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ADB Guidelines for

Universal Access

Transport in the Asian Century

Manila 15 September 2014

Barriers: Public Transport
Barriers: Public Transport
Barriers: Pedestrian Environment
Barriers: Pedestrian Environment
Barriers: Pedestrian Environment
International Convention
Adopted by UN General Assembly 2006
Entry into force 2008
The Convention prohibits discrimination against
persons with disabilities in all areas of life

Article 2: Definition - Universal Design
Article 9: Accessibility
Article 24: Education
Article 25: Health
Article 27: Work & Employment
Article 30: Participation in Cultural Life, Recreation, Leisure & Sport
UN - Convention on Rights of Persons
with Disabilities

158 signatories to the Convention

149 ratifications of the Convention

92 signatories to the Optional Protocol

84 ratifications of the Optional Protocol

(Sep 2014 update)
Article 9: Accessibility
Aim: To enable persons with disabilities to live independently
and participate fully in all aspects of life

Responsible Parties: States Parties shall take appropriate
measures to achieve the aim

Coverage: Equal access to the physical environment,
transportation, information and communications, including ICT
& systems

Measures: Identification & elimination of obstacles & barriers to

Application: Buildings, roads, transportation and other indoor &
outdoor facilities schools, housing, medical facilities &
workplaces; Information, communications & other services
Global: People with Disabilities
Estimated 15% of the world's population has a

More than one billion people with special
needs worldwide

An estimated 80% live in developing countries

(Source: WHO Report, 2011)

ADB long term strategic framework Strategy 2020
Transportation & Urban Development are essential
cornerstones in achieving livable cities
Mainstream sustainable transport practices across ADBs
operations & support poverty reduction in DMCs
ADB launched Sustainable Transport Initiative (STI) in 2010
ADB prioritized renewed investment and effort in the areas of
urban transport, transport & climate changes, logistics & cross-
border transport, road safety and social sustainability
ADB Strategy 2020
Without Inclusive Transport people with disabilities are almost
guaranteed to be poor due to a lack of access to
education, labour markets, health care and other social
The marginal cost of mainstreaming universal access into
ADBs transportation projects initially is only about 1% with the
cost of retrofitting universal access afterwards being
significantly higher

ADB Strategy 2020
Other multilateral banks have design and
policy guidelines for disability access
the World Bank will not invest in countries
that do not provide 100% universal
accessibility in their projects
Need for Universal Accessible Transport
Transport is vital for independent living and for gaining access
to education, healthcare, labour market, economic resources,
opportunities and social activities

Exclusion increases the real and social costs associated with

People denied access to essential transport services faces
greater challenges to remain above the poverty line

Universal access to transportation not generally given
significant focus in transport education, planning, design,
construction and implementation in developing countries

Criteria - Universal Accessible Transport
Access to fixed facilities and infrastructure

Access to affordable & universally accessible
transport modes

Access to information in various formats

Disability Awareness & Sensitivity Training

Demands of Universal Access to Transport
in Developing Countries
Systemic barriers in the pedestrian environment, infrastructure
and transport services

Lack of accessible sidewalks and footpaths
Inaccessible and unsafe roads
Inadequate safe and accessible street crossings
Inadequate and inaccessible bus and bus stop facilities
Lack of or irregularity of transport services

Characteristics of Sector

Walking, bicycle, motor cycle as main mode of transport
Importance of informal services & Non-Motorised forms of Transport
Publications on Inclusive Transport
The World Bank
Transport and Social Responsibility Thematic Group

Cities on the Move: A World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review (2001)
Transport, Poverty and Disability in Developing Countries (2001)
Inclusive Transport: An Emerging Agenda (2004)
Strategy to Improve Accessibility in Developing Countries (2004)
Inclusive Access and Mobility in Developing Countries (2006)
BRT Accessibility Guidelines (2006)

The Asian Development Bank
Regional & Sustainable Development Department
Sustainable Infrastructure Division

Disability Brief: Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Disabled People (2005)
Disabled People and Development (2005)
Universal Design -

Universal Design means the design of
products, environments, programmes &
services to be usable by all people, to
the greatest extent possible, without
the need for adaptation or specialized
(Ron Mace 1988)

Universal Design
What is Universal Access ?
The Universal Design Pyramid
Who will benefit from UA?
Others who would benefit from universal accessibility (UA)

40% + of the population
Source: Roland Wildberg: Hospitality, Hotel and Travel News
International Tourism Board, 2009
Who will benefit from UA?
Asian Development Bank
Universal Access
in ADB
Transport Projects

Universal Access
ADB UA Guidelines on Transport

Purpose, Context, Scope of the Guidelines
Existing Conditions Infrastructure Barriers
Pedestrian Environment
Modes of Transportation
Basic Concepts of Universal Access Evolution
Barrier-free Design
Universal Design
Inclusive Design
Universal Access

Key Concepts
Accessible Information
Door to/through Door Service
Family of Transport Services
Occupant Restraint Systems
Persons with Functional Limitations
Transportable Mobility Aids
Transportation Disadvantaged
Trip Chain
Wheelchair Securement Systems
Anthropometric Data
Design Considerations
Application & Technical Guidelines
Cost-Benefit Approach to UA on Public Transport System
Macro Vs. Micro Design
Costs of Barrier-Free Design
Benefits of Barrier-Free Design
Intangible Costs of Handicapping Environments
Cost-Benefit Analysis

Basic Human Factors
Mobility Impaired & Visually Impaired Persons
Wheelchair Users
Walking Distances

UA Technical & Design Guidelines
Trip Information
Urban Public Pedestrian Environment
Taxis & Limousines (Urban & Intercity)
Para-transit Vehicles
Urban Buses, Intercity Buses
Bus Rapid Transit
Light Rail Transit (Sky Trains, Streetcars, Trams)
Commuter Rail
Intercity Rail

Marine Transport
Local & Regional Airports
Rural Transportation
Gender & Ridership
Definitions, References
International Symbols of Access
Wheelchair Transfer & Movement

Basic Human Factors
Cost - Benefit Analysis
Source: (Roberts and Babinard, The World Bank).

Cost increase due to
Original barrier-free
Comparative cost
Convention Hall
0.12% 0.02 % 6x
Town Hall
0.2% 0.05% 4x
0.51% 0.13% 4x
Shopping Center

0.22% 0.006% 35x
Cost Comparisons
Source: Schroeder and Steinfeld (1979) The Estimated Costs of Accessible Buildings
US Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Accessible Pedestrian Environment
Clear delineation between pedestrian routes and street furniture
Accessible Pedestrian Environment
Clearly marked pedestrian crossings
Accessible Pedestrian Environment
Raised pedestrian crossings
Modes of Transportation
Public Taxicabs
Accessible Taxis
Accessible Taxi Stands
Accessible Car Parking Bays
Demand Responsive Transit
Urban Bus System & Bus Stops

Low Floor Accessible Bus
Low Floor Accessible Bus
Partial Low Floor Bus
Vehicle Ramps
Flexible Passenger Seating Space
Wheelchair Securement &
Occupant Restraint System
Bus Stop & e-Information Stand
Bus Stop & Information
Real Time Bus Information
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Tram System
Light Rail Transit
Platform Gap
Visual & Audible Announcements
Metro System
Universal Accessible Ticket
Gates & Turnstiles
Station Facilities
Multi-Format Information
Emergency Information System
Subway System
Level Entry at Platform
Active Journey Indications
Accessible Rail Station Platform
Commuter Rail Lift & Bridge
Built-in Ramp System
Station-based Lifts
Seating Space for Wheelchair
Priority Seating & Signage
Onboard Accessible Washroom
Wireless Access Onboard Trains
In-Vehicle Information Display
Intercity Bus
Built-in Lift System
Seamless Interface to Pedestrian Areas
Seamless Interface
Marine Transport
Gangways to Vessels
Accessible Ferry Terminal Facilities
Universal Access
Air Transport
Airports & Terminals
Multiple format self-service check-in with on hand customer support
Airport Access
Accessible Information
Airport Accessible Facilities
Boarding Chair & Onboard

Rural Transportation

Rural Transportation

Transport in the Asian Century




Universally Accessible
Thank you

Ar. Joseph Kwan MH
Architect, Access Consultant
UDA Consultants Ltd. (Consultants in Universal Design & Accessibility)
Hong Kong