International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print

),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
107











STRENGTH & DENSITY OF AN AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE
USING VARIOUS AIR ENTRAINING AGENTS


Shashank Gupta
1
, Shiva Garg
2


1, 2
Civil Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India



ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present paper is to study the changes in the strength characteristics of
autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and also the density when different expansion agents are used. The
expansion agent so used releases air in the concrete thereby making it lighter by reducing its density. It
also increases the workability of the concrete. The various air entraining agents used for this study are
hydrogen peroxide, oleic acid and olive oil. The addition of these agents causes the concrete to rise like
cake but it reduces the strength of concrete due to the formation of air voids. The amount of agents
chosen for concrete production are 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by weight of cement.

Key Words: AAC, Olive Oil, Hydrogen Peroxide, Oleic Acid, Steam Curing.

1. INTRODUCTION

In year 1923, ACC was first developed in Europe. AAC is not only best for its structural
insulation property available today but also for its easy & fast installation as the material which can be
cut to the desired size on the construction site. AAC is a well known environment friendly construction
material. The production process of AAC does not emit any pollutants and emanates no harmful waste
products. All waste products can be reused, produced during the manufacturing process.
Recently, AAC has been used as a substitute for normal concrete in various structural
applications related with construction cost because of its light weight, considerably reducing the dead
weight of structures and its eco-friendly nature. The density of lightweight aerated concrete plays a
more important role than its strength. Lightweight aerated concrete with almost same strength reduces
its self-weight as a result of decreased density [1]. Lightweight aerated concrete can easily be produced
by utilizing waste material as well as natural lightweight aggregate [2]. Aerated concrete has been
widely used for many years. A slurry is formed by mixing the ingredients of AAC, which are then
poured into the metal moulds. The reaction between the air entraining agents and other components
present in the mix results in expansion (rise) in the mould & formation of "cake". After stripping out
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
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the mould carefully, they are then put into an autoclave, in which it is steamed cured under pressure)
Then, AAC prepared can be shipped to the desired site and immediately used after autoclaving.

1.1 Research Significance
The use of air entraining agent increases workability and its resistance to abrasion, lower
permeability and satisfactory chemical resistance. Structures made out of AAC are less susceptible to
freezing and thawing. Also, AAC can be used to build structures in areas with high seismicity as it can
absorb the shock waves and lower their amplitude. It can also be used to manufacture structures which
are likely to be exposed to moderate to severe exposure conditions such as sewer structures. Addition
of olive oil which is a fatty acid results in reduction in both flexural as well as compressive strength of
concrete. Addition of oleic acid results in better workability at lower water cement ratios. It lubricates
the cement particles and forms a mono-molecular film around it. Addition of oleic acid also reduces
the absorption capacity of hardened concrete. Since, in the preparation of concrete no coarse
aggregates have been used, so in order to increase the compressive strength, some amount of gypsum
is added to it. Calcium carbonate is the chief component responsible for the binding of various
constituents together. So to ensure that it is present in adequate amount, lime is added into the mixture.
Lime also provides the necessary heat that is required for the setting of mixture into the mould. It helps
in reduction of setting time of the mixture due to this additional heat liberated.

2. MATERIALS

1. Cement: OPC 43 cement was used confirming to IS :12269. The initial setting time of the cement
was 35 minutes and final setting time was 360 minutes.

2. Fine-Aggregate: Locally available silica sand was taken and sieved through 300 microns and is
used constantly for every experiment throughout the casting.

3. Lime: Locally available lime was taken and added 100% by weight of cement.

4. Gypsum: Locally available gypsum was taken and added 20% by weight of cement.

5. Oleic acid: It was used in 0.5% to 1.5% by weight of cement.

6. Olive acid: It was used in 0.5% to 1.5% by weight of cement.

7. Hydroden Peroxide: It was used in 0.5% to 1.5% by weight of cement.

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

3.1 Preparation of test specimen
All the Test specimens were cubes of size 150 x 150 x 150mm cast in moulds made of steel
(Figure 1). The cubes formed were kept for a time period of 15 to 18 minutes under normal room
temperature conditions and moulds were removed. They were then subjected to steam curing and then
drying.

3.2 Steam curing process
The process of autoclaving is done in a steam curing chamber. After the concrete in the mould
solidifies, it is put in the autoclaving chamber for 8-10 hours at a temperature of about 200ºC and 9-10
bars of pressure. At such a high temperature and pressure, the sand reacts with calcium hydroxide and
produces calcium silica hydrate which gives the concrete its desired properties
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
109

3.3 Process
Raw materials stated in section 2 are mixed in the desired proportion to achieve the best
possible mix design as explained further. A sample of 150mm x150mm x 150mm is prepared by
mixing 1 kg of cement,1 kg of lime, 200gm of gypsum and 3000gm of water. Then the mixture
proportions remains constant and the air entraining agents are added to it in the proportions 0.5%,1%
and 1.5% respectively. After mixing all the constituents in the desired proportion, the mould is filled
up to 75 percent of the height of the mould.


Fig.1: AAC cube being made at lab using H
2
O
2

With the passage of time, the concrete rises up to the top due to evolution of gas.. This happens
because of the liberation of gas in the concrete which causes the concrete to rise up to the top. The fatty
acids or hydrogen peroxide reacts with the oxides present in lime and cement to produce gases. As
these gases increase the total volume of the concrete mix, it results in rising up of the mass. The
Water/Cement ratio is kept constant for preparing each sample.


Fig.2: Porous structure of AAC

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The results summarizes the compressive strength and the dry density of the autoclaved aerated
concrete, prepared with the addition of three different admixtures, Hydrogen peroxide, oleic acid and
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
110

Olive oil with three different percentages as 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. Based on the test result obtained
and observing the graphs, the replacement of admixture reduces the dry density of the autoclaved
aerated concrete but the corresponding compressive strength of the mix also get reduced. Adding the
air entrained agents in the mix reduced the dry density considerably as compared to the conventional
concrete. Less segregation and bleeding was also observed in addition to a better homogeneity in the
autoclaved aerated concrete. The results are also plotted on the graphs showing dry density of the
concrete & compressive strength at different proportions obtained shown in Table 1 & Table 2.

Table 1: Compressive strength of autoclaved aerated concrete














4.1. Compressive Strength Test Results
Table 1 summarizes the reduction in compressive strength of autoclaved aerated concrete as
the percentage of replacement of the admixture was increased. The decrease of the compressive
strength for all autoclaved aerated concrete can been largely after replacing the admixture from 1% to
1.5%. The observed reduction shows similar type of trends that was seen in the some of the previous
research work done. The entrapped air within the concrete leading to formation of pores within, which
is the reason for decrease of strength of the autoclaved aerated concrete. Based on percentage of air
entrained in the concrete, the percentage of decrease of strength was observed. Further from the graph
1, the conclusion was made that hydrogen peroxide gave the maximum compressive strength as
compared to the remaining agents, Olive oil and oleic acid.



3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
0 1 2
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
m
m
2
% of admixture added
Graph 1. Compressive Strength vs. % of
Admixtures
Oleic
acid
Hydroge
n
peroxide
Olive Oil
S.no Type of Admixture
used
% of
admixture
added
Compressive
Strength
N/mm
2
1 Oleic acid 0.5 6.88
2. Oleic acid 1 6.06
3. Oleic acid 1.5 4.24
4. Hydrogen peroxide .5 7.92
5. Hydrogen peroxide 1 7.14
6. Hydrogen peroxide 1.5 5.80
7. Olive Oil 0.5 7.46
8. Olive Oil 1 6.86
9. Olive Oil 1.5 5.02
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
111

4.2 Density of Autoclaved Entrained Concrete
Table 2 summarizes the reduction in density of autoclaved aerated concrete as the percentage
of replacement of admixture is increased. The observed reduction shows similar type of trends that was
seen in the research work previously done, that is the reduction of density of concrete as compared to
the conventional concrete. The entrapped air within the concrete leading to formation of pores within
is the reason for decrease of density of the autoclaved aerated concrete. Based on percentage of
entrapped air, the percentage of decrease of density was observed. Further on the table 2 and the graph
2, the conclusion was made that Oleic acid gave the best results in reduction of density as compared to
other admixtures.

Table 2: Density of air entrained concrete



















5. CONCLUSION

1). Autoclaved aerated concrete block has the low density when compared to the conventional
concrete Therefore, it's use results in reduced dead weight of structure which results in overall
economy.
2). It has been inferred from the graph 2, Density v/s % admixture added, that oleic acid results in
maximum reduction of density as compared to other air entraining agents, hydrogen peroxide
and olive oil.
S.no Type of Admixture
used
% of
admixture
added
Dry Density
(N/mm
2
)
1. Oleic acid 0.5 556
2. Oleic acid 1 492
3. Oleic acid 1.5 458
4. Hydrogen peroxide .5 628
5. Hydrogen peroxide 1 560
6. Hydrogen peroxide 1.5 535
7. Olive Oil 0.5 592
8. Olive Oil 1 528
9 Olive Oil 1.5 492
400
450
500
550
600
650
0 1 2
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
% of admixture added
Graph 2. Density vs. % of Admixtures
Oleic acid
Hydrogen
peroxide
Olive Oil
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 107-112 © IAEME
112

3). It has been inferred from the graph 1, compressive strength v/s % admixture added, that use of
oleic acid results in least compressive strength in comparison to other air entraining agents,
hydrogen peroxide which gives maximum compressive strength and olive oil.
4). The dry density and compressive strength of the mix reduces slowly when the admixture
proportion is increased from 0% to 0.5% and then to 1%.
5). From the graph 1 & 2, it can be inferred that the dry density and compressive strength of the mix
reduces gradually when the admixture proportion is increased from 1% to 1.5%.

6. REFERENCES

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