
K
v
sv yv
u
= = =
d
Vu
s
A f
K
v
sv yv
u
95 . 0
1
y1 T
x1
W
DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR CULVERT DOCUMENT NO : 1820SA3 00ECVCAL017
Revision No. : B
Check for Deflection :
Basic span/effective depth = (Ref.1,CL.3.4.6.3)
fs = 2f
y
xA
sreq
x 1 = Mpa
3A
sprov
x b
b
Modification factor for tension reinf.= (Ref.1,CL.3.4.6.5)
0.55+ (477fs)/((120(0.9+M/bd
2
)) = 3 > 2
Modification factor for comression reinf.= (Ref.1,CL.3.4.6.6)
1+ (100Asprov/bd)/(3+100Asprov/bd) = 1 < 2
Modified span/Effective depth =
Actual span of beam = mm
Actual span/ Effective depth = Safe against deflection
Design for Horizontal Bending : (Ref.1, CL.3.4.4.4) D = b = mm
Bar dia = mm
Effective depth of member,d= mm
K' = ( Ref CL 3.4.4.4 )
> K'
Compression reinforcement required
mm < mm
Hence Z = mm
mm
Tension steel required Ast = mm
2
Min Ast = mm
2
Nos of bar required = nos
Compression steel required Asc = mm
2
Min Asc = mm
2
Nos of bar required = 2 nos
Number of Tension reinf. bar provided = nos. dia
Area of tension reinf. provided = mm
2
Number of compression reinf bar provided = nos. dia
Area of compression reinf. provided = mm
2
Total reinforcement provided for bending Asp= mm
2
CHECK FOR SHEAR ( Ref.Table 3.8, BS 81101 )
= kN for 1 m width Shear force has been calculated conservatively
% of main steel = 100 *A
s
/ [ b.d ] = 100 ( 1257 ) / ( 1280 * 257.5 ) = %
As per Note 2 of table 3.8, BS81101 , v
c
= 0.79 {100 A
s
/ b d }
1/3
( 400 / d )
1/4
/ g
m
g
m
=
For f
cu
= 30 N /mm
2
v
c
= N/mm
2
Shear strength of the section = ( 0.413 ) ( 1000 ) ( 437 ) / 1000 = kN OK
1005
2011
465 mm
16
239 0
206.33
952 60
172.22
0.156
0.209
5
dia + 5 16
30.50
26
97.71
9020
15
324.15
417
1.25
324.15 396.15
100
0
79.31
0.266
5 16
0
1005
0.413
= =
fcu bd
Mu
K
2
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

.

\

÷ + =
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
d Z
( )
=
÷
=
45 . 0
Z d
X