Álgebra de Boole

Prof. Luis Araujo
Sistemas Digitales
http://www.ing.ula.ve/~araujol/sd
Postulados del álgebra de boole
• Postulado 1:
– DEFINICION: un álgebra booleana es un
sistema algebraico cerrado formado por dos
elementos 0 y 1 (Conjunto K), y operadores · y
+; para cada par de elementos a y b ∈ K; a · b y
a + b ∈ K,
donde: + => or
· => and
a b a+b
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
a b a·b
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
• Postulado 2:
– Existe elementos 0 y 1, tal que, para a ∈K :
a) a + 0 = a (elemento neutro)
b) a ⋅ 1 = 1 (elemento identidad)
• Postulado 3: Ley Conmutativa
– Para a y b ∈K :
a) a + b = b + a
b) a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a
Postulados del álgebra de boole
• Postulado 4: Ley Asociativa,
– Para a, b y c ∈K :
a) a + ( b+c ) = ( a + b ) + c
b) a ⋅ ( b ⋅ c ) = ( a ⋅ b ) ⋅ c
• Postulado 5: Ley Distributiva
– Para a, b y c ∈K :
a) a + ( b ⋅ c ) = ( a + b) ⋅ (a + c)
b) a ⋅ ( b + c ) = ( a ⋅ b ) + ( a ⋅ c)
• Postulado 6: Complemento
– Para a ∈K :
a) a + a = 1 b) a ⋅ a = 0
Postulados del álgebra de boole
Establece que si una expresión es valida en el
álgebra de boole, entonces su expresión dual
también lo es.
Determinamos la expresión dual remplazando los
operadores + por ⋅ y viceversa y todos los
elemento 0 por 1 y viceversa.
Ejm:
a + ( b ⋅ c ) = 1, expresión su dual es a ⋅ ( b + c ) = 0
Principio de Dualidad
Teoremas
• Teorema 1: Idempotencia
• Demostración:
a a a b
a a a a
= ⋅
= +
)
)
a a
a a a
a a a a
a a
a a
= +
= ⋅ +
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ +
= +
0
) ( ) (
1 ) (
• Teorema 2: Elemento neutro para + y ⋅
• Demostración:
0 0 )
1 1 )
= ⋅
= +
a b
a a
1
1
) 1 ( ) (
) 1 ( 1
1 ) 1 (
1
= +
= ⋅ +
= + ⋅ +
= + ⋅
= ⋅ +
= +
a a
a a
a a a
a
a
a
Teoremas
Teoremas
• Teorema 3: Involución
• Demostración:
a a =
a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a
a
a
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + + ⋅
= + ⋅
= +
) (
) (
0 1
1
Teoremas
• Teorema 4: Absorción
• Demostración:
a b a a b
a b a a a
= + ⋅
= ⋅ +
) ( )
)
a a
b a
b a a
b a a
= ⋅
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ +
1
) 1 (
1
Teoremas
• Teorema 5:
• Demostración:
b a b a a b
b a b a a a
⋅ = + ⋅
+ = ⋅ +
) ( )
)
b a b a
b a
b a a a
b a a
+ = ⋅ +
= + ⋅
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ +
1 ) (
) ( 1
) ( ) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 6:
• Demostración:
a b a b a b
a b a b a a
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ + ⋅
) ( ) )(
)
a a
b b a
b a b a
= ⋅
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
1
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 7:
• Demostración:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) )(
)
c a b a c b a b a b
c a b a c b a b a a
+ ⋅ + = + + ⋅ +
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
c a b a c b a
c b b a
c b a b a
⋅ + ⋅ = + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
) (
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 8: Teorema de Morgan
• En general:
b a b a b
b a b a a
+ = ⋅
⋅ = +
)
)
z c b a z c b a
z c b a z b a
... ...
... ...
+ + + = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = + + +
Demostración del T. de Morgan
b a y
asumimos
x y
entonces
y x
y x
asumimos
x x
x x
sabemos
b a x b a x
⋅ =
=
= +
= ⋅
= +
= ⋅
+ = ⇒ + =
:
:
1
0
:
1
0
:
0
:
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
= ⋅
= +
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ +
= ⋅
y x
entonces
a b
a b
b b a b a a
b a b b a a
b b a a b a
b a b a
b a b a
y x
b a b a y x
resulta
y x
entonces
a
b b a
b b a
b a b
b a a b
b a a b
b a b a
y x
+ = + ⇒ =
= +
= +
= + +
= + +
= + +
= ⋅ + +
= ⋅ + +
= ⋅ + +
= +
:
1
:
1 1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 9: Consenso
• Demostración:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) )(
)
c a b a c b c a b a b
c a b a c b c a b a a
+ ⋅ + = + ⋅ + ⋅ +
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
c a b a c b a c b a c a b a
c b a a c a b a
c b c a b a
c b c a b a
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
) (
1
Funciones de Conmutación
Sean x
1
, x
2
, … , x
n
símbolos llamados variables,
cada uno representa un 0 o un 1, definiremos
f(x
1
,x
2
,…,x
n
) como una función de conmutación
de x
1
, x
2
, …, x
n
. f puede tomar el valor de 0 ó 1
según los valores para x
1
, …, x
n
; si existen n
variables (x
i
), entonces existe 2
n
formas de
asignar los valores para x
1
, …, x
n
y como f tiene
dos posibles valores, existen diferentes
funciones para n variables.
n
2
2
Ejemplos:
• n=0
f() = 0 , 1
• n=1
f(x) = 0 , 1 , x , x
• n=2
f(x,y) = 0 , x ⋅ y , x ⋅ y , x
x ⋅ y , y , x ⋅ y + x ⋅ y , x + y
x ⋅ y , x ⋅ y + x ⋅ y, y , x + y
x , x + y , x + y , 1
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Tabla de Verdad:
Evaluamos todos los posibles valores de entrada de la
función y los colocamos en una tabla en forma ordenada de
acuerdo al orden decimal.
Ejemplo: f(x,y) = x + y f(x,y) = x · y
a b a+b
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
a b a·b
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
Tabla de Verdad
• Describa una función de conmutación con 3
entradas a,b y c y una salida z, que es verdadera
(1) cuando al menos 2 de sus entradas son
verdaderas (1).
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Formas Algebraicas
– SOP (Suma de Productos): se construye al
sumar (or) términos productos (and).
• Ejm.:
– POS (Producto de Sumas): se construye con el
producto (and) de términos suma (or).
• Ejm.:
d c a d b c b a d c b a f ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , , (
) ( ) ( ) , , , ( d a c b a d c b a f + ⋅ + + =
Formas Algebraicas:
b a c b a c b a f ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , (
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Formas Canónicas:
Son formas SOP y POS con características
especiales. Existe una única forma canónica para
cada función de conmutación.
– Mintérmino: es un término producto (and) para una
función de n variables, en donde cada una aparece bien
sea complementada o sin complementar.
• Ejm:
– Maxtérmino: es un término suma (or) para una función
de n variables, en donde cada una aparece bien sea
complementada o sin complementar.
• Ejm:
) , , ( c b a f
c b a c b a c b a m ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = , ,
) , , ( c b a f
) ( ), ( c b a c b a M + + + + =
Formas Canónicas SOP
c b a c b a c b a c b a f ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , (
a b c f
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
c b a ⋅ ⋅
c b a ⋅ ⋅
c b a ⋅ ⋅
Relación con la tabla de
verdad:
Cada mintérmino esta
asociado con la línea de la
tabla, tal que:
• Las variables que tienen 1
no están complementadas
• Las variable que tienen 0
aparecen complementadas
Formas Canónicas POS
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , ( c b a c b a c b a c b a f + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
Relación con la tabla de
verdad:
Cada maxtérmino esta
asociado con la línea de la
tabla, tal que:
• Las variables que tienen 0
no están complementadas
• Las variable que tienen 1
aparecen complementadas
c b a + +
c b a + +
c b a + +
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Especificación decimal:
– SOP:
– POS:

=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
) 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 ( ) , , (
) , , (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
7 5 3 1
M c b a f
M M M M c b a f
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a f

=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
) 7 , 6 , 3 , 2 ( ) , , (
) , , (
) , , (
7 6 3 2
m c b a f
m m m m c b a f
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a f
Relación Mintérminos -
Maxtérminos
∏ ∑
= =
=
=
) 5 , 4 , 1 , 0 ( ) 7 , 6 , 3 , 2 ( ) , , ( M m c b a f
m M
M m
i i
i i
Deducción de Formas Canónicas
• Teorema 10: Teorema de desarrollo de
Shannon
[ ] [ ] ) ,..., , 1 ( ) ,..., , 0 ( ) ,..., , ( )
) ,..., , 0 ( ) ,..., , 1 ( ) ,..., , ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
n n n
n n n
x x f x x x f x x x x f b
x x f x x x f x x x x f a
+ ⋅ + =
⋅ + ⋅ =
Convertir a SOP Canónica

=
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
) 7 , 6 , 4 , 3 , 1 (
) ( ) (
) 0 , , ( ) 1 , , (
) ( ) (
) , 0 , ( ) , 1 , (
) (
) , , 0 ( ) , , 1 (
) , , (
m
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a
b a b a c b a b a b a c
b a c b a f c
c b a c b a c b a b a
c a c a b c a a b
c a b c a f b
c a c b a
c b f a c b f a
c a c a b a c b a f
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Convertir a SOP Canónica

=
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
= ⋅ + ⋅
) 7 , 6 , 4 , 3 , 1 ( ) , , (
) , , (
: 6
1 3
4 6
6 7
m c b a f
m m c b a c b a c a
m m c b a c b a c a
m m c b a c b a b a
c a c a b a c b a f
a b a b a T
Convertir a POS Canónica

=
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + =
+ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ + =
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + =
+ ⋅ =
) 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 (
) ( ) ( ) )( ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ) ( ) (( ) ) ( ) ((
) ( ) (
) ( ) , , (
M
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a
c b a c b a c c b a c c b a
c b a b a c c b a b a
c b b a c c b b a
c a a c b a f