Packaging

Presented By
Siddhartha Sen, IIT Kharagpur
Under the Guidance of :
Prof. A. Dasgupta
Topics
Functions of the Package
Different Kinds of Packages
Rent’s Rule
VLSI Assembly Technology
System on Chip versus System in Package
3 – D Packaging
Chip on Chip (CoC)
Electrical Performance
Thermal Management
Common Failure Mechanisms and Reliability
Future Trends
Packaging
Functions of the Package - I
Packages shut out
damaging external
influences like Moisture,
Dust, Vibration, Shock,
Lightning, Magnets, etc
and serve to protect
silicon chips.
Lead frame allows
electrical signals to be
sent and received to and
from semiconductor
devices.
Packaging - 1
Functions of the Package -II
Packages effectively
release the heat generated
by the chip during its
operation.
Packages allow for
enlargement of terminals
size that makes the chips
much easier to handle.
Packaging - 2
Types of Packages
Though a wide variety of packages can be used for VLSI
devices, they can be broadly divided into two basic types:
Hermetic Ceramic Packages: The chip resides in an environment
decoupled from the external environment by a vacuum tight
enclosure. The packages are usually designed for high
performance applications that allow some cost penalties
Plastic Packages: The chip is not completely decoupled from the
external environment because it is encapsulated with resin
materials, typically epoxy based resins. They are extremely cost
competitive and their popularity persists because of rapid
advances in plastic technology
Packaging - 3
Types of Packages (Hermetic Packages)
The chip resides in a
cavity of the package.
Package base material
is ceramic usually Al203
or AlN.
The chip and the
package are connected
by fine Al wire.
Hermetic sealing is
completed by a cap,
usually ceramic or
metal, lidded to the
package.
Packaging - 4
A Typical Hermetic Package
Traces
Leads
Chip
Seal Ring
Types of Packages (Plastic Packages)
The chip is attached to the
package of the lead
frame.
The frame is made of
etched or stamped thin
metal( usually Fe-Ni or Cu
alloys).
Interconnections are
made by fine gold wire.
Encapsulation is carried
out by Transfer-molding
using epoxy resin.
Packaging - 5
Molding
Material
Bond Wires
Spot Plate
Chip
Support
Paddle
Types of Packages (PWB level)
Packaging - 6
Rent’s Rule
Rent’s Rule is an
empirical relationship
between the gate
count and the I/O
(Terminal) Count in a
Chip.
Memory : 1 Kbits – 1024 Kbits
Microprocessors : 4 – 32 bits
Gate Arrays : 50 – 16K gates
DRAM
Microprocessors
Logic Array
Prediction
Number (I/O Count ) =
α (Number of gates)
β
Typically: α = 4.5
β = 0.5
Packaging - 7
VLSI Assembly Technologies
Wafer
Solder Preform
Polymer Adhesive
Al wire / Au wire
Conformal Coating
Metal Preform
Polymer Seal
Molding Compound
Wafer Preparation
Die Bonding
Die Interconnection
Molding
Package Seal
Marking
DTFS
Wafer Backgrinding
Die Preparation
Adhesive Die Bonding
Eutectic Die Bonding
Wire Bonding, TAB,
Flip Chip
Transfer molding
Ink Marking
Laser Marking
Deflash-Trim-Form-
Singulate
Packaging - 8
Wafer Backgrinding
Wafer Backgrind is the process of grinding the backside
of the wafer to the correct wafer thickness prior to
assembly.
Wafers normally undergo a cleaning and surface
lamination process prior to the actual backgrinding
process.
The grinding wheel parameters are: speed, spindle
coolant water temperature and flow rate, initial and final
wafer thickness, and feed speeds.
Continuous washing of the wafer is also done during the
backgrinding process to remove debris.
Packaging - 9
Die Preparation
Wafer Mounting:
frame loading, wafer
loading, application of
tape to the wafer and
wafer frame, cutting of
the excess tape and
unloading of the
mounted wafer
Wafer Saw:
alignment, cutting by
resin-bonded diamond
wheel, cleaning
Wafer mounted on wafer frames
Wafer Films
Wafer Saw Blades
Packaging - 10
Die Bonding
Die Bonding is the process of
attaching the silicon chip to the
die pad or die cavity of the
support structure.
Adhesive Die Attach:
Uses adhesives such as
polyimide, epoxy and silver-filled
glass as die attach material
Eutectic Die Attach:
Uses a eutectic alloy to attach
the die to the cavity. The Au-Si
eutectic alloy is the most
commonly used
D/A adhesive as the grainy material
between the die and die pad
Normal Eutectic Die
Attach and with Balling
Packaging - 11
Die Interconnection: Wire Bonding
The wire is generally made
up of one of the following:
Gold
Aluminum
Copper
There are two main classes
of wire bonding:
Ball bonding
Wedge bonding
Wire Bonds
Packaging - 12
Wire Bonding (Ball-Bonding)
A gold ball is first formed by
melting the end of the wire.
The free-air ball brought into
contact with the bond pad,
adequate amounts of
pressure, heat, and ultrasonic
forces are then applied.
The wire is then run to the
corresponding finger of the
leadframe, forming a gradual
arc or "loop" between the
bond pad and the leadfinger. Gold wire ball-bonded
to a gold contact pad
The 1
st
Bond
The 2
nd
Bond
Packaging - 13
Wire Bonding (Wedge Bonding)
A clamped wire is
brought in contact with
the bond pad. Ultrasonic
energy and pressure are
applied.
The wire is then run to
the corresponding lead
finger, and again
pressed. The second
bond is again formed by
applying ultrasonic
energy to the wire.
Aluminum wires
wedge-bonded
1
st
Wedge Bond
Packaging - 14
Die Interconnection: Flip Chip
The term “Flip-chip” refers to
an electronic component or
semiconductor device that can
be mounted directly onto a
substrate, board, or carrier in
a ‘face-down’ manner.
Electrical connection is
achieved through conductive
bumps built on the surface of
the chips, which is why the
mounting process is ‘face-
down’ in nature. Flip Chip Bumps
Packaging - 15
Flip Chip - Advantages
Smallest Size
reduces the required board area by up to 95%
requires far less height
Highest Performance
reduces the delaying inductance and capacitance of the
connection by a factor of 10
highest speed electrical performance of any assembly method
Most Rugged
Lowest Cost
Packaging - 16
Tape Automated Bonding (TAB)
A process that places
bare chips onto a printed
circuit board (PCB) by
attaching them to a
polyimide film. The film is
moved to the target
location, and the leads are
cut and soldered to the
board.
The bare chip is then
encapsulated ("glob
topped") with epoxy or
plastic.
Packaging - 17
Molding
Molding is the process of encapsulating
the device in plastic material.
Transfer molding is one of the most
widely used molding processes in the
semiconductor industry.
The cavities are filled up in a 'Christmas
tree' fashion - The highest filling velocity
is experienced by the first cavity.
Subsequent cavities are filled with
increasing velocities until the last cavity,
which ends up with the second highest
filling velocity.
Wiresweeping and die paddle
Mold Chases
Examples of Molds
Packaging - 18
Package Sealing
Sealing is the process of encapsulating a hermetic
package, usually by capping or putting a lid over the
base or body of the package. The method of sealing is
generally dependent on the type of package.
Ceramic DIPs, or cerdips, are sealed by topping the
base of the package with a cap using seal glass.
Seal glass, like any glass, is a supercooled liquid which
exhibits tremendous viscosity when cooled below its
glass transition temperature. A seal glass may be
classified as vitreous or Devitrifying.
Packaging - 19
Marking
Marking is the process of putting identification,
traceability, and distinguishing marks on the package of
an IC.
The most common Ink marking process for semiconductor
products is Pad printing. Pad printing consists of
transferring an ink pattern from the plate, which is a flat
block with pattern depressions that are filled with ink, to
the package, using a silicone rubber stamp pad.
Laser marking refers to the process of engraving marks
on the marking surface using a laser beam. There are
many types of lasers, but the ones used or in use in the
semiconductor industry include the CO2 laser, the YAG
laser, and diode lasers.
Packaging - 20
Deflash/Trim/Form/Singulation (DTFS)
1. Deflash - removal of flashes from the package of the
newly molded parts. Flashes are the excess plastic
material sticking out of the package edges right after
molding.
2. Trim - cutting of the dambars that short the leads
together.
3. Form - forming of the leads into the correct shape and
position.
4. Singulation - cutting of the tie bars that attach the
individual units to the leadframe, resulting in the
individual separation of each unit from the leadframe.
Packaging - 21
System on Chip ( SoC ) versus
System in Package (SiP)
SoC is a technology that
allows a system to be
built on one silicon chip
(bare chip).
SiP is a package
technology that combines
a multiple number of
readymade chips (such
as logic and memory) and
encases them in one
package as one system.
Packaging - 22
SiP Categories
Packaging - 23
3D Packaging: Introduction
The driving forces are the significant
size and weight reductions, higher
performance, small delay, higher
reliability and reduced power.
3 D Packages score over
conventional packages in:
Size and Weight
Silicon Efficiency
Interconnect Usability and
Accessibility
Delay
Noise
Power Consumption
Speed
Four-die stack including
two spacers
Packaging - 24
3D Packaging Types of 3D Packages
Stacked Die Packages:
Consists of bare die stacked and
interconnected using wire bond and
flip-chip connections in one standard
CSP
Stacked-Packages:
consist of stacked, pre-tested
packages or a mix of KGD and
packages. These are interconnected
using wire bond, flip chip or solder
balls on one CSP
They can be:
Package-in-Package (PiP)
Package-on-Package (PoP)
PiP structure with 4 stacks
PoP structure with 4 stacks
Packaging - 25
3 D Packaging: Advantages - I
The shift from conventional single chip packages to 3D
technology, leads to substantial size and weight
reductions:
Type Capacity Discrete Planar 3D Discrete/3D Planar/3D
SRAM 1 Mbit 1678 783 133 12.6 5.9
DRAM 1 Mbit 1357 441 88 15.4 5.0
Type Capacity Discrete Planar 3D Discrete/3D Planar/3D
SRAM 1 Mbit 3538 2540 195 18.1 13.0
DRAM 1 Mbit 2313 1542 132 17.5 11.6
Mass ( in grams / Gbit )
Volume ( in cm
3
/ Gbit )
Packaging - 26
3 D Packaging: Advantages - II
Increase in Silicon
Efficiency.
Interconnect
Usability and
Accessibility.
Packaging - 27
3 D Packaging: Advantages - III
Delay Reduction
Noise Reduction
Power Reduction
Speed Increase
Packaging - 28
3 D Packaging: Limitations
There are trade-offs which need to be taken into account
when using 3D technology in system design:
Thermal Management
Design complexity
Cost
Time to Delivery
Design Software
Packaging - 29
Electrical Considerations: Introduction
The choice of a package for an integrated circuit
depends on the electrical and thermal conditions under
which the chip is expected to operate. In other words,
the package must satisfy a set of electrical and thermal
requirements formulated for the application at hand.
The electrical operating conditions of an integrated
circuit can be viewed as consisting of two distinct
environments: one for Signals and another for Power.
The requirements for these environments are
substantially different.
Packaging - 30
Electrical Considerations: The Signal
Environment
The signal's electrical environment is the arrangement of
conductors and dielectrics. Electrically, each segment of
this path represents a transmission line with certain
characteristic impedance and time delay. Also involved
are the inductances of the bond wires and package pins.
Usually, the leads are not of controlled impedance and
each possesses substantial inductance and capacitance.
Relatively strong inductive and capacitive coupling (M
and C) exist between the leads.
The major issues in the signal environment are Signal
Delay, Signal Reflection and Noise Reduction.
Packaging - 31
Electrical Considerations: The Signal
Environment
Signal Delay
High speed operation requires lower interconnect delays. The
maximum achievable operating frequency is obviously the
inverse of the critical delay path.
In package construction, a short signal line (bonding wire
length plus lead length) in small dielectric material, typically
polyimide resin, is preferable.
An excessively small dielectric constant of the surrounding
material, however induces signal reflections that degrade
operating speed.
Packaging - 32
Electrical Considerations: The Signal
Environment
Signal Reflection:
Mismatched impedances
cause signal reflections
when a signal is
transmitted via a
transmission line. The
transmission line character
cannot be ignored when
the signal lines are long
Multilayered packages like
stripline structures and
microstrip structures
provide better impedance
matching
l
c
v
r
<
0
ε
Stripline conductor
Microstrip conductor
Packaging - 33
Electrical Considerations: The Signal
Environment
Noise:
The two kinds of noise of
importance are Cross-Talk
noise and Simultaneous
switching noise:
Cross Talk Noise:
Line is undesirably affected by
another line due to
electromagnetic coupling
Simultaneous Switching
Noise:
Occurs when many output
buffers switch simultaneously
Cross Talk on Adjacent Lines
Simultaneous
Switching
Noise
Tx Line
Packaging - 34
Electrical Considerations: The Power
Environment
Inductances in the power circuit cause instability of the
potentials at the power and ground terminals of the chip:
Power Supply Droop
Ground Bounce
Packaging - 35
Electrical Considerations
The Desirable Electrical Characteristics:
Low ground resistance (minimum power supply voltage drop)
Minimum Self Inductance of signal leads (short signal leads)
Minimum power supply spiking due to simultaneous switching of
signal lines.
Minimum Mutual Inductance and Cross Talk (short paralleled
signal runs)
Minimum Capacitive loading (short signal runs near a ground
plane)
Maximum use of Matched Impedances (avoid signal reflection)
Packaging - 36
Thermal Management
Efficient and cost-effective removal of dissipated thermal
energy from the device to assure its reliable performance
over the long term.
Effects of Increasing Temperatures:
Device physics is strongly influenced by the junction temperature
Corrosion and interfacial diffusion mechanisms
Approximately a 10°C increase in temperature reduces the mean
time to failure by a factor of two
Packaging - 37
Thermal Management (Thermal
Resistance)
The internal temperature (called junction temperature) is equal to the
ambient temperature plus an offset proportional to the internal power
dissipation P. It is given by:
T
junction
= T
ambient
+ θ
JA
.P
The constant of proportionality θ
JA
is called the thermal resistance
Current Trends:
The total power is going up due to improper scaling, higher packing
density, and lower chip size
Maximum ambient being as high as 60 °C
Maximum junction temperatures from 105 °C to 65 °C
The total thermal resistance of the package must decrease:
θ
JA
= θ
JC
+ θ
CA
Packaging - 38
Thermal Management
A Simplified Heat transfer model:
Heat is transferred from the chip
to the surface of the package by
conduction and from the
package to the ambient by
convection and radiation:
θ
JA
= θ
JC
+ θ
CA
= ((T
j
-T
c
) + (T
c
-T
a
))/P
θ
JC
is mainly a function of package
materials and geometry
θ
CA
depends on package geometry,
the package orientation and
conditions of ambient.
T
a
T
c
T
j
Chip PWB
Thermal Convection
& Radiation
Conduction
Simplified Heat Transfer Model of a
packaged chip
Packaging - 39
Thermal Considerations
Conduction dominates heat transfer from chip to package surface.
One Dimensional Fourier’s equation gives:
Q = (T
1
– T
2
)*κ*(S/L)
In the actual package:
P = (T
j
– T
c
)*κ*(S/L)
Thus we have:
θ
JC
= (T
j
– T
c
)/P = L/(κ*S)
VLSI packages have a high packing density (small S) so high
thermal conductivity components such as Cu alloys lead frames, AlN
substrates and thermo-conductive molding compounds are
particularly important as they increase overall package κ value.
Thinner packages (low L) are also important.
Packaging - 40
Thermal Considerations
Convection: Heat transfer from the package surface to the ambient
results mostly from convection, given by Newton’s Cooling Law:
Q = h*A*(T
c
– T
a
)
Therefore:
θ
CA
= (T
c
– T
a
)/P = 1/(h*A)
θ
CA
is reduced through increased conduction and larger package
surface area. The application system constructions are forced air
convections, liquid coolants in place of air coolings and additional
heat sinks attached to the package surface.
Packaging - 41
Thermal Considerations
Radiation helps transfer some heat from the package surface to the
ambient, but usually the contribution is small.
According to Stefan-Boltzmann Law: E
b
= ε*σ*T
4
The heat radiated is: Q = σ*f*A*(T
1
4
– T
2
4
)
Where f is given by: f = 1/((1/ε
1
)+(1/ε
2
)-1)
When T
1
-T
2
<<T
1
& T
1
-T
2
<<T
2,
then with T
m
=(T
1
+T
2
)/2, we can obtain:
Q = 4*σ*f*T
m
3
*A*(T
1
-T
2
) = h*r*A*(T
1
-T
2
)
Therefore: θ
rad
= (T
1
-T
2
)/Q = 1/(h*r*A)
In actual applications black dyed packages and external heat sinks are
preferred since they increase hr values
Packaging - 42
Thermal Management: Thermal Profiles
In the thermal design and characterization of device
packages, it is often necessary to know the temperature
profiles for known power dissipation and boundary
conditions. Further, this information may be needed for
steady state and transient conditions.
Computer-based software are most extensively used in
this area.
Experimental methods are also used.
Packaging - 43
Common Failure Mechanisms and
Reliability Tests
1. Chip Crack:
Occurrence of fracture anywhere in the die
Major Causes:
TCE mismatch of components
Operation to note:
Chip Bonding
Test Type:
Temperature Cycling
Typical Conditions:
- 65 °C - 150 °C
Packaging - 44
Common Failure Mechanisms and
Reliability Tests
2. Wire Liftoff:
Includes Ball Bond Lifting and
Wedge Bond Lifting
Major Causes:
poor bonding, Bonding pad
contamination
Operation to Note:
Wire Bond
Test Type:
High Temperature Storage
Test Conditions:
150 °C - 175 °C
Ball Bond Lifting
Contaminated Bond Pads
Cratered Bond Pad
Packaging - 45
Common Failure Mechanisms and
Reliability Tests
3. Wire Break:
Breakage along the span of the wire
Major Causes:
Poor Bonding, Stress from molding resin
Operation to note:
Wire Bonding
Test Type:
Temperature Cycling, Vibration
Typical Conditions:
- 65 °C – 150 °C
Packaging - 46
Common Failure Mechanisms and
Reliability Tests
4. Malfunction:
Non-conformance to electrical specifications due to
component degradation caused by stresses on the die
surface
Major Causes:
TCE mismatch of components
Operation to note:
Chip Bonding – Encapsulation
Test Type:
PCT with bias, Operating Life
Typical Conditions:
130 °C, 85%, 7V; 125 °C, 7V
Packaging - 47
Future Trends
Package Pin Count will undoubtedly continue to increase with IC
complexity.
Alumina Ceramic Packages will continue to dominate high
performance VLSI packaging technologies until their high dielectric
constant,modest thermal conductivity or cost force a change.
Plastic Packages, specially posttransfer-mold plastic packages will
continue to dominate low cost VLSI packaging.
Higher Packaging density on the PWB level will drive towards
smaller lead pitches, to approximately 0.3 mm spacings.
Wire Bonding will be seriously challenged and will be replaced by
TAB and Flip Chip.
System design will increasingly depend on systematically optimizing
the entire interconnection scheme to achieve the potential benefits
of improved silicon capability. The approach for MultiChip Modules
verifies this trend.
Packaging - 48
Packaging - 49