# Álgebra de Boole

Prof. Luis Araujo
Sistemas Digitales
http://www.ing.ula.ve/~araujol/sd
– DEFINICION: un álgebra booleana es un
elementos 0 y 1 (Conjunto K), y operadores · y
+; para cada par de elementos a y b ∈ K; a · b y
a + b ∈ K,
donde: + => or
· => and
a b a+b
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
a b a·b
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
– Existe elementos 0 y 1, tal que, para a ∈K :
a) a + 0 = a (elemento neutro)
b) a ⋅ 1 = 1 (elemento identidad)
– Para a y b ∈K :
a) a + b = b + a
b) a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a
– Para a, b y c ∈K :
a) a + ( b+c ) = ( a + b ) + c
b) a ⋅ ( b ⋅ c ) = ( a ⋅ b ) ⋅ c
– Para a, b y c ∈K :
a) a + ( b ⋅ c ) = ( a + b) ⋅ (a + c)
b) a ⋅ ( b + c ) = ( a ⋅ b ) + ( a ⋅ c)
– Para a ∈K :
a) a + a = 1 b) a ⋅ a = 0
Establece que si una expresión es valida en el
álgebra de boole, entonces su expresión dual
también lo es.
Determinamos la expresión dual remplazando los
operadores + por ⋅ y viceversa y todos los
elemento 0 por 1 y viceversa.
Ejm:
a + ( b ⋅ c ) = 1, expresión su dual es a ⋅ ( b + c ) = 0
Teoremas
• Teorema 1: Idempotencia
• Demostración:
a a a b
a a a a
= ⋅
= +
)
)
a a
a a a
a a a a
a a
a a
= +
= ⋅ +
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ +
= +
0
) ( ) (
1 ) (
• Teorema 2: Elemento neutro para + y ⋅
• Demostración:
0 0 )
1 1 )
= ⋅
= +
a b
a a
1
1
) 1 ( ) (
) 1 ( 1
1 ) 1 (
1
= +
= ⋅ +
= + ⋅ +
= + ⋅
= ⋅ +
= +
a a
a a
a a a
a
a
a
Teoremas
Teoremas
• Teorema 3: Involución
• Demostración:
a a =
a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a
a
a
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + + ⋅
= + ⋅
= +
) (
) (
0 1
1
Teoremas
• Teorema 4: Absorción
• Demostración:
a b a a b
a b a a a
= + ⋅
= ⋅ +
) ( )
)
a a
b a
b a a
b a a
= ⋅
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ +
1
) 1 (
1
Teoremas
• Teorema 5:
• Demostración:
b a b a a b
b a b a a a
⋅ = + ⋅
+ = ⋅ +
) ( )
)
b a b a
b a
b a a a
b a a
+ = ⋅ +
= + ⋅
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ +
1 ) (
) ( 1
) ( ) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 6:
• Demostración:
a b a b a b
a b a b a a
= + ⋅ +
= ⋅ + ⋅
) ( ) )(
)
a a
b b a
b a b a
= ⋅
= + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
1
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 7:
• Demostración:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) )(
)
c a b a c b a b a b
c a b a c b a b a a
+ ⋅ + = + + ⋅ +
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
c a b a c b a
c b b a
c b a b a
⋅ + ⋅ = + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
) (
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 8: Teorema de Morgan
• En general:
b a b a b
b a b a a
+ = ⋅
⋅ = +
)
)
z c b a z c b a
z c b a z b a
... ...
... ...
+ + + = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = + + +
Demostración del T. de Morgan
b a y
asumimos
x y
entonces
y x
y x
asumimos
x x
x x
sabemos
b a x b a x
⋅ =
=
= +
= ⋅
= +
= ⋅
+ = ⇒ + =
:
:
1
0
:
1
0
:
0
:
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
= ⋅
= +
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
= + ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ +
= ⋅
y x
entonces
a b
a b
b b a b a a
b a b b a a
b b a a b a
b a b a
b a b a
y x
b a b a y x
resulta
y x
entonces
a
b b a
b b a
b a b
b a a b
b a a b
b a b a
y x
+ = + ⇒ =
= +
= +
= + +
= + +
= + +
= ⋅ + +
= ⋅ + +
= ⋅ + +
= +
:
1
:
1 1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
Teoremas
• Teorema 9: Consenso
• Demostración:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) )(
)
c a b a c b c a b a b
c a b a c b c a b a a
+ ⋅ + = + ⋅ + ⋅ +
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
c a b a c b a c b a c a b a
c b a a c a b a
c b c a b a
c b c a b a
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
= ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
) (
1
Funciones de Conmutación
Sean x
1
, x
2
, … , x
n
cada uno representa un 0 o un 1, definiremos
f(x
1
,x
2
,…,x
n
) como una función de conmutación
de x
1
, x
2
, …, x
n
. f puede tomar el valor de 0 ó 1
según los valores para x
1
, …, x
n
; si existen n
variables (x
i
), entonces existe 2
n
formas de
asignar los valores para x
1
, …, x
n
y como f tiene
dos posibles valores, existen diferentes
funciones para n variables.
n
2
2
Ejemplos:
• n=0
f() = 0 , 1
• n=1
f(x) = 0 , 1 , x , x
• n=2
f(x,y) = 0 , x ⋅ y , x ⋅ y , x
x ⋅ y , y , x ⋅ y + x ⋅ y , x + y
x ⋅ y , x ⋅ y + x ⋅ y, y , x + y
x , x + y , x + y , 1
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
Evaluamos todos los posibles valores de entrada de la
función y los colocamos en una tabla en forma ordenada de
acuerdo al orden decimal.
Ejemplo: f(x,y) = x + y f(x,y) = x · y
a b a+b
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
a b a·b
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
• Describa una función de conmutación con 3
(1) cuando al menos 2 de sus entradas son
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Formas Algebraicas
– SOP (Suma de Productos): se construye al
sumar (or) términos productos (and).
• Ejm.:
– POS (Producto de Sumas): se construye con el
producto (and) de términos suma (or).
• Ejm.:
d c a d b c b a d c b a f ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , , (
) ( ) ( ) , , , ( d a c b a d c b a f + ⋅ + + =
Formas Algebraicas:
b a c b a c b a f ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , (
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Formas Canónicas:
Son formas SOP y POS con características
especiales. Existe una única forma canónica para
– Mintérmino: es un término producto (and) para una
función de n variables, en donde cada una aparece bien
• Ejm:
– Maxtérmino: es un término suma (or) para una función
de n variables, en donde cada una aparece bien sea
• Ejm:
) , , ( c b a f
c b a c b a c b a m ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = , ,
) , , ( c b a f
) ( ), ( c b a c b a M + + + + =
Formas Canónicas SOP
c b a c b a c b a c b a f ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ) , , (
a b c f
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
c b a ⋅ ⋅
c b a ⋅ ⋅
c b a ⋅ ⋅
Relación con la tabla de
asociado con la línea de la
tabla, tal que:
• Las variables que tienen 1
• Las variable que tienen 0
Formas Canónicas POS
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , ( c b a c b a c b a c b a f + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
Relación con la tabla de
asociado con la línea de la
tabla, tal que:
• Las variables que tienen 0
• Las variable que tienen 1
c b a + +
c b a + +
c b a + +
Representación de una función de
Conmutación
• Especificación decimal:
– SOP:
– POS:

=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
) 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 ( ) , , (
) , , (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
7 5 3 1
M c b a f
M M M M c b a f
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a f

=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
) 7 , 6 , 3 , 2 ( ) , , (
) , , (
) , , (
7 6 3 2
m c b a f
m m m m c b a f
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a f
Relación Mintérminos -
Maxtérminos
∏ ∑
= =
=
=
) 5 , 4 , 1 , 0 ( ) 7 , 6 , 3 , 2 ( ) , , ( M m c b a f
m M
M m
i i
i i
Deducción de Formas Canónicas
• Teorema 10: Teorema de desarrollo de
Shannon
[ ] [ ] ) ,..., , 1 ( ) ,..., , 0 ( ) ,..., , ( )
) ,..., , 0 ( ) ,..., , 1 ( ) ,..., , ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
n n n
n n n
x x f x x x f x x x x f b
x x f x x x f x x x x f a
+ ⋅ + =
⋅ + ⋅ =
Convertir a SOP Canónica

=
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
) 7 , 6 , 4 , 3 , 1 (
) ( ) (
) 0 , , ( ) 1 , , (
) ( ) (
) , 0 , ( ) , 1 , (
) (
) , , 0 ( ) , , 1 (
) , , (
m
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a
b a b a c b a b a b a c
b a c b a f c
c b a c b a c b a b a
c a c a b c a a b
c a b c a f b
c a c b a
c b f a c b f a
c a c a b a c b a f
a b c f
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Convertir a SOP Canónica

=
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
+ = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
= ⋅ + ⋅
) 7 , 6 , 4 , 3 , 1 ( ) , , (
) , , (
: 6
1 3
4 6
6 7
m c b a f
m m c b a c b a c a
m m c b a c b a c a
m m c b a c b a b a
c a c a b a c b a f
a b a b a T
Convertir a POS Canónica

=
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + =
+ + ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ + + =
+ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ + =
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + =
+ ⋅ =
) 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 (
) ( ) ( ) )( ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ) ( ) (( ) ) ( ) ((
) ( ) (
) ( ) , , (
M
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a
c b a c b a c c b a c c b a
c b a b a c c b a b a
c b b a c c b b a
c a a c b a f