James Fu

Project Lead
Autonomous Vehicles
Future Urban Mobility (FM-IRG)
Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)
Marcelo H. Ang Jr.
David Hsu

Liu Wei
Shen Xiaotong
Scott Pendleton
Chen Min
Hans Andersen
Feng Mengdan
James Fu Guo Ming
Chong Zhuang Jie
Baoxing Qin
Tawit Uthaicharoenpong
Cody Kamin
Weng Zhiyong
Daniel Morton
Diluka Moratuwage
Emilio Frazzoli
Daniela Rus
Sertac Karaman
Autonomous Vehicles Group

Visiting PhD Students
UROP, FYP Students
Interns

CREATE Centre (Singapore)
The future within reach
Credit: Minority Report (2002)
The future within reach
Credit: Minority Report (2002)
Self-driving cars no longer
science fiction...

… and one needs not be a $300B giant to make one

The Ultimate Transport System

Source: URA Website
Jurong Lake District
The Ultimate Transport System

Source: URA Website
Jurong Lake District
MRT
Bus Stop
Demand
More Bus Routes!
The Ultimate Transport System

Source: URA Website
Jurong Lake District
MRT
Bus Stop
Demand
Make them walk!
The Ultimate Transport System

Source: URA Website
Jurong Lake District
MRT
Bus Stop
Demand
Dynamic Route
Demand Supply
Predictive
Real-time
Autonomous Vehicles
Why Automated Vehicles?
Safety Accessibility
Productivity
Efficiency Environment
• Safety:
• “Cost of a statistical life”: $9.1M
• 2011 AAA report (2009 data):
The societal cost of traffic accidents is about
$300B/year.
• Cost of congestion:
• Texas Transportation Institute, 2012: approx.
$100B/year
• Health costs of congestion:
• Harvard School of Public Health, 2010:
approx. $50B/year
• Increased productivity/leisure:
• Estimate $1.2T/year
• Car sharing:
• Assuming a “sharing factor” of 4, estimate
$1.8T/year of benefits to individuals.
• Other studies [Burns et al., ’13, Fagnant,
Kockelman ’14] suggest higher sharing
factors, up to ~10.
A financial perspective (US Market)
Safety
Congestion
Health
Productivity
Sharing
Reinventing the Automobile
Active Safety
Availability
Accessibility

Native integration
High utilization
Efficient design
Affordability
Autonomy
Car Sharing
Electric Vehicles
• Disruptive technology:
Automation can enable new
ways of thinking about
automobiles and
transportation systems in
general. In particular, it can
provide affordable,
convenient, on-demand
mobility.
• Does not require infrastructure
• Complements and encourages public
transport
• Higher throughput
• Fewer vehicles
• Less congestion
• Decreased travel times
• Better accessibility
• Increased productivity
• Increased safety
• Lower environmental impact
• Reclaim parking and excess roads
• Complement mass transit
• Higher travel flexibility
• Lower cost
• ...
Our work in
summary
Our work in summary
• More videos are available at youtube:
• search “FMAutonomy” channel

If only autonomous vehicles…
• In 2011, Singapore had:
• Total population: 5,184,000
• Total vehicles: 956,704

• How many autonomous vehicles
for Mobility-on-Demand would
be required?
Approximately 300,000 shared cars
(vs. ~800,000 passenger vehicles) could
satisfy the mobility needs of the entire
population, with waiting times within 15-20
minutes at peak hours.
K. Spieser, K. Treleaven, R. Zhang, E. Frazzoli, D. Morton, and M. Pavone. Toward a systematic approach to the design and
evaluation of automated mobility-on-demand systems: a case study in Singapore. In S. Beiker, editor, Road Vehicle Automation,
Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer, 2014. To appear.
The Next Step…

Sept - Nov 2014
Q&A
james.fu@smart.mit.edu