- Bio Med Paper
- jd_1.pdf
- 3_mek4450_ife_day1_lesson2.pdf
- Application of CFD Quench
- 1WeekWorkshopOnComputationalSimulationinMechanicalEngineering
- Combustion
- 11046_cfd
- 17-Bergsma FSI Paper Revised
- CFD Simulation Open Foam Backward Facing Step
- Luay S. Alansari
- 49-jour-13.pdf
- Bagian 1 Introduction-2011
- Jubayer Solar
- Download
- Lecture3 Slides
- 1_5 Opus Maxim
- flu_gs
- StochasticGreenTaylor (1)
- 289-1109-2-PB
- syllabus
- ANTEC04Paper293
- 8 Grid Generation
- STAR-CCM+ Rotorcraft Design & Analysis Capabilities
- Artículo (Prototipo de paso)
- FDS Technical Reference Guide Volume 1 Mathematical Model
- 44122676
- Eagle's Cry May 2013
- Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic Engine Mount With Lumped Model Based on Finite Element An
- Modelling Coal Gasification With CFD and Discrete Phase Method
- Zhou et al - 2014
- What Determines the Optimal Cadence
- Intervals, Thresholds, And Long Slow Distance the Role of Intensity and Duration in Endurance Training
- 10 or 30-s Sprint Interval Training Bouts Enhance Both Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance
- Gersonova Terapija z Ekonomskega Vidika
- Gerson Therapy Handbook
- The Gerson Therapy for Those Dying of Cancer
- Expedition Manual
- Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo-Therapy
- Juice Extractor Comparison 2007
- 44 receptov za sveze naravne sokove
- Intervals, Thresholds, And Long Slow Distance the Role of Intensity and Duration in Endurance Training
- Panthera Brochure
- Maxsea v10.3 Manual
- Fujitsu Water Stage High Power Service Manual 2
- High Intensity Versus Low Intensity High Volume Training
- Cycling Performance Tips
- Quantum Cruising
- Skripta Za Voditelja Brodice
- Enhancement of Fat Metabolism by Repeated Bouts of Moderate Endurance Exercise

Introduction

Stanford Yacht Research (SYR) is currently doing a study in performance analysis on yacht

sails through experimental and computational methods. This research is being done to study

the flow around sails in a wind tunnel and to validate computer results against experimental

results.

Those involved with the present research include:

Dr. Margot Gerritsen, Stanford Yacht Research

Dr. Andrew Crook, NASA Ames Research Center

Tyler Doyle, Ph.D. student at Stanford University

Sriram Shankaran, Ph.D. student at Stanford University

Steve Collie, Ph.D. student at University of Auckland

Jean-Edmond Coutris, Graduate student at Stanford University

Brendan Abbott, SYR intern - undergraduate at Webb Institute

Daniela Hanson, SYR intern - undergraduate at Webb Institute

Center for Turbulence Research (CTR)

Aero-Astro Department

NASA Ames Research Center

Sail Design

Working toward designing more and more efficient sails throughout history, many methods

have been employed. From the beginning of sail design, intuition and experience have been

the primary means of designing sails. Intuition and experience still play a major role in sail

design because presently no database exists to tell a sailboat designer what sail will work best

with a given hull shape!

From intuition, prototype sails can be built to test a design and measure its effectiveness.

Also, wind tunnel testing can be done with model sails to observe and study the flow around

sails on a smaller scale.

Today, computers have become a means of calculating a lot of information in short amounts

of time. Computer programs that employ the Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics equations can

provide answers to very complicated and long flow equations in relatively short amounts of

time. Through experimental testing, flow results calculated by computers can be validated. In

the near future, it is possible that computers will be able to fully simulate flow on a sail.

Today, the power and speed of computers limits what work can be done to analyze flow.

How Does Air Flow Past a Sail

BASIC FUNCTION OF SAILS

Sails are instruments that use the wind to propel a vessel through the water. Trimming the

sails differently allows a vessel to sail at different angles to the wind.

AIR FLOW AT DIFFERENT SAIL ANGLES

Upwind Sailing - In upwind sailing, sails act similarly to foils. The forces generated by the

sail result in lifting forces generated by the keel, and forward motion is produced. (A

FURTHER EXPLANATION OF THE BASIC PHYSICS OF UPWIND SAILING CAN BE

FOUND IN THE PHYSICS OF SAILING )

Reaching

Downwind Sailing - Sails are used to catch the wind. The wind is used to "push" the boat along.

Twist

To describe how air flows past a sail, we must describe how air flows over the water. To

simplify things, let's first assume that the water is not moving. At the water's surface, the air is

moving at the same speed as the water. Thus, the air cannot be moving at the water's surface.

However, if there is wind, we know that the air must be moving as we move away from the

water. Because the true wind speed is greater further up the mast, the apparent wind created

by the boat's forward velocity causes a "twisting" phenomenon:

Upwind Twist Diagram

The effect of twist is more apparent in downwind sailing. An International AmericaÍs Cup

Class (IACC) yacht, because of its ability to sail downwind close to the speed of the wind,

never really sails downwind at all. The IACC yachts are always experiencing apparent wind

angles that simulate reaching conditions (about 90 degrees), rather than downwind conditions.

Downwind Twist Diagram

Difficulty of Modeling Actual 3D Sails

Modeling of sails is difficult because the conditions that a sail experiences fluctuate

tremendously. Trim, wind speed, boat speed, heel angle, and weather all change over time.

These factors change the way a sail will perform. Also, flow patterns due to twist are hard to

model in 3-D computer applications because of the complexity of eddies shedding from the

head and foot of the sail.

In This Study, SYR is Using 2D Sections

Rather than modeling 3-D sections, a 2-D section of a sail is used to reduce computational

cost. 2-D sections are representative of flow at a given height on the sail.

The 2-D sections are optimized with computer programs. The flow patterns generated from a

2-D section, although simplified, are not completely irrelevant. Sail-makers still use

optimized 2-D sections to create a 3-D sail. Generally, ten to twenty 2-D sections are used in

making a sail.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

The computer application that SYR uses to analyze flow is a Computational Fluid Dynamics

(CFD) program. CFD is a method that employs fluid mechanics equations to describe flow.

A shape, such as a sail section, is created in the CFD program. It is the computer's task to

calculate the flow field around the shape. However, there are an infinite amount of points

around the shape. Calculating the flow in an undefined region would take decades. Therefore,

a grid must be created around the shape to break down the computational process into a finite

number of calculations. The grid is a crucial part of the solution process. If it is not dense

enough, the flow solution will be lacking. If the grid is too dense, calculations will be too

computationally expensive. This is the challenge of producing good CFD results.

After a satisfactory grid is created, the CFD program can run. A flow analysis on a 2-D

section takes about 5 hours to run on a high quality computer (such as a Pentium 4). The

results obtained from CFD are velocities at all grid points, pressure distributions, and forces

acting on the sail section. Forces acting on the sail are determined by integrating the pressure

distribution over the sail area.

Velocities at All Grid Points

Pressure Distribution and Streamlines

Forces Derived from Pressure Distribution

Wind Tunnel Testing

To validate the CFD results, 2-D sections are also being tested by SYR in the 7 ft x 10 ft wind

tunnel at NASA Ames. To create a 2-D model for the wind tunnel, a "slice" of a sail is taken.

This slice is scaled down to a chord length of 2/3 of a foot; then, it is stretched to a height of

10 feet. The model is created with a high aspect ratio to try to eliminate vertical flow. A real

sail has a flow pattern like this:

We only want to analyze the sail flow in two dimensions:

The basic wind tunnel setup looks like this:

What Does This Tell Us About Sailing?

The use of CFD and wind tunnel testing gives insight into flow around sails and improves

CFD codes. Better understanding of flow around sails will hopefully produce more efficiently

designed sails in the future.

Results from sail modeling tell us, for example, about the importance of trim, staying in

"clean air", and how the main and foresail interact.

Importance of Trim: If the sail is not trimmed correctly, it is not efficient. Over-trimming causes excessive turbulence on the leeward side of the sail.

Under-trimming greatly reduces the forces produced by the sail. Ideal trim produces the best flow distribution around the sail.

Effect of Upwind Boat and "Dirty" Air: The downwind boat cannot point as high as the upwind boat because of the effect of the flow around the

sails of the upwind boat.

Main and foresail interaction: The flow around the mainsail speeds up the air at the trailing edge of the foresail, making it more efficient. The air

flowing past the mainsail helps the jib sail at a smaller angle of attack.

Limitations of Modern Sail Research

In computer and wind tunnel simulations, simplifications are made to the sail's environment.

First of all, the sail is analyzed independently of hull and water. A rigid sail is used in an

upright position. To completely model a real sail it would be necessary to use a flexible 3-

dimensional sail in a heeled position, and to consider the effects of the hull and sea state.

However, modeling something like this would be far too computationally expensive.

In the future, with a growing amount of power and speed in the computer, the possibility of

analyzing more complicated systems will be greater.

- Bio Med PaperUploaded byironmanjrp
- jd_1.pdfUploaded bymfmechanics
- 3_mek4450_ife_day1_lesson2.pdfUploaded by2591995
- Application of CFD QuenchUploaded byLuigi Mazzucco
- 1WeekWorkshopOnComputationalSimulationinMechanicalEngineeringUploaded bySrashmi
- CombustionUploaded byPooja Sharma
- 11046_cfdUploaded byvietross
- 17-Bergsma FSI Paper RevisedUploaded bySunil Kumar P G
- CFD Simulation Open Foam Backward Facing StepUploaded byJennifer Douglas
- Luay S. AlansariUploaded byInternational Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF)
- 49-jour-13.pdfUploaded byIjaz Fazil
- Bagian 1 Introduction-2011Uploaded byDeny Arief Rusamsi
- Jubayer SolarUploaded byghadasaudi
- DownloadUploaded byghanbari8668
- Lecture3 SlidesUploaded byjackyhaung
- 1_5 Opus MaximUploaded bycavnqn
- flu_gsUploaded bySoumya Satyakanta Sethi
- StochasticGreenTaylor (1)Uploaded bytangertols
- 289-1109-2-PBUploaded byMilan Bojovic
- syllabusUploaded byPrateek Jaiswal
- ANTEC04Paper293Uploaded bySrinath Srinivasaiah
- 8 Grid GenerationUploaded byAbaziz Mousa OutlawZz
- STAR-CCM+ Rotorcraft Design & Analysis CapabilitiesUploaded byedmundac
- Artículo (Prototipo de paso)Uploaded bytxafu
- FDS Technical Reference Guide Volume 1 Mathematical ModelUploaded bypaolopironi
- 44122676Uploaded byrakukulappully
- Eagle's Cry May 2013Uploaded byephraimyachtclub
- Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic Engine Mount With Lumped Model Based on Finite Element AnUploaded byIndranil Bhattacharyya
- Modelling Coal Gasification With CFD and Discrete Phase MethodUploaded bymohammadjm2008
- Zhou et al - 2014Uploaded byAFC

- What Determines the Optimal CadenceUploaded bykaltne23
- Intervals, Thresholds, And Long Slow Distance the Role of Intensity and Duration in Endurance TrainingUploaded bykaltne23
- 10 or 30-s Sprint Interval Training Bouts Enhance Both Aerobic and Anaerobic PerformanceUploaded bykaltne23
- Gersonova Terapija z Ekonomskega VidikaUploaded bykaltne23
- Gerson Therapy HandbookUploaded bykaltne23
- The Gerson Therapy for Those Dying of CancerUploaded bykaltne23
- Expedition ManualUploaded bykaltne23
- Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo-TherapyUploaded bykaltne23
- Juice Extractor Comparison 2007Uploaded bykaltne23
- 44 receptov za sveze naravne sokoveUploaded bykaltne23
- Uploaded bykaltne23
- Panthera BrochureUploaded bykaltne23
- Maxsea v10.3 ManualUploaded bykaltne23
- Fujitsu Water Stage High Power Service Manual 2Uploaded bykaltne23
- High Intensity Versus Low Intensity High Volume TrainingUploaded bykaltne23
- Cycling Performance TipsUploaded bykaltne23
- Quantum CruisingUploaded bykaltne23
- Skripta Za Voditelja BrodiceUploaded bykaltne23
- Enhancement of Fat Metabolism by Repeated Bouts of Moderate Endurance ExerciseUploaded bykaltne23