International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print

),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
160











PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE
CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BLENDS OF KARANJA
BIODIESEL AND DIESEL


Sandeep Kumar Duran
a*
, ManinderSingh
b
, HardeepSingh
b

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University,
Jalandhar, India




ABSTRACT

The experimental investigation is made to estimate the combustion and performance
characteristics of direct injection diesel engine using different blends of karanja methyl ester with
diesel. The Karanja biodiesel is mixed with diesel in proportions of 20%, 50% and 100% by volume
and studied under various loading conditions i.e. at No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load in diesel
engine. The combustion parameters were found close to that of diesel. The blend of karanja biodiesel
performed complete and smoother combustion process than diesel. The various parameters values
like brake thermal efficiency, and heat equivalent to useful work wererecorded nearest to diesel. The
fuel air ratio also recorded higher than diesel. Whereas the mean gas temperature for pure karanja
biodiesel was higher than diesel which is on account of complete combustion on account of 10-12%
fuel bound oxygen. On the basis of brake thermal efficiency, KB20 blend was found to be the best
blend.

Keywords: Karanja Methyl Ester, Engine Combustion and Performance.

1. INTRODUCTION

During first half of the 20th century, the exhaust gas emissions of internal combustion
engines were not recognized as problem, due to lower number of automobiles (diesel engine
vehicles). As the number of automobiles grew along with world population; the air pollution
become an ever increasing problem. This put a major restriction on the engine design during
the 1980s and 1990s. During 1940s due to technological advancements, emissions have been
reduced by over 90% but they are still a major problem for the environment due to exponential
increase of automobile population [1]. The increasing cost of petroleum is another concern for
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developing countries as it will increase their import bill. The world is also presently confronted with
the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Fossil fuels have limited life
and the ever increasing cost of these fuels has led to the search of alternative renewable fuels for
ensuring energy security and environmental protection. Using straight vegetable oil in diesel engine
is not a new idea. Rudolf Diesel first used peanut oil as a fuel for demonstration of his newly
developed compression ignition (CI) engine in year 1910. Certain edible oils such as cottonseed,
palm and sunflower can be used in diesel engines. These oils are not cost effective to be used as an
alternative fuel in diesel engines at present. Some of the non-edible oils such as mahua, castor, neem
(Azadiractaindica), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) etc. can be used in diesel
engines after some chemical treatment. For longer life of the engine these oils cannot be used
straightway. The viscosity and volatility of these vegetable oils is higher and these can be brought
down by a process known as “transesterification”. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than fossil
diesel, no aromatics and comprise up to 10% more oxygen by weight. The characteristics of biodiesel
reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) in
the exhaust gas as compared with fossil diesel [2-5].
Aggarwal et al. [6] observed that the thermal efficiency of the engine improved, brake
specific fuel consumption reduced and a considerable reduction in the exhaust smoke opacity was
observed.
Nagarhalli et al., [23] experiment result shows that the CO emissions were slightly higher,
HC emissions decreased from 12.8% for B20(biodiesel blend with diesel in 20%) and 2.85 % for
B40, NO
X
emissions decreased up to 39% for B20 and 28% for B40. The efficiency decreased
slightly for blends as compare to fossil diesel. Many researches have used Methyl esters of
Pongamia pinnata [7,8], mahua oil [9], repessed oil [10], linseed oil [11], soybean oil [12,13],
jatropha [14], cottonseed [15-17], and palm oil [18] reported the performance and emission
characteristics in diesel engines. Barnwal [19] have discussed about prospects of biodiesel
production from vegetable oil in India. They have also given the yield and production cost of various
methyl esters, in general non-edible oils. The methyl esters of non-edible oil are much cheaper than
petroleum diesel.
India has about 80-100 million hectares of wasteland which can be used for Karanja
plantation. Karanja is a forest based tree-borne non-edible oil with a production potential of 135000
million tones [20]. In many parts of India, this tree is also known as Pongamia, belongs to the family
of Leguminaceae. It is a medium sized tree that attains a height of about 18m and a trunk diameter
greater than 50cm. The fresh extracted oil is yellowish orange to brown and rapidly darkens on
storage [21].
The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of
single cylinder, four stroke, and water cooled diesel engine with diesel and blends of Karanja
biodiesel and diesel in proportions of 20%, 50% and 100% by volume and studied under various
loading conditions i.e. at No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load in direct injection diesel engine.

2. EXPERIMENTATION

2.1. Experimental fuels
In this study, commercially available Karanja biodiesel purchased from a local company have
used for analysis. The Karanja oil biodiesel was produced by transesterification process from
Karanja oil with methanol using potassium hydroxides as catalyst. Table 1 shows the main properties
of the blends. The calorific value of Karanja biodiesel is approximately 8.5% lower than that of
diesel. The viscosity of biodiesel is evidently higher than that of diesel. In the study, three blends
were prepared 20% (v/v) biodiesel blended with diesel fuel (denoted by KB20) as baseline fuel.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
162

Table (1): Properties of diesel and Karanja biodiesel blends


2.2. Experimental setup and procedure
The experiment setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke direct injection diesel engine
coupled with eddy current dynamometer for obtaining different loading condition. The engine setup
includes all necessary instruments and sensors like temperature sensor, pressure sensor etc. for
measuring the cylinder pressure, injection pressure, temperature, power output, load, fuel and air
flow measurements. The computer was connected with our engine and electronic panel with the help
of Engine soft software.
Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, and direct injection diesel setup shown
in figure 1. The main specifications of the test engine are given in table 2. In order to get different
load condition the engine power output shaft is coupled to eddy current dynamometer. The electronic
panel with dynamometer loading unit is show in figure 1. The Schematic overview of experimental
setup is show in figure 2. The speed of engine is fixed at 1500 rpm. The cylinder pressure and
injection measured versus crank angle were measured with the help of piezo sensor and crank angle
sensor and different temperature were also measured with the help of temperature sensor as shown in
table 2.
All tests were performed under steady state condition for that engine was operated at least 10-
20 minutes minimum so that the fuel of previous test was consumed. The results related to engine
combustion and performance characteristics were obtained with the blends were determined and
compared with diesel.
The experiments were carried put at five different load condition (no load, 25%, 50%, 75%
and full loads) at 1500 rpm of the diesel engine test setup.
The different parameters were evaluated at each load listed as below:

• Cylinder pressure per crank angle, bar
• Injection pressure per crank angle, bar
• Brake power, kW
• Indicated power, kW
• Fuel flow, kg/h
• Air flow, kg/h

The same experiment procedure was performed for all blends like KB100, KB50 and KB20.
And after getting all the required parameters the combustion and performance characteristics are
evaluated.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
163


Figure (1): Experimental setup



Figure (2): Schematics overview of Experimental setup


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
164

Table (2): Engine specification
Maker Kirloskar
Model TV1
Details Single cylinder, DI, Four stroke
Bore and Stroke 87.5 mm × 110 mm
Compression ratio 17.5:1
Cubic capacity 661
Rated power 5.2 kW @ 1500rpm
Orifice diameter 20 mm
Cooling Water
Inlet valve opens 4.5
0
before TDC
Inlet valve closes 35.5
0
after BDC
Exhaust valve opens 35.5
0
before BDC
Exhaust valve closes 4.5
0
after TDC
Fuel injection starts 23
0
before TDC
Eddy current dynamometer Model AG10, of Saj test plant Pvt. Ltd.
Drum brake diameter 185 mm
Piezo sensor Make PCB Piezotronics, Model HSM111A22, Range
5000 psi, Diaphragm stainless steel type & hermetic
Sealed
Temperature sensor Make Radix Type K, Ungrounded, Sheath Dia.6mmX110mmL,
SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP (M) adjustable compression fitting
Load sensor Make SensotronicsSanmarLtd., Model 60001,Type S beam,
Universal, Capacity 0-50 kg
Crank angle sensor Make Kubler-Germany Model 8.3700.1321.0360 Dia: 37mm
Shaft Size: Size 6mmxLength 12.5mm, Supply Voltage 5-30V
DC, Output Push Pull (AA,BB,OO), PPR: 360, Outlet cable type
axial with flange 37 mm to 58 mm

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Combustion characteristics
3.1.1. Rate of pressure rise v/s crank angle
The rate of pressure rise plays very important role in engine combustion characteristics
because it affect the smooth progress of combustion process. The variation of rate of pressure rise is
shown in figure 3 from figure, we can easily observe that the rate of pressure rise increased with
increasing loading conditions for all fuels. This is due to fact that the higher amount of fuel is
injected at higher loading conditions. However, the rate of pressure rise was lower for the blends at
higher load in comparison to that of diesel, due to probably lower calorific value of the blends.
With increasing the load, the more amount of fuel is also injected in engine cylinder and
more amount of fuel is burned so that the cylinder peak pressure value also increased which
contribute to rise of rate of pressure in the cylinder. The higher value of rate of pressure rise of some
blends i.e. KB20 which have high value as compared to KB50 blend so that we should carefully
consider the amount of Karanja biodiesel in diesel for minimizing the engine noise level, increasing
the engine life and smoothness of combustion process. The high value of rate of pressure rise
contributed to knocking, higher noise level and decreases the life of engine so that for any loading
condition it should be less than 8 bar/degCA. From the figure 3 we can see that even at higher loads
Karanja biodiesel and its blends have rate of pressure rise lower than 8 bar/degCA, which indicate
that combustion of blends is smooth and it doesn’t cause knocking which helps to improve engine
life.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
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Figure (3): Maximum rate of pressure rise v/s Load

3.1.2. Heat release rate v/s crank angle
The heat release rate indicates how much heat is to be added in cylinder in order to produce
the observed pressure and this method is used to analyses combustion behavior from the cylinder
pressure data. The variation of heat release rate versus crank angle with different fuels and with
different loads like No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and at full load were shown in figure 4. The heat rate
increases with increased load condition.
At 25%, 50%, 75% and at full load condition the pure diesel has higher heat release rate
than pure biodiesel and it blends with diesel, this is due the reason that blends have lower calorific
value. With the increase in the load, there were two peaks of energy release found and second peak
of lower magnitude, which indicates that at lower load, premixed combustion phase is more
predominant whereas at higher load the diffusion phase of combustion is more dominant. Figure 4
shows the comparison of net heat release rate curve for diesel and Karanja biodiesel blends at
different loads.
















Figure (4): Maximum heat release rate v/s Load
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
M
a
x

r
a
t
e

o
f

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

r
i
s
e

(
b
a
r
/
c
r
a
n
k

a
n
g
l
e
)
Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
M
a
x

h
e
a
t

r
e
l
e
a
s
e

r
a
t
e

(
J
/
c
r
a
n
k

a
n
g
l
e
)
Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
166

3.1.3. Mean gas temperature v/s crank angle
The mean gas temperature plays an important role in exhaust emission i.e. NO
X
because in air
the amount of nitrogen is more as compared to other.
High value of mean gas temperature leads to formation of more amount of NO
X
so that the
mean gas temperature should be lower for less emission of NO
X
. At no load condition the diesel have
high value of mean gas temperature as compared to other fuels but for all the rest loading conditions
i.e. at 25%, 50%, 75% and full load the Karanja biodiesel and its blends have greater value than
diesel because of 10% more amount of oxygen contained in Karanja biodiesel than diesel so that the
proper combustion takes place and record high value of mean gas temperature. Figure 5 was shown
the behaviour of mean gas temperature for increasing loading condition for all fuels with increased
loading condition the more amount of fuel is injected which leads to high cylinder pressure and heat
released rate which ultimately leads to higher value of mean gas temperature.


















Figure (5): Mean gas temperature v/s Load

3.2. Performance characteristics
3.2.1. Brake thermal efficiency
The variation of brake thermal efficiency with loads for different fuels is presented by
figure 6. In all the cases, brake thermal efficiency increased with increased value of load. This may
be attributed to reductions in heat losses and increase in power with increase in load. The brake
thermal efficiency at 25% load for diesel, KB100, KB50 and KB20 was 13.98%, 15.80%, 17.46%
and 16.67% respectively. At 25% load, the Karanja biodiesel and its entire blends have higher brake
thermal efficiency than diesel. This is because Karanja biodiesel have 10-11% more oxygen content
than diesel which help in better combustion in engine and advanced injection of fuel due to higher
bulk modulus and density of Karanja biodiesel. At 50% load, diesel and karanja biodiesel have same
brake thermal efficiency and KB50 and KB20 also have same thermal efficiency but at 75% of load
the brake thermal efficiency of Karanja biodiesel recorded less value this is because of lower
calorific value of Karanja biodiesel than diesel.
At full load, diesel, KB100, KB50 and KB20 have 29.2%, 28.92%, 30.77% and 31.072%
brake thermal efficiency respectively. The higher brake thermal efficiency may be due to additional
lubricity provided by blends i.e. KB50 and KB20.Among all the blends KB20 can be considered to
the best blend on the basis of its higher brake thermal efficiency.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
M
a
x

m
e
a
n

g
a
s

t
e
m
p


(
K
)
Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
167


Figure (6): Brake thermal efficiency v/s Load

3.2.2 Fuel air ratio
The variation of fuel air ratio at different loads and fuels was shown in figure 7. Fuel air ratio
plays an important role in engine performance. The fuel air ratio at higher loads is more for the
blends in comparison with diesel increased on account of lower calorific value of the blends and also
increased mass of fuel injected due to injection advance.For all loading condition KB100 is recorded
higher value than all other Karanja biodiesel blend as well as the pure diesel, the reason behind this
is the higher density of Karanja biodiesel and lower calorific value than diesel.


Figure (7): Fuel air ratio v/s Load

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
%

B
r
a
k
e

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
F
u
e
l

a
i
r

r
a
t
i
o
Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
168

3.2.3 Heat equivalent to useful work
The variation of heat equivalent to useful work for different loads and fuels was shown in
figure 8. It has been observed that with increased loading condition the heat equivalent to useful
work increased. But for all loading conditions the KB100 recorded fewer values than diesel this is
because of its lower calorific value than diesel. At higher loads the performance of biodiesel blends
is approaching that of diesel on account of better combustion due to presence of high fuel bound
oxygen as well as reduced friction losses.


Figure (8): Heat equivalent to useful work v/s Load

4. CONCLUSIONS

In this study on the basis of analysis of the experiments results on single cylinder direct
injection diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel-diesel fuel blends, the following conclusions
can be arrived at:

1. The physical properties of KB20 i.e. density, fire point, cloud point are having not
muchdifference with diesel. But KB50 and KB100 have higher difference than diesel.
2. Rate of rise in pressure for various Karanja biodiesel blends are less than pure diesel and these
values are also less than 8 bar/degCA which indicate the smooth combustion progress and due
to this the noise level is decreased and life of engine will increased.
3. The Karanja biodiesel have 10-12% more oxygen content which contribute to better combustion
but even than at all load condition heat release rate is less than diesel because of lower calorific
value, density and higher viscosity. Due to high density and viscosity resultin inferior
atomization and vaporization which lead to reduction in fuel air mixing rate.
4. Mean gas temperature for KB100 at all load condition was recorded higher than diesel which
contribute to more NOX emission. It is due to better combustion on account of the fact that
biodiesel has 10-12% fuel bound oxygen.
5. KB20 recorded higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel. The reason for it proper combustion
and advanced injection of fuel and high oxygen content than diesel. At full load, KB20 and
KB50 have 31.072% and 30.77% brake thermal efficiency.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
h
e
a
t


e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

t
o

u
s
e
f
u
l

w
o
r
k

%
Load
Diesel KB100 KB50 KB20
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 160-170 © IAEME
169

6. KB20 recorded less fuel air ratio than diesel for all load conditions.
7. At 50%, 75% and full load the KB20 has higher heat equivalent to useful work than diesel.

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