Universital Autdnoma de Barcelona

Servei de Biblioteques
I ||il ilil lllil llil lllil llll llll lllil llil lllil llil lll
1 501 01 281 I
SSAUd IJISUITAINN
EC(tn{flrNYC
LrEBrqrrjN
Jo
]\trsrr,uu.l
SO¿JVH3IH IENVT
WOqDNIY
E'IqqIW EHI
CO SEdVDSCINV-I
A¿IVNIUOW
IdADE
HI\tEq
q
INEIDNV NI
NV AIEIDOS
InS
Ric.
Mic
den
'.t.
clas
the
thal
and
Ricl
mid
Kin
Con
ancl
and
vari,
ho$
abor
prac
reve
PLiBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE O}' THE LI\I\ ER¡i
The Pitt Building, Tiumpington Street, Carrbriclge, LJnirc.i K:::::
CAMBRIDCE LJNIVERSITY PRESS
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK
40 llest 20th Strcet, Neu' York, NY 1001 1-421 1, USA
477
\X/illiamstou'n
Road, Port Melbournc, VIC 3207. Ausrr.r:.:
Ruiz de Alarccin 13, 28014 Madncl, Spain
Dock House, The \Vatcrfront, Cape Torvn 8001, South Afrrc.r
http://wr.w.cambridge.org
O
Janet
Richards 2005
fhir I'ook i- irr eo¡¡ riuhr. \rrl.tr. r Lo \r.lrurorv ( \cpliun
and to the provisiorrs of relevant collectir.e licensing agrccmenrs,
no reproductiol of an,v part may take place without
the written permission of Cembridgc LJnilcrsity Prcss.
First published 2005
Printed in tire United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambriclge
T,t,peface Sabon MT 10/14..5 pt. S1s/ern
QuarkXP..rrr\r1.1 lTBl
A catalog record
for
this book is du,tiLdble
from
the British Librart,.
Library of Congres-. Cataloging in PubLic¡tir¡n Ddtd
Richards,
Janct
E.
Society and death in alcient Egypt: lnortuary landscapcs of thc N,iiclclle ñrn¡ji:,¡¡:
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical refcrcnces and index.
ISBN 0-.521 -84033-3
1. Tombs Egvpt.2. Funclai rites and ceremonies-Eg,vpt.3. Egvpt Social con.iirii,::
4. Egypt Civilization-To 332 B.C. I. Title.
t)T62.T6R53 2005
306'.0932-dc22
ISBN 0 -521 8403.1 3 hardback
WZ
LZT
I8I
€LI
9Tl
88
)L
6V
LV
T€
6l
€I
IT
I
IIlX
xr aSod
,rtr:::;:
slqLtnq LuoPButN applw :gg6L palo.t(Í
Í..ra1awa3 qt.to¡¡ sopl.qy
.xtpuaQiy
: ru op'u r¡ e
rpp rw
:rlr ur ro
11
e¡ r,,ff:'"Trt
ff:t'.TJ,.Hl'#
sop.{qy :lerrur.ro.rd
pue
,tuaso;d ,tsed
sauatoua3
L
ebbt¿ prie r8e;e¡1 :rotuer erlt te
i€rrng
g
e¡rt¡e.¡d pLrE
JarJeg
:ruop8ur¡
elpplry aqt ur sadecspuel fren1ro1,l
S
rdfSE ur
,,uro¡go.rd
qurol,, eL[] pue
,qteep ,alc1oa
¿ V
J¿ACA NI H¿VSC ONV AJAI]OS
'OIA,I
JUV¿I
lorler{ag e^rto^ pue
,tuarualnas ,flartog
A
a8urur pue rxer q8norql flenos uertdf8E
Z
sse[J
Jo
uor]ou Oqt puE rrortErtlrrrelJrp
]Erlos t
SWEISAS TVI]OS TNEISNV CO ACNJ-S AHI
'ANO
IUVd
uorllnPoJtul
sruau8palmou4ty
salqpi pup satnSl
Jo
ttlj
SINEINOD
LOI
/0r
_(-0I
I0i
00i
66
86
s6
,6
I6
68
_qB
tB-28
I_9
vv
vv
t,
IF
W
0,
0,
6t
st
,z
LZ
_c
t
aSpd
sadfl rnue¡a¡
¡rlsou8erp
EI
frseufe
.Lz
sadfl rlrue¡a¡
¡rlsou8erp
ZI
flseufe
;;
LL-
y .,{ratarue3
ebbr¿
;o
ue¡¿
.SZ
bbIU
lE f.lalaruar
rrlseul
'-
"-'-;.;#"J#j:ffi;
,;
g f;alaua3
e8e;e11
Jo
uEId
.TT
tvTL r^e,rlffl]:,;":rJ];:ffij',:f.
;,
l7l)^etD
Jo
uorlf,as
PuE
uEid
.6I
ebbr¡
pue t'e,e¡'
,.
,oll"_:o,,r,^";:;H;:il,#
l:
j:#
2: sa'r'r'r8
wopSur)r
eipprru
Lrr srtrE¡rrrE
10
,rrroi"r",
,or"¡1
.gr
ruop8ur¡
ripplr{
,.1r .,,
¡",rnqlrio.ruou
Jo
sapo1,.{
.SI
*rop8ur¡
plO or
txau s¡adeqr
JJeurs
ot .r\er^ :srolsrru"
..r,,Jr::i::;
¡nt¿ts
¡red
JauJ Jo IrEq
pue ruo-ry f
¡re1aq
ntrts ul EII
PUe Jelul JO
ollll?ls Jle¿
ru op'u r¡ a
r
pp
rr{
r rrr rp r.{r r¡ar aruar
*üIjt;*
jll:
L ;j
jJ,j:[
Jo
u o r E r o
l
B u r.tro u s r r.ll: * r
r
r,
r rt#"rTor#
r.j:"jil
J
rlT*
f¡Jrue.¡
s¡g pue
JrruJ
yo
"¡.r,
..uoTerlso,, *JI
,TI
.EI
,77
'0I
'6
.TI
rorrn'srrorrr
lEUorsue.,,rp_ro^lr puE oLroz r^ro^ ..or.i#l:T'"il .g
.,Po5 ]EJJS eqt
Jo
eJEJ.IaJ,,
srJt
le JUoz e^rto'\
ruoz e^rro^
J"
":1"_r"r
Eur.,noils
soprqy,J:ilffi:'j .t
u^\ot unqE.J-JE
:rtnlrn]ls
JErJos Jo lapou
olrJo uv
.s
d¡loqntuow
Jo
eJels lre-raun¡
,q¿ ,,r"..,
rpcru_Jl3s
V
.,
lJnlls
J¿lJos Jo
suollEluasardar
Jeuotrr¿
t
sar¡s f¡>f qrru rdf8E
¡o
de1,g
T
rdf8E tuanrry
1o
f8o¡ouo;ri3
;
SEUNCIC
SE]g\/I
ONV
SEUnglil
ilO
ISI-I
In Socir
Richar
Middlt
uLvdr L
clas s
"
the en
than o
and pc
Richar
middir
Kingd
Comb
ancien
and st
variety
how -N
about
practi(
reveal
LIST OF FIGURES
AND TABLES
28. $/ealthl and
rü/eaith2
indices
29. Haraga Cemete r:y A: Grave sizes
30. Haraga Cemetcry A: Sizes of most securely. clated Tr,velfth
Dynastv graves
3i. Haraga Cemetery A:
plot
of grave sizes
32. Percenrages
of graves containing
selectecl materials in cemeteries ¡
and B at Har:rga
33. Haraga Cemetery A: \Vealthl index
34' Har:rga Cemetery A: \ilealthr incrices of most securely clatecl Ti'elf¡h
D,ynastt graves
35. Haraga Cemerery A:
\Wealth2
Inclex
36. Haraga Cemerery A:
plot
of graves by Vealthl index
37. Haraga Ccmererv A: Diversity index
38. Haraga: Effort expenditure
by \fe¿rlth1
39. Haraga: Effort expencliture
b1, Dir.ersitv
10. Haraga Cemetery B: Grave sizes
41. Haraga Cemerery B: Sizes of most securely dated T\r,elfrl.r
Dynastl, graves
12. Haraga Cemererv B:
plot
of graves by size
43. Haraga Cenerery B: \Vealthl
jndex
14. Haraga Cemetery B: \ilealth1 inclices of mosr securely clated Twelftn
Dynasty graves
45. Haraga Cemeterl. B: Wealth2 index
16. Haraga Cemetery B:
plot
of graves b,v size
47. Haraga Cemetery B: Diversity index
4x. Riqqa. r ieu of bunrl ehemher of grere 306
49. Riqqa Cernetery A: Grar.e sizes
50. Riqqa Cemeter,v A:
plot
of graves by size
51. Riqqa Cemeteries A and B:
percentages
of materials
52. Riqqa Cen'retery A:
rü/ealthl
index
-53. Riqqa Cemetery.A:
plot
of graves by \íealthl index
54. Riqqa Cemetery B: Grave sizes
55. Riqqa Cemcterl' B: \fealthl index
-56. Earlv rnap of Abydos from the Description
de l.Egypte
57. O'.erall map of Abydos showing areas of Middle Kingdom a*i\.irv
58. Magnerometric
map of rhe exrensive Old Kingclom
"i.l
Firr,
Ilrte¡mediate pe¡i
od cemeterv
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
(]+.
65.
Vierv across the Nortl'r Cemetery
with the Early Dynastic funerary
enclosure of Khasekhemwy
visible in the background
Peet's sketc}r map of Abydos
Conrposite map of Abydos Northern
Cemeterv
lu{ace Cernetery D
Garstang Cemete¡v L.
Famil,v graves in the Abvdos cemereries: Section of Currelly grave
M50 and plan of lou,est north and south chambers
Peet's rnl¡ of Lcmcrcrv S
7IZ
0rz
602
807
907
v0z
707.
107.
66r
86r
96r
s6I
t6I
€6r
76r
I6I
061
68r
L8L
98I
t8I
z8r
ILI
OLI
89r
L9I
L9I
991
991
S9I
v9L
t9I
Z9I
I9I
091
6Si
LSI
E-CI
7,SI
ISr
0sI
LVI
0I lEung 08/ N/0t8 a
-L}r
6 Ierrng 0g/ N/O'B E
.90I
S lErrng 08/ N/0t8 E
.s0t
/ lErrng 08/ N/0t8 E
.t0I
g
lErrng 0g/ N/Otg E
.E0l
t lErrng 08/ N/0t8 1
.70r
I lEr.lng 08/ N/0t8 a
.I0I
0Bl. N/0r8 E Jo
UPI¿
.00I
rrqruuqf,
I UELIS 06l N/O€g
;r
Jo
rrEld
.66
06l N/098 E Jo
LrEld
.86
slralqo
6 lEllng
.L6
I lEr-rng 081, N/0r8 E
.96
08/ N/Ofg a Jo
uEId
._q6
t lErrng 099 N/0t8 a
.v6
z lErrng 099 N/088 A
.€6
I IEIrlrg 099 N/0t8 1
.7.6
earE
099 N/0t8 E Jo
rn3ld
.16
IEr-rnq
g lJErls :E3.rE
SSg N/0g1, E
.06
lElrnq z
lJEr.[s :Er.]p
ssg N/ogl E
.6g
6-l
suErls :E3.rE
,qsg N/0g1. E Jo
rrEI¿
.gg
0t6 NlsTL E Jo
uEld
.18
069_088 N/02l E Jo
LrEId
,98
soPfqv quoN
]E LI.{\O]
POIJAd
J]EIPOUJJJ]LII
]SJIC JTl] TIJ :SIT]EJUI
JO
SIEIJNq JqI
.SB
drrtaruátr llt uI :uerplrqr
Jo
slerrnq eqI
.rg
s8ut-re¡;o
;o
rlqel E r.roJág poleas rau.\o a,le"r8 aql Bur,noqs nprq
Jo
Eirts otll
.fg
requrELIl
JErrnq
s.nPeC olur f.rlua peqleerq rr-[] ol tJeqs prtnroxa flaug u.¡op.,nar¡
.Zg
sa.,r,r: r3 ,,¡e
ss ,JTl;;::Hj:.::]:fr'l,l:]:l:
¿;
sl;Er,[s o.{\] qrr.tr
ledeqc
Egetsru
1]r-rqpnry
.6L
r.rarrod q,r^\ urrrorr
:J,,il,Jiffi:l1r,T';,.;)H,ilil*
ii
eJeJJnS UO
..SEqElsEur
rurul,, JJJrll
Jo
.{\ou
,gL
srd.{l trruEr¡r uropBUr¡ elpplW porrtlrnotruJ Ípuanba,r¡
rsotrl
.S
L
uoseas gg6[ Sur.rnp pale,le]xe scrlV
.lL
]SA]J]UI
JO
SE3JE
PArJI]LI3PI
A^I{ '€L
sllLrn patJrllol-af,EJ.rns Sur.troqs f;¡laue3 qr:o¡
;o
de1,1
.7L
J_rnttJtrLIJJP JtrPJJns
PSPJOJJJ
8ur.,noqs f.rerarua3 Lrrrr,l]roN sopfgy yo deur rrqde;8o<Jor g961
.IL
ne-Iaqaurs daroq>1aqo5
Jo
rlots f,rlErrrll
1o
Bur.,ne,rp eurl
.0L
sJnsoltue
rofq agt ul sEJJE pele^Etrxe
;o
deur s.Julsd
.69
aJnsollrJ.rafq eqr rrr sretE
PJIE^EJXJ ;o
deur s(Jrrtad
.g9
tt S
r^Er) uor¡ snatqg
.L9
_qz s
a^E.rc
Jo
uoDf,rs
.gg
sl-r€tvl oNV s¡dn9tl co Ist-l
In Sor
Rich¿
Midd
depar
cias s'
the er
than
and
¡
Rich¿
midd
King,
Com
ancie
and s
variel
how
abou
pract
revea
214
217
217
2t8
219
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
108. E 840/N 780 Burial 11
109. E 8,+0/N 780 Burial12
110. Burial 12 objects
111. Plan of F,860/N 600 area
112. E 860/N 600 Burial 4
TABLES
1. Peet Cemetery S Recorded Graves
2. Sex/Age Distribution by Grave Type
115-9
169
Sur.rds oqr rrr Bunoi Í¡1r::rBc.rr Íu,\r passrd oq,\ '!LIElluw-lr
ulrurs']cI
PLTaI"IJ
lErP.\tr

Related Interests

    stlorl
    -J¡rlP tLrJje]lrp
    Íucru Lrr peprrJtxJ sÍc,lr¡t srtl ].todclns JSoq,['ssu.uEH El]IJg'lC
    PLIJIJJ,\rLI
    ol
    1n;atu?
    LuE
    I.ltols
    i-r:a'-.¡ prre.?.roc13Lrr.rd5 clog'uolstS
    ¡rt14'srreg
    lrrqou s-Iolfarlcl o-¡Lr')
    IuEqt
    oslu
    1:ttr:¡d
    LIJ>FI esr,\Jrrlto a^Erl tolr plllol qtrg,n's]:rafo.rd p1a11 Íur -to1 slLt:tttrBtttrrlr
    fJL'rl
    pLrE slrorssrru.¡acl ¡.rnr¡s or
    IIEr
    erlr puoiacl
    PLrE
    eloqr auoS sÍt,n¡t a,rtq rdi8l LII -lJlur')
    rlrrrrsru LrEJrrrrrV eqr
    Jo JJErs
    rqt
    PLIE
    cltrlluq) ErfruY'orllrJ ul'(]rrford
    JI,NY
    f,rll
    J{)
    rr|'
    -ra¡^
    z00z
    aqr) eqst>1g
    Itrv IePqv Jt-ILlsv
    pur'(l:tolo-rd
    fI,\v
    rrlr
    Jo
    LIosErs
    t00z
    rqr)
    PIZr^ i¡
    nqv ily pluruELIol,{'(rratord
    Í.ralaura3 rlPPIIN sop,(qy rLIl
    JO
    suor^urs
    666I Purr'9661
    '-c661
    aqr) Í.ra¡a7 ti.ra>1utrr¡
    lepy'(rrosuas
    3361
    :t1l)
    PIquC PrLLrtlv
    uTPLIS)rH s'tol¡¡clsrtr
    YfS
    rlrL't"
    Ir()\
    ot .i¡rrrrr.l;o.lJo rqr:tt'Lr:.rJ.lu i¡d:r¡ ot¡r'l
    t00Z
    ul rtrt'i1ng-¡:
    Jo
    rolr)J\ul
    J)lql'/r/\
    Iapqv
    p¡LururrloJ
    i
    ot pue ieurÍ1rg-¡a;o:olradsul
    JslLIf
    e{1 sÜl\ srPrri Íuutu roJ orl^

    Related Interests

      cllllEtl)
      -[r prurlv ot
      j.4t'7
      L]rpclV rIrrZ rollarlQ
      IErrurD
      lue-rrur ol puu IrqüS-l¡ IlsIl\-la rrLIrr.\
      '-rCI
      -rotlJrrCI
      IUlturrJ
      lJLuloJ ol
      lnlarcrB
      i¡¡,r rut
      I
      eltJotlJs,to'¡ 3eqo5 ul'(LrorlIP¡d\l
      \.¡ly Jurl
      Jo.rlnluiLrl
      r¡n¡.r'rLrr.r¡.isulrf,d Jtl I illr.\ tlolturf,Joor ut
      l)l.lllfLlo)
      LLcirq.'t¡¡
      Jo
      Ítrsrr^rull aqt
      1o
      rreto.r¿ i,ralauraS rlPPlJ,N sopiqy erll'1r¡ford u,tro
      'itu Jo
      'Iolla-IIP
      aqt su tuasalcl eqt Lil
      I.ro,\
      tno -il-Lr'¡
      ol uorssrr-tt-l¡cI JI¡qt loJ
      \,'JS
      JLII
      Jo
      ¡slllruLuo) luJLltlLu'rJd
      tlrrrrllr rLIl plrt sse^\uH
      lqt,z'tQ
      ol oslr
      PrlclrPur
      Í1daep rut
      1
      '1n1alr:3 -i-ra'r ruu
      I
      tlrt{rt ro}
      'ld,t8g'1y3t¡
      selllnblluv
      Jo IIrunoJ
      aua-rcln5 rrll
      Jo
      rrlltruruo] llrruErulJd
      Jqr
      Puu:qrllutlf
      )
      f1y qr1¡rc1u.)'rC pLItr'urq-¡a lt"ION'-rC'1,\uS-lA
      P¡tut{V'rC IErJual
      sf,rrPle-lroS relrlro,l
      :r.rprf paurqy
      .JC
      Jlrl rql
      Jo
      Ltolssru-lad snor¡r:3 Jql lnoLIlI.\ alqrssocl LIesq J,\utl lotl
      PItlo.\
      Iro,\ 836I
      aq¡'sopiqy ol uottrpadrg e¡r1-urur:,rlistrua¿ (uegl) ¡LIl
      Jo
      sr()l-lrrlPo-r'uostlrurs
      i11a¡ urcr¡1r¡¡ pLrE roLtuoJ(O
      PI^E(f JO
      lroddns JLII ol slutrll i:el;lura3 r1]ro¡r¡ sopitly:ql rtt
      illrrrrur suoDu\üJxD tf,JJrp ot Jlc'lu sE.\
      1
      'rpntrre:8
      JO
      slqep lsJJaruls erll J^\o
      I
      ruoq,\ ol sLIoil
      -ntnsur prrr suos.rati
      1o
      tsr¡ ?uo1 e dn rlrnq e,tr:q
      1'poulcl
      LuoPBuI)l p1¡¡ Eurpara;cl rLIl ur
      ¡ro'\
      -f
      lJU
      .luJ-r).t Jtutu .(ru \.rltlodlo.ruL {)\ll: lrrql u()r.lIll¡\lf irtt ut
      ¡r'rz
      ilt'uu
      ¡ ¡t:t:rlt'Lu
      rtropl-trr¡
      rtppltr.\ JL[]
      Jo
      LIOISI^aJ f,,\Isllrlxe
      PUE
      LIollElIsl.\Jl r '1o()rl stql Sullt:'lr
      Jo
      JSlnoJ JLll Lll
      'JlrrS lJÁJ
      ¡ro,n
      ti1.tr1ogls fut
      1o
      snJoJ
      IElluJl
      lu pJLrrELusJ seq sadr:tspucl i;rnl.ro[r slr pLrE lcii8l
      1o
      i8o¡oaur¡r-rc ar¡l ol Í11u.rcua3 a:oru puu
      sopÍqy
      Jo
      etrs aqt or Í¡1crr1r:rads prur,roJ
      I
      rtrlt ru¡LuLIrEltü rrlt',(qcltriSrda ro] re^eosltrl^\ lu¡ltl
      ou prrl
      J
      tulll
      6srrlu
      ',t1¡:rrnb
      ,(;a.r pa;a,rolstp
      1q?noqrly'rrorlrp:rdx1
      e1c¡-ttuu't'1-istruJd
      rrll
      'roJ
      Lros
      -uas rrgcfuJSrclJ s.urrllJJ,\lrs pr]\E(f
      Jo
      laqruJlu tuJPnls alunpe:8 e sc'ldi31 urftllllos ul \oP'(!l\
      lc adcrsprrrl i.r¡laruar tJJSJp,\ol Jrll ot trsl,\ ts.rr; iru a¡urs s:tei Ílu¡,rtl;(1;cau uaacl
      ^\ou
      slrLI ll
      SINE l^lgc¡S1^ ONvDV
      In Sc
      F.ich
      I',:.
      .lr.l-
      .-.-,.s
      :lta i
      :ilAr
      a¡rd
      n;^L
      L I
      mid
      Kini
      Con
      anci
      and
      vari
      hou
      abo
      pra(
      rev€
      ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      of 200'1. r'vas a precious touchstone for mc on all of nrv tril-rs to Egvpt, and her generous ancl
      kincl spirit r'vill be sorel¡.- missed bv me ancl evervone r.vho knelv her.
      Thc 1988 Abyclos field crerv norkecl tirelcssh., ¿rnd rnv gratitude to ancl ¿rdrniration for them
      hirs ouh'ir-rtcnsificd in the ve¿rs surcc we communally sulvir-ed "the hottest
      1.ear
      in ten in the
      N4ecliterranean": Brcnd¿r Baker,
      Jacqui
      Cron'le1., Elizabeth Hamilton, Steve Han.c]., and Lisa
      l(calhofer, in cooperation rvith the li,rte Rcis N,ioharlrmcd Ali, his son (and norv Reis) lbrahim
      Mohammed Ali, specialsrs f¡om thc villagc of
      Qift,
      and a large crer,r' of local peoplc u<rrkirrg
      fctr the proiect. The ñouse sttrff at Abvdos, Musrafa Hanafi, Abclu Alfur r

      Related Interests

        fol.rarnmecJ S:rleh,
        Abdel Latif It¡rahim Abdel Latif, :rncl Hass¿ur Mutu,ell¿r Abdulla, kept us comfortable, killecl
        suakcs, and suppliecl endlcss colcl drinks er.en aftur the refngur-rtol broke dorvn. Spccial thanks
        must go to Lisa l(ealhofer ancl Brenda Baker, to w.hom goes:r l:,Lrge por:tion of the creclit for the
        overall success of the seasort. The rvork w¿rs supported financiallr- b-v a National Scicnce
        Founclation Disscrtation ltnpror-enrent Grant, an Americ¿rn Rescarch Center in Egvpt/Unitcd
        Statcs Informatiorr Agencv fellon'ship, and funds from the Deparrmenrs of Anthropologl',
        LJrrir,crsit,v of Pcnnsvlvalria, and the Egvptiar-r Section, Universitv tuseum.
        For morc rcceltt work, I thank the personnel of thc Abyclos -N{icldle Cemeterr, Projcct u,ho par-
        ticipatecl iu the :rspects of thc n'orl< most rclevant to the topic of tl-ris book: Penny Minturn ancl
        Atrtra I(onst¿tntatos, \,ho excavated tlie X,liddle Kingclonr pair statue of Intef ancl Ita n 1999;
        Am¿rncla Sprochi, rvhose ccramic ana]r'sis establishcd tlrat tl're sr¿rrue \'¿1s ñIiddle l(ingdon'r, not
        Saire Pcriod(!); I(orri Tr,rrner, r.vhose p1-rotographl. of its conrexr and are¿l aclorns tliese pagcs;
        (ieoff
        Comptot.t, the project survc\or; Tot-nasz Herbich ancl l(rzl.stztof Stilr,varz, n'ho carricd ollt the
        magnetic surrev in 2002; Rcis Ibrahim l{ohammecl Ali ancl his crerv of s¡recialists from
        Qift;
        and
        A1'rrnct Rageb, House X4au:Lger of the Pennsl'lvania-Yale Institute of Fine Arts Expedition housc
        and the clrrrent staff of thc l.rouse (Hassan N4itr,r'alli, Mustaf¿r Hanafi, Sinjab AbdLrl Rahim,
        Abclcl Latif Abclel Latif, Lashiin Al-rmccl Lasl-riin, Abdin, Zacaria Abdul Nur, and Walicl
        Hammen). Thc AN4C project is and h:,Ls been prornoted in er.crv rv¡r'bv Elaine Gazcla anci
        Sharon Herbert, past ancl current Directc¡rs of the I(elser'-N'luseum, :rnd supportecl fitrancially b-v
        the Universrt)'of Michigarr (l(else¡' Nfuscum; Office of the Vice Provosr for Research; Collegc of
        Liter,rture, Sciencc, rn.l the Arts; ancl Ne¿rr F,astern Stuclies Departnrent), the Institutc of Fine
        ArtsiNelv York Universitr; tl.re National Geographic Societl', Terry Rakolta, N.'larjorie Fishcr,
        aud an anon-vmous donor.
        For thc tcchnic¿rl preparation of this book, I ern ver)'grateful to man-v friencls ancl colleagues:
        I(av Clahasser'- and Lars Fogclin for large numbers of bcautifulll. executcd figures (arrcl all clone
        undcr a tight deadline); i(arcn O'Bnen for soldiering on r,vith the referenccs; M:rrgaret Lourie for
        assistance r.vith the figr-rres; Terr:r'Vilforrg for: the gorgcorls graphic of :L generalized Xrlidclle
        I(ingdom rock-cut gravc; Gall' Beckm¿rn for eclitorial suggestions; Helen Bal<er,
        .fackie
        N{onk,
        Jcnnifer
        Nester, ancl Debbie Fitch of the l(elsev Muscr.rm front officc for hanclling financial ancl
        computer and suppl,v issucs; and Donna Hcrron formerlv of the I(else,r,; Maric Mcl(night of the
        Mltseum of Antl-rro¡rologr'-, ancl Susarr Pettc,vs of Near Eastern Studies, also for hclp u'ith financial
        issues. I am gr:ateful to mcmbers of rnv book "bucldl'" groups for their support, enc()uragement!
        arrd frienclship over thc
        ycars:
        Ca¡:la Sinopoli, Lisa Young, Thelma Thomas, ancl Marjorie Fisher;
        Christina r\Iclntosh, nüo organizecl much of the fielcl material;anc1 Brcncla B¿rkcr for once again
        stepping into the breach to help out r'vith upclatecl bioarcl-raeological information on the 1988
        \ liddlc l(ingdonr hunr¡n renr.rin'.
        For help n'ith sccuring permission to reproduce imagcs, I thank Stephen
        Qurrke
        at thc Petric
        Muscum of Arc}raeologt', Universitv College Lonclon; Patricja
        J.
        Spenccr -rr thc Egrpt
        ,ELl' rurq o, s'r
        .uorss.uqns
        o, ,,,,,.r,,:.i]"ii:,Íl:,rü1llJ,::rxlli]il,jrrlill,l;;.,.
        -¡n¡d¡aq
        prtt aluatlecj
        strl Srrruttluteru
        p'e'e1.r¡-,
        pLrE sEJpr
        qruo-rcrcrr
        l
        s.{ü.no aqr ol slsr.rr ¡-ur:.r pu' luar{Jlp 3ur'lr8'asnru
        pLr.
        .¡-urrrs'or,,
        lnrrÉo1odu,.¡,r" i* iu,r';,r.rrr,
        ur rlr.Lr ol rr¡1.:r.
        j
        '*eN
        rnde¿ tlt Jlls
        I,Io.\p[elJ
        l],!\o 5^rrJ LLro{ s-la'el E'rssor8.r,
        p.," u-J,rual,eaq
        Hurp'as
        g¡¡r_ .
        -
        tu,,tu,t1:,:rF
        ".rrs
        l-rocl.l,r,
        ;o
        ,,"¡1,.i
        r,,,,riu,r. 1r Lrracl sELI Lps,')i
        -rrEr.rrS
        .rsrrJ
        ra^ru
        l.cl ls-.-_
        'r'p$oq
        '(r1ag ¡'>u,,'"i:.::j$:r'ü#Hr:fi'fi:T*:fl
        liil,':];'l[,T:];*':';':;.''
        -ro] Lulr
        J
        'rDlolltrs
        t sP ]rrauclola'rap
        ¡u'os'racI
        -{ur ol os¡c
        rnq
        rooci
        s^rr ol
        'oJuo
        rou ¡Jqr11rr\ur
        Lr.:- J'\utJ LIoIlEs-rJ'ru<¡¡
        Futl¡-e¡¡lur
        -i¡claap
        prtu Sutiirrcr-epr,n
        u.{ueru
        Jo
        asJrlof JrJl JJlo suor¡s-.,-:..-
        puu slq;l-tsur sIq pLrE
        (¡66
        ¡
        .rcurs
        lr¡aur¡Hu¡r.r.¡r,"
        ,.r*, ,ir.,,
        -.
        .:;,.:.1-.:.:'.l
        an;r-ee¡¡.:
        pur puJr,r; .\I^r
        .srpJ^
        .{u*r ,ralo .rorntt"
        c1¡ar¡
        ¡<l
        ar-r.os Í¡rup E u3Jq sELl 3'o1¡r--q.i,r-:
        zi,,,r.¡,,,u,r*
        pr. ,',.,,io,.r
        .,g ,,.¡,,
        ;,;,
        ,;,r.:;liil ii,'r:l':illi:l';ffi:::i
        ]l.,lj,
        .11,,".
        Pr'trrru
        'o;aq ruopSrrr¡1
        srpprl,{.iru
        o1
        |r1a1r:3
        .ua¡ uu
        J
        irrlunb
        ¡¡"rr,ro
        ,r, ur Jrur.r{Jlp
        Jo f i-
        E aPEL'
        ldt¡¡struuru
        JElrrJ
        cLJl
        1r':utli¡'"
        ¡rar¡lool-JLrrJ l1c1rp:-rr'r
        puE Lro srq;-.or¡r
        sno¡eua'
        ¡s,,.: 'sauIEfl
        uqol ruo'l¡ drqs-rtJotJls
        Jo
        s¡¡aclsusir"1r,,n,r.
        ur uorre;rcJsur
        Jo
        JSop Bgo¡rs u put_. .irr.: .
        rLIJrluE rro s'Jpr;o
        a'urqrxe
        J'nu''otr
        e pa.rofrra e,\rlr
        J.sJp'JJp o,\l Lrrrrl a-ro.u
        -roJ -rorLro ).
        Pl^PQ
        tuo'lJ'rro'!\pl¡u
        ¡rrr3010euq:;p
        Jo
        ¡^rs,i[Eur
        ¡-ruu
        arr]rud
        eLIr pLrE,e¡rr¡uc1
        _i:¡¡:-.
        .. prrr _rlar¡os
        uurld.{Bq
        tLrJrtrLrE
        ¡o
        s8ur>¡,ro,lr
        Jql
        lnoqE uJtJi ot e1c1c it_uraq
        1o
        .tÍia1r.ruc.l
        lB¡¡F .i.. . slsor uoIlPP'rtot
        t"nttt'\t:l:t¡
        sl¡ 'salr¡nbp'Y
        Jo llru.or
        aruercln5
        aqr,ro¡ rár,p. ur su ilur>¡-ro.r,.
        .,
        .
        'LItILIE)
        arrurf
        ,¡o
        .i,re8¡us
        JEr-rolrpJ
        ,."J._pj,,o^
        Jrll prrE
        ,ss¡-ld.ilrs;e,rru¡
        e;pr-rq1ru3

        jr)r.:-.
        -totrtas
        '1qa¿ eliltBag
        ;o
        dleq puu lrr¡s3¡orn,rrl,
        rooq
        srq'uo'e,rrcisur
        rE,1'rrrarlrr ssrrpunocr
        ,.*";:i,:l;üfiüj::,;ll]..]::,;:r:::].lrl,,
        .
        It lpri \ aq lou
        P[no.\ Iooq
        slq]:<¡,pa,no
        "-,"
        rr1,r"q,
        Ftrads,ra_ra,\oq,a¡cloaa Sur,lro¡l15
        aqr or '(irnrEls
        :rrcr;alrrJ
        aqr Burrrlsur,rr
        qrr,'. cl¡eq'rrarJr
        .a>J'e;g
        'J1r.r['pun
        'oqor.rl
        uo¡
        -
        rs'l rul ttt puu) srq'noql
        llrql ..ro{ illra;B
        palurrrrq
        pur
        ¡ra,ro[ua
        r,rir.¡
        1
        -u.,*.r.^rrs
        pr_\ra
        r,.:
        'tuE,II EUrlus
        'lr'I-unog aLrruef
        .;au;-ar¡
        j.rn¡
        ;,"rr"rr,rolt
        rrlr*uo(J
        ,r,u*,py
        _n.JLIllrtr.V
        .rIur_i
        1e1raq 'a>¡:tn| ueqdar5
        'ErE,\oru-I -rara.J
        ,r,oqo_rd"1
        p1.r,ro¡
        ,rn.rñ
        ,.ro1 o_urpn1.ur
        ,e¡tlr_.-
        Áu'tu Lrlr"[
        lr'ru-r
        Je'\o ¡o tros¡ad ul
        )ooq
        JLI]
        Jo
        lrrJllror ¡LIl passnls^rp r-,\¿ri
        J
        s,rue,i aqr.ir.i¡¡ '(;auFa¡¡
        rasnoH ra;rruef'o,
        u.¡" .1.,"q,
        qr,,oi .uu.rn1,,q
        rruE.\J,isrtrrd
        Jo
        .ilrsra,\lrr1l
        .¡¡LLU¡
        \ir.
        P'rECl
        ol
        ¡.rut '(q:uu¿ ErrEre
        pLrE
        ,.rraquaddg
        piap' ,rr¡Jlv
        sa,uuf ár or,,, ,rJrl,rrr::;,
        i,' l-rv
        Jo
        ulllJsl1¡tr' urlrlodo-rl;rl{'¡llorr-iy
        EJrlloJ(,o
        ol s)irrqr.iru:1ooc1
        srql rrr passnJsrp s¡.\¡rol so¡-r'iqy aql Sirtpuno-r:ns
        senssl agl
        ;o 'tu.,ru rno.ln ,¡ur.J, .l Ílr'n¡.roilcfo
        eqr pnLJ
        I
        Llf,rq,\
        Jo
        rs-rro: aql Frrt'rnp
        ,,'rcl,i'q lurlrlrY ru -i1r¡¡.,5
        ¡.u. 1"npr.rrpul,, pa'r¡¡¡¡ i'o¡oarqr.ry
        ¡o
        'rnas.¡-r
        .ias1r¡, aql tr-'ea'i
        lsPJ
        PJlullll I
        tlolllqlqxJ.,",rt
        r-r.p,,.¡ ol
        IruJlrJF
        os[E ru'
        J
        ,irrr,rr,r,,r11J]'ls
        'Lrozl-ry
        J(
        tsleg EprrJ,rB
        pur lumu.rl
        isrruJ¿
        Jo
        .irrs-r:_vrr¡ :rrJr
        Jo
        slucpy r\eq¡uJ,{ :_ilrsJr.\rrrll
        TloI
        ,!\JNiist,ty
        suIC
        JO
        alnlllsul JLII ttr.lorruoJ,O 'g
        pi_\EC Íruna.sntrq
        erue,r¡.isuu.l¿
        Jo
        _ilrs.r¡.rrull
        ¡rJt lE uELu-r¡.\lrq
        a PJr\EQ
        ia;r-pr'rqrue''¡'unasn¡*
        ruElIr.\z]rg
        rrrl lE Lrorqsy
        u'y-,t¡¡u5:ilr.os
        uorrc,rolcrrq
        SINSWDO!-IAAONYf
        V
        .uorssltJsrp
        oLIt UroJJ _
        Se^rJÉ p._
        -ol3P
        PtlE Pccllrlstll IEILTJIUI1LIOtLI u'\o loLl
        PJP
        otl \
        -
        sotllJLlorr
        papn[JXa seq Á11urrrrrur,-.
        snJoj tr q.ns'suoll'lof,JP
        Jel-IolJId
        put
        ¡enrxal
        rIJLll -tc¡ pepr.to-rcl uorluLU.roJLrr
        Irr¡o: -
        sseullrql
        pa'rtc:-Iac1 eLIl
        Jo
        asltúrJLl suorssnlslp
        áseql ur fltuauruto,rcl
        c,rnlc¡J s^J^urf
        Ir]lu:-_.
        -uou alll¡'p'rorer
        ¡urr8o1'euque'errcliSq rLrJrJLrE cqr
        ¡o
        slred Jlqrssrrr'
        rsoru Jr.[]
        -JO
        --_.
        'artla
        lsaq8rq rql roJ PIEP Íl'nlroru
        J.
        uorlcle¡xa
        J{J rilrrn
        -
        sarJorrJl esJLIr
        Jo
        -{urru ur :
        '

        Related Interests

          repuorrs u
          'tr¡d
          or
          PrPurl
          r'\trq €lEp
          1rrr3o¡oaer¡rrv
          'lrs
          ElEp porro,rl u uo prspLl Lre¡q ..-
          :
          sutrlclÍ83
          ltlJI:ILIE ar{l
          JO
          tlortEZttteS;o
          Jenos
          ar-Jl Brrrpuno.r,rr,,
          ,ar-rorqr rLIr
          Jo
          lsoru
          ,-r¡.\).,
          'sál'rnos rrqdr:'8ouo'pLrE
          l'nlxel
          p,p.\ol sr:rq
          ¡r:rr8o¡ord.(Fg ruarequr LrE
          lo
          ¡snr-r.rg
          'otllll
          sllll lE sJuJLIIruoJd
          pc'relqru puu aduqs
          Toot
          ssElr ¡rpplru € lErrl sl)-aql eLIl -rElnrr-rr- .
          P-IEi\-loJ
          Sutllnd',i,rorsrq
          ltsrros
          r]r-r,\ ol rrr8acl s,r€lor{trs
          le¡r8olorcljFg reqr ruop8ur¡1
          r1¡.r.._
          el] r{JIÁ\ sE^\
          lI
          'spolrad
          Surpcra'rd
          Jo
          asoql ttEr{l pcrJEÁ áJoru pue slloreLunlr J-roul rllo!l r-
          lcf iSE urop8ul) eiPpllr'{ L'ori sllrELlrr,r
          [Errr]eLU
          lp¡lrra..rr.r¡op
          Ílsnor,ra.,cl
          ueql fla.os
          lrr:r:
          rr]l
          Jo
          slá^JJ J-Iotll strlJs^o-rcJa-r
          pue por,iacl slql ,roJ sesEJltrut ,{¡¡lrrlrruu.tp
          spur)
          JIp Jo
          arLlf f
          [Pn]x¡f
          'Qojz'¿eet
          uosr-rr¡rt¿) Puar'
          l']rlrlod
          er-¡r
          'rqlr,*
          suorll'J Íq poretrd.a:cl scfr.r:,:.
          -
          su'\
          l'ql alucrsJ-IoLJJc
          f;r:;a1t¡ E
          PJSsrtttL!\
          ptte
          'ro.,trod pázrJErlurJ JaJrls
          Jo
          surrel r, rlr-1r.. .: -
          'atutl
          ,,1tlts-selt',
          E sE sc^Jásrurql
          suerrdi'E
          aqr fq pa,*cr,r sun ruop'ur¡,1 rrppr'^ rLI_L
          .
          : :
          ]fjT-vlsT
          El) spol,¡d ol'Ipa.'lellll
          lsrrq pLrE ruop8rrr;,J
          plo rar'l rr[] Lrr prr'rrur slroilrii... _
          -stlEll
          IEtrrlIIocl
          prre
          '¡t:l8o¡oapr'lerros
          Jo
          Lrorl'rr*ulnf
          ¡q]
          ^\ES
          l'rll EJJ rr':r,olsrLI
          ucrri.r: ;
          ;o,irolrafelt
          eqt urqli^\ porrocl
          ¡eto,rrd
          e su,n (rfrr
          0S9I_0r02) ..,opA,r,; rlppltr{ rrll
          .r¡uer-if,
          lerros Jo
          sasaqrocl,(q
          p::
          -Jc'rap slsr30¡orc1'{3E
          rJlq'\ r(T por-rad
          JtJr.rolslLI
          rsrrJ rql eroJcraql su,n u-ropHur;¡ rrpp¡\ .,_
          'eut¡dtrsrp oql urqlrlN'(ara
          g-c91-6
          107'n 'sarlsuu-ip LI.luJrl.r*ll
          oqr q¡.',rrJr qlue,\rlr
          -r¡r.:-
          utop8ur¡'J rlppll{ rrerrdÍ8g rql LrrLIr^\ Brrril se lJ*ls
          l'rros
          srq]
          Jo
          lxoluotr
          1e:rfio¡ou.:-
          -
          aLIl
          PrIJIIucpr
          a']\Erl s'rEIorPs iiJ¡errgrrads 'pelEn[€^a
          ÍlIu¡rlurua]srs
          uraq _ra,\oLr sELI r:-
          -
          rr.rlclrunsse
          ur'fl'' o'llrulrailrlu
          puorcs fFr:c aqr Srrunp
          rciÍ'g ur esoJ'..ssEItr
          JIpp.Li..
          r
          Y
          -L

          Related Interests

            'H-r- flilr.ryulrr'r
            rylr3Ololdr3l
            lrJ-L Nr
            gfrrls
            crfH-,JN()r
            o rr,r,.r-r,,'roor.,"¡l
            NOIIDNOO¿IIN
            t
            Inl
            Ric
            I,tir
            J^-
            uci
            cia
            rhe
            ¡f. .
            an(
            Ric
            mI(
            Ki¡
            Co;
            an(
            hor
            abc
            pra
            re

            Related Interests