Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai

Born 28 January 1865
Dhudike, Punjab, British India
Died 17 November 1928 (age 63)
Lahore, Punjab, British India
Organization Indian National Congress, Arya Samaj
Movement Indian Independence movement
Religion Hinduism

Lala Lajpat Rai , (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian Punjabi author and
politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for independence from the British
Raj. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesarimeaning The Lion of Punjab also known as "Sher-E-
Punjab" in Punjabi. He was part of the Lal Bal Pal trio.
[1]
He was also associated with activities
of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages. He sustained
serious injuries by the police when leading a non-violent protest against the Simon Commission and
died less than three weeks later. His death anniversary (17 November) is one of several days
celebrated as Martyrs' Day in India.
Early life
Lajpat Rai was born in Dhudike (now in Moga district, Punjab) on 28 January 1865.
[2][3][4]
(The word
'Lala' is an honorific, applied to prominent Hindu men of the time.) His father was an Aggarwal by
caste .
[5]
Rai had his initial education in Government Higher Secondary School, Rewari (now in
Haryana, previously in Punjab), in the late 1870s and early 1880s, where his father, Radha Krishan,
was an Urdu teacher. Rai was influenced by Hinduism and created a career of reforming Indian
policy through politics and writing.
[6]
(When studying law in Lahore, he continued to practice
Hinduism. He became a large believer in the idea that Hinduism, above nationality, was the pivotal
point upon which an Indian lifestyle must be based.) Hinduism, he believed, led to practices of peace
to humanity, and the idea that when nationalist ideas were added to this peaceful belief system, a
non-secular nation could be formed. His involvement with Hindu Mahasabha leaders gathered
criticism from the Bharat Sabha as the Mahasabhas were non-secular, which did not conform with
the system laid out by the Indian National Congress.
[7]
This focus on Hindu practices in the
subcontinent would ultimately lead him to the continuation of peaceful movements to create
successful demonstrations for Indian independence. He was a devotee of Arya Samaj and was
editor of Arya Gazette, which he set up during his student time.
[8]
After studying law at the
Government College in Lahore, Lajpat Rai practised at Hissar and Lahore, where he helped to
establish the nationalistic Dayananda Anglo-Vedic School and became a follower of Dayananda
Sarasvati, the founder of the conservative Hindu society Arya Samaj ("Society of Aryans"). After
joining theIndian National Congress, and taking part in political agitation in the Punjab, Lajpat Rai
was deported to Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar), without trial, in May 1907. In November, however, he
was allowed to return when the viceroy, Lord Minto, decided that there was insufficient evidence to
hold him for subversion. Lajpat Rai's supporters attempted to secure his election to the presidency of
the party session at Surat in December 1907, but elements favouring co-operation with the British
refused to accept him, and the party split over the issues.


















Bal Gangadhar Tilak
.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Born 23 July 1856
Ratnagiri, British India(present-
day Maharashtra,India)
Died 1 August 1920 (aged 64)
Mumbai, British India (present-day India)
Nationality Indian
Organization Indian National Congress
Movement Indian Independence Movement
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilakhelp·info); 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav
Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, journalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an
independence activist. He was the first leader of theIndian Independence Movement. The British
colonial authorities called him "Father of the Indian unrest." He was also conferred with the honorary
title of "Lokmanya", which literally means "accepted by the people (as their leader)".
[1]

Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of "Swaraj" (self-rule) and a strong radical in
Indian consciousness. He is known for his quote, "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it!" in
India. He formed a close alliance with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, later the founder of Pakistan, during
the Indian Home Rule Movement.
Early life[edit]
Tilak was born in a Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri,
[2]
headquarters of the eponymous district
of present day Maharashtra (then British India) on 23 July 1856.
[3]
His father, Gangadhar Tilak was a
school teacher and a Sanskrit scholar who died when Tilak was sixteen. Tilak graduated
from Deccan College, Pune in 1877. Tilak was amongst one of the first generation of Indians to
receive a college education.
[citation needed]
In 1871 Tilak was married to Tapibai (a women belonging to
Bal family) when he was sixteen before few months of his father's death. After marriage, her name
was changed to Satyabhamabai. In 1873, he entered Deccan College and in 1877 he passed his
Bachelor of Arts in first class in Mathematics. In 1879 he passed his LL.B degree from Government
Law College of University of Mumbai.
[4]
Despite two attempts he did not succeed in qualifying in his
M. A.























Bipin Chandra Pal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Indian nationalist leader. For the Indian historian, see Bipan Chandra.
Bipin Chandra Pal

Born November 7, 1858
Habiganj, British India (nowBangladesh)
Died 20 May 1932 (aged 73)
Organization Indian National Congress,Brahmo Samaj
Movement Indian Independence movement
Signature

Bipin Chandra Pal pronunciation (help·info); November 7, 1858–May 20, 1932) was
an Indian nationalist. He was among the triumvirate of Lal Bal Pal.
Early life and background[edit]
Bipin Chandra Pal was born in Poil Village, Habiganj District, Bengal state of British India now part
of Bangladesh, in a wealthy HinduVaishnava family. His father was Ramchandra Pal, a Persian
scholar and small landowner. His son was Niranjan Pal, one of the founders of Bombay Talkies. He
studied and taught at the Church Mission Society College (now the St. Paul's Cathedral Mission
College), an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta.
[1]
B.C. Pal is known as the 'Father of
Revolutionary Thoughts' in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India.
[2]

Role in congress[edit]
1. In 1886 he joined the Indian National Congress. At the Madras session of congress held in
1887,Bipin Chandra made a strong plea for repeal of the Arms Act which was discriminatory
in nature.
2. Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the Lal,Bal and Pal trio
that was associated with revolutionary activity. In fact Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were
recognised as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals
of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education.
3. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, Boycott and national education. He preached the use
of Swadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
4. He wanted to remove social evils from the form and arouse the feelings of nationalism
through national criticism.
5. He had no faith in mild protests in the form of Non-Cooperation with the government. On that
one issue, the Assertive nationalist leader had nothing common with Gandhi.
6. During last six years of his life he parted company with the Congress and led a secluded life.
Sri Aurobindo referred to him as one of mightiest prophets of nationalism