Referencing of street-level flows measured during the DAPPLE 2004 campaign

J.F. Barlow
a,
*
, A. Dobre
a
, R.J. Smalley
b
, S.J. Arnold
a
, A.S. Tomlin
b
, S.E. Belcher
a
a
Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB, UK
b
Energy and Resources Research Institute, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 30 January 2009
Received in revised form
30 April 2009
Accepted 5 May 2009
Keywords:
Urban meteorology
Dispersion
Turbulence
Street canyon
Emergency response
London
UK
a b s t r a c t
Street-level mean flow and turbulence govern the dispersion of gases away from their sources in urban
areas. A suitable reference measurement in the driving flow above the urban canopy is needed to both
understand and model complex street-level flow for pollutant dispersion or emergency response
purposes. In vegetation canopies, a reference at mean canopy height is often used, but it is unclear
whether this is suitable for urban canopies. This paper presents an evaluation of the quality of reference
measurements at both roof-top (height ¼ H) and at height z ¼ 9H ¼ 190 m, and their ability to explain
mean and turbulent variations of street-level flow. Fast response wind data were measured at street
canyon and reference sites during the six-week long DAPPLE project field campaign in spring 2004, in
central London, UK, and an averaging time of 10 min was used to distinguish recirculation-type mean
flow patterns from turbulence. Flow distortion at each reference site was assessed by considering
turbulence intensity and streamline deflection. Then each reference was used as the dependent variable
in the model of Dobre et al. (2005) which decomposes street-level flow into channelling and recircu-
lating components. The high reference explained more of the variability of the mean flow. Coupling of
turbulent kinetic energy was also stronger between street-level and the high reference flow rather than
the roof-top. This coupling was weaker when overnight flow was stratified, and turbulence was sup-
pressed at the high reference site. However, such events were rare (<1% of data) over the six-week long
period. The potential usefulness of a centralised, high reference site in London was thus demonstrated
with application to emergency response and air quality modelling.
Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Street-level mean flow and turbulence govern the dispersion of
pollutants away from their sources, and influence pedestrian
comfort. These motivations drive research into the most complex
region of flow in urban areas, and how it relates to more homo-
geneous flow above. Street-level flow is strongly ‘‘rectified’’ by the
street layout (e.g. Dobre et al., 2005) which has led to recent
modelling approaches where plume spread depends on the street
network (Soulhac, 2000; Hamlyn et al., 2007). Flowseparation from
building edges causes mean flow patterns such as the well-known
street canyon recirculation (e.g. Oke, 1988; Vardoulakis et al., 2003;
Longley et al., 2004; Elliason et al., 2006), and horseshoe vortices at
street ends (Hunter et al., 1992). Complex patterns of flow
convergence and divergence occur within the canopy when flow
features interact (Boddy et al., 2005; Nelson et al., 2007) or tall
buildings impose strong vertical mixing (Pascheke et al., 2008).
Intersections show highly complex, morphology-dependent flow
patterns (Scaperdas and Colvile, 1999; Dobre et al., 2005) where
strong mixing occurs (Hoydysh and Dabberdt, 1994; Nelson et al.,
2007). All of these features are likely to be intermittent (Louka et al.,
2000), especially when coupled to larger-scale turbulence struc-
tures penetrating from above (Poggi et al., 2004; Christen et al.,
2007). In addition, traffic-produced turbulence (Kastner-Klein et al.,
2000; Vachon et al., 2003) enhances street-level mixing but is
independent of the flow, although advection by the flow modifies
its spatial distribution.
In order to understand street-level flow, and its coupling to the
flow above, it should be scaled using data from an appropriate
reference level. For vegetation canopies, scaling with mean or
friction velocity at canopy top can collapse within-canopy flowdata
onto near-universal curves (Raupach and Thom, 1981; Finnigan,
2000). Roof-top references have often been used in urban field
measurements, modelling and parameterisations: in the field they
are a practical choice, as erection of measurement towers high
enough to detect the inertial sublayer (i.e. z > 2–5 H) is difficult.
However, urban canopies are arguably less homogeneous than
vegetation canopies: large heterogeneity of roof shapes leads to
strong wind direction dependence of flow profiles (e.g. Rafailidis,
1997; Christen, 2005) and wake production of turbulence on the
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ44 118 378 6022; fax: þ44 118 378 8905.
E-mail address: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk (J.F. Barlow).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Atmospheric Environment
j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ at mosenv
1352-2310/$ – see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.021
Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544
scale of the obstruction (Smalley et al., 2008), which is usually
larger than the average tree.
Given difficulties in interpreting a roof-top reference, it is
preferable to use one in the inertial sublayer where possible.
However, during the Joint Urban campaign in Oklahoma City, Klein
and Clark (2007) found that turbulence statistics deep within
a heterogeneous street canyon depended on stability when scaled
using winds at 250 m, but showed weaker dependence when
a reference at 80 m was used (equivalent to roof height but
measured 2.5 km upstream). Given that the flow had adjusted to
the higher roughness of the Oklahoma Central Business District,
significant correlation of street-level turbulence statistics with the
given reference measurements is questionable. However, the
Oklahoma results are consistent with the BUBBLE campaign
(Christen, 2005) where only in the ‘‘above roof layer’’ did flow
profiles show stability dependence when local scaling was used.
Therefore, whilst higher level or upstream reference data are
‘‘cleaner’’, being free of local obstructions, false conclusions can be
drawn about processes governing street-level turbulence when
stability significantly changes the structure of the atmosphere
between reference level and canopy level. Hence, coupling of the
flow between street and reference site should be explicitly tested.
In addition, for operational applications such as pollution
dispersion modelling or emergency response to hazardous releases,
the highly localised reference measurements used during field
studies would not be available. Sensitivity studies in Benson et al.
(2008) indicated that reference wind direction was the most
important input parameter influencing in-street mean flow and
turbulence features in a Reynolds-averaged CFD study of a complex
street canyon in York, UK. It is therefore of significant interest to
evaluate whether ‘‘city-scale’’ reference measurements (e.g. cen-
tralised telecommunications tower) accurately represent above-
roof flow at the ‘‘street’’ or ‘‘neighbourhood’’ scale.
This paper presents street-level flow measured in central Lon-
don during the 2004 campaign of the DAPPLE project (Dispersion of
Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment;
Arnold et al., 2004) and its relationship to both roof level and higher
level reference measurements. The aimof the work is to investigate
the influence of local flow obstructions and stability on the suit-
ability of reference measurement locations. Firstly, both reference
level measurements are evaluated in terms of local obstructions
distorting the flow. Secondly, each reference is used to explain the
mean flow structure at street-level, thereby expanding the simple
model proposed in Dobre et al. (2005). Finally, the coupling
between street-level turbulence and the outer flow is quantified.
2. Experimental description
Measurements were taken during the second DAPPLE project
field campaign in the spring of 2004 between 20th April and 12th
June. An overview of DAPPLE and available datasets is given at
www.dapple.org.uk, and in Arnold et al. (2004). The DAPPLE field
site was located in Westminster, London, at the intersection of
Marylebone Road with Gloucester Place (lat. 51:31:16N lon.
0:09:36W). Marylebone Road is approximately 38 m wide and
orientated WSW-ENE. Gloucester Place is 20 mwide and intersects
Marylebone Road perpendicularly (see Fig. 1). Buildings near the
intersection are: Westminster City Council House on the SWcorner
which is 15 m in height with a central clock tower of diameter 5 m
which stands 34 m above roof level; Marathon House on the NW
corner, 11 m high with a tower-block section which stands 42 m
above roof level, of plan dimensions 15 Â 33 m; on the NE corner
buildings are approximately 30 m high; and Bickenhall Mansions
on the SE corner is 23 mhigh. Within 250 mof the intersection, the
tallest building is 53 m, the average building height H ¼ 21 m, and
there are no uninterrupted street canyons greater than 150 m in
length, i.e. L/H < 7.
Velocity and sonic temperature data were acquired by eleven
three-axis, Gill Instruments (R3-50 or R3-100) ultrasonic
anemometers (or ‘‘sonics’’), giving wind-speed measurements with
accuracy < 1%, and direction accuracy < Æ1

. Four sonics were
deployed at the intersection, in pairs at 4 m and 7 m in height, on
two lamp-posts in the central reservation of Marylebone Road
(Sites 1 and 2, Fig. 1). Two sonics were mounted on lamp-posts
40 meast of the intersection, one at Site 3 on the north side and one
at Site 4 on the south side of Marylebone Road, respectively 4.1 and
4.3 m above the ground and w3 m and 15 m from the nearest
building wall. Sonics mounted on lamp-posts were located ca. 2.7
lamp-post diameters away from them horizontally, therefore some
flow distortion due to the lamp-post wake affected results when
the sonics were downstream. These sonics were sampled at 5 Hz
via radio communications between 16th May and 22nd May. Two
more sonics were placed on short masts on the pavement at Sites 11
and 12 (respectively 0.5 m and w5 m distance from walls), with
measurement height 1.5 m. These were only deployed for several
hours during daytime on certain days to support studies of
pollutant exposure in the breathing zone (Kaur et al., 2005). All
sonic data were subject to quality control procedures, in particular
spike removal.
Roof-top reference conditions were monitored on the West-
minster City Council (WCC) building using two sonics at Site 10. The
reference labelled WCC in Fig. 1 was on the WCC roof-top in an
identical location to that used in the first DAPPLE campaign of 2003
(Dobre et al., 2005). The reference labelled LIB was situated nearby
on the WCC Library roof-top, chosen for its potentially better
exposure. Both measurements were made at a height of 2 m above
the roof-top, i.e. 17 m above the ground. An additional sonic was
installed on top of the BT Tower (labelled BT), approximately 1.6 km
away to the east (lat. 51:31:17N lon.0:08:21W). This is the tallest
building within several kilometres of the site, with good exposure
to winds in all directions. The anemometer was clamped to an open
lattice scaffolding tower of 18 m height, situated on top of the main
Fig. 1. Experimental set-up for DAPPLE 2004 field campaign.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5537
building structure, resulting in a measurement height of 190 m, or
z w 9 H.
Throughout this paper a right-hand Cartesian co-ordinate
system is used, as shown in Fig. 1. The u and v velocity components
are aligned along Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place respec-
tively, and the street network is oriented 20

anti-clockwise of
north. Positive u is a wind from WSW to ENE and positive v is
a wind from SSE to NNW. The horizontal wind vector direction is
denoted by q ¼ tan
À1
ðv=uÞ where q ¼ 0

indicates WSW flow. Data
have been averaged over 10 min which Dobre et al. (2005) deter-
mined to be long enough to capture the mean street canyon
recirculation whilst allowing longer timescale shifts in wind
direction to be observed. Despite being a relatively short averaging
time for upper level reference data (at z ¼190 m) that may result in
greater uncertainties in second order moments, the aim of this
paper is to relate street-level flow to the outer flow and therefore
the averaging time was determined by street-level processes.
3. Conditions at reference sites
This section presents the climatology of winds, and assesses
each reference site in terms of their deviation away from being
‘‘perfect’’, i.e. no flow distortion or local wake production of
turbulence. Then, the roof-top references are compared with the
upper level reference to establish how representative they are of
the outer flow.
3.1. Assessing the influence of local disturbances on reference
site measurements
Fig. 2 shows the relative frequency distribution of the upper
level BT Tower reference wind direction, q
BT
, and sector-averaged
wind-speed, U
BT
for the campaign, based on 10 min averages.
Winds were predominately from the northerly sector, (i.e.
À135

< q <À 45

) and moderate wind-speeds were recorded with
a mean of 4.5 m s
À1
. High pressure systems pre-dominated during
the campaign, which brought northerly sector flow and moderate
wind-speeds, with a meanwind-speed at the LIB roof-top reference
site of 1.25 m s
À1
. This contrasts with the first DAPPLE campaign
(29th April–22nd May 2003) when south-westerlies dominated
and the mean wind-speed at the WCC roof-top reference site was
w2.3 m s
À1
.
To indicate local flowdistortion at the BT and LIB reference sites,
following Smalley et al. (2008), sector-averaged values of vertical
streamline deflection (i.e. tan
À1
ðw=ðu
2
þ v
2
Þ
0:5
Þ) are shown in
Fig. 3. Mean values over sectors of 15

were calculated and error
bars show the 10th and 90th percentiles. In Fig. 3a, it can be seen
that streamline deflection is upward (positive) for all directions for
the BT reference, suggesting flow distortion due to the Tower itself.
The vertical deflection angles near 0

show large variability: this
direction coincides with lower wind-speeds (see Fig. 2b) and thus
local convective influence may be present. Nevertheless, the
deflection is relatively small and the mean difference between
horizontal wind-speed and wind vector magnitude is estimated to
be 5%. Fig. 3b shows that deflections for the LIB roof-top reference
were generally small. However, there is a more consistent
updraught at q
LIB
w 90

. As the sonic was located w3 m from the
edge of the roof and surrounding buildings are lower, it is likely that
there was upward displacement of flow near the edge of the
building.
Fig. 4 shows the local turbulence intensity T calculated for both
BT and LIB reference sites, defined as T ¼ s
U
.
U where
s
U
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðu
0
2
þ v
0
2
þ w
0
2
Þ=3
q
. For the BT reference, the mean value is
0.15 over all directions and variability is low – there is an outlier
value at q
BT
¼ À15

, but overall there is no evidence of significant
generation of turbulence due to local obstructions. Based on this,
and the small amount of streamline deflection, the BT reference site
is here taken to be representative of the outer flow. The homoge-
neity of flow statistics with wind direction, together with the
Tower’s considerable height above the urban canopy, might suggest
that it is within the inertial sublayer, but this will be tested
explicitly in a subsequent publication. For the LIB roof-top refer-
ence, turbulence intensity is much higher as it lies within the
roughness sublayer; however particularly large values can be seen
in broad peaks centred on À45

and À165

. Flow from À45

places
the sonic in the wake of the Marathon House tower-block described
in Section 2. The wake length is here estimated to be 10 times
obstacle width, giving approximately 240 m. This approximation
is consistent with the wind-tunnel study of the DAPPLE site by
Carpentieri et al. (in press). As the tower-block is w75 m upstream,
wake turbulence is likely to be acting. For À165

, the sonic is
w50 m downstream of the tower on top of the WCC building, and
therefore probably in a wake region of length w50 m. Roof-top
reference LIB is therefore expected to be a less reliable indicator of
the driving flow for wind directions centred on À45

and À165

.
Although wake turbulence generated by roof-top obstacles may
well be transported down into the street and have a genuine
influence on street-level flow, a reference measurement which is
overly influenced by one nearby obstacle is undesirable.
3.2. Relating roof-top reference sites to upper level reference site
Both roof-top references are now related to the upper level
reference to assess how well correlated they are with the outer
flow. Fig. 5 shows the relationship between 10 min averages of
wind direction measured at the BT Tower and both roof-top
reference sites for the campaign. For LIB there is a reasonably linear
correlation: despite the suspected influence of local tall buildings,
the flow does not appear to be consistently deflected. This is in
contrast to WCC, for which clear ‘‘rectification’’ (i.e. q
WCC
w
constant for 0 < q
BT
< 100

) occurs, and building wakes may have
caused the broad spread of q
WCC
for q
BT
w À60 and w100

. This
reference was used in the first DAPPLE campaign, when predomi-
nant wind directions lay between À45 < q
WCC
< 60

. Fortunately,
for most of this range, Fig. 5b shows that q
WCC
f q
BT
and thus the
reference was a reasonable one to use. The large peak in the
frequency of wind direction q
WCC
w 45

observed by Dobre et al.
Fig. 2. Relative frequency distribution of upper level BT Tower reference wind direc-
tion, q
BT
, and sector-averaged wind-speed, U
BT
.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5538
(2005) may have been partly due to local channelling on the roof-
top, as observed here. The main conclusions of Dobre et al. (2005)
still hold and their model is further tested in Section 4.1. It can be
seen that the LIB roof-top reference is a more reliable indicator of
outer flow direction.
Fig. 6 shows the ratio of reference wind-speeds U
LIB
/U
BT
as
a function of U
BT
, with a 100 point moving average overlaid. This
ratio is a function of stability and for U
BT
< 2.25 m s
À1
(the 10th
percentile wind-speed) there is a large spread in the ratio due to
buoyant- or wake-produced turbulence. For higher wind-speeds,
U
LIB
/U
BT
tends to a near-neutral value of 0.23, which is determined
by the upstreamroughness (weighted in favour of the directions for
which the highest wind-speeds occurred, i.e. q
BT
w 45, À45 and
À110

as shown in Fig. 2b).
4. The relationship between reference wind conditions and
in-street wind flow dynamics
Having evaluated both roof-top and upper level references, the
coupling between street-level and outer flow will now be
investigated.
4.1. First order statistics: mean flow
The model of Dobre et al. (2005) for mean flow within a street
canyon driven by reference level winds is modified here to allow
for the asymmetry in up- and downdraught strength, as observed
by e.g. Brown et al. (2000). The reference wind vector is
decomposed into two components: one parallel to the street (u
rjj
)
and the second perpendicular to the street (u
rt
). Positive u
rjj
is
a wind from WSW to ENE and positive u
rt
is a wind from SSE to
NNW. Components of the wind vector measured in the street
(u ¼ (u
jj
, u
t
, u
z
)) are here assumed to be related by linear rela-
tionships to components of the reference wind vector (u
r
¼ (u
rjj
,
u
rt
, u
rz
))
u
jj
¼ u
rjj
b u
jj
ðx
t
=W; x
z
=H; H=WÞ
u
t
¼ u
rt
b u
t
ðx
t
=W; x
z
=H; H=W; sgnðu
rt
ÞÞ
u
z
¼ u
rt
b u
z
ðx
t
=W; x
z
=H; H=W; sgnðu
rt
ÞÞ
(1)
where the hatted variables are dimensionless functions of dimen-
sionless variables denoting street aspect ratio (H/W) and position in
the canyon (x
t
/W, x
z
/H), where x
t
/W ¼ 0 lies mid-way between
the walls. The across-street and vertical velocity components are
associated with the recirculating component of the flow: note that
the dimensionless functions b u
t
and b u
z
are functions of incident
wind direction, indicated by sgn(u
rt
), to reflect asymmetry of the
recirculation strength across the street.
The in-street wind direction, q, is given by
tanq ¼
u
t
u
jj
¼
u
rt
b u
t
u
rjj
b u
jj
¼
b u
t
b u
jj
tanq
r
(2)
As all street canyon sites (3, 4, 11, 12) lie on Marylebone Road,
then q is defined according to the Cartesian co-ordinate systemwith
u
t
h v and u
jj
h u. Calculating in-street wind direction is
a two-step process: a) linear regression between in-street and
reference wind components to obtain hatted variables (equation
(1)), and b) calculate wind direction using hatted variables in
Fig. 3. Sector averaged vertical streamline deflection for a) BT Tower and b) Library reference sites. Bins are 15

wide, error bars show 10th and 90th percentiles.
Fig. 4. Sector averaged turbulence intensity for BT Tower (circles) and Library (triangles) reference sites. Bins are 15

wide, error bars show 10th and 90th percentiles.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5539
equation (2). Fig. 7 shows wind direction for Site 3, q
3
, as a function
of wind direction at all three reference sites q
WCC
, q
LIB
and q
BT
. Also
plotted as a solid line is q
3
calculated using equation (2). The
methodology used here is to identify which reference gives a model
prediction with best fit to the data-points. Scatter is due to devia-
tions of the flow away from ‘‘perfect’’ street canyon flow, or
uncertainty in flow statistics. For low wind periods the 10 min
averaging time may even be shorter than the advection time
between the street and the BT Tower: in addition, the influence of
local buoyancy and traffic may cause additional scatter. Qualita-
tively, for positive angles (southerly flowsector) the best agreement
is given using the BT reference (Fig. 7c). For negative angles the fit is
less good in each case with a wide spread of q
3
for À135
< q
r
< À100

, which corresponds to the site being in the weaker,
updraught side of the recirculation. For near-perpendicular flows,
large scatter in mean flow direction is expected as the along-street
component may be switching direction due to ‘‘rectification’’ at
timescales smaller than the averaging time (Dobre et al., 2005). For
WCC and LIB roof-top references, the clustering of points for
q
r
w À120

is consistent with the ‘‘rectification’’ effect discussed
for Fig. 5b, due to local obstructions. Despite its great height with
respect to the street, the BT Tower reference appears to be
most representative of the outer flow which drives the street scale
mean flow.
Fig. 8 shows the model applied to data from Sites 3, 4 and 11 to
test how closely the flow at each site resembles idealised street
canyon flow. The top rowshows measured and calculated direction
q for each site as a function of reference wind direction q
BT
; the
middle row shows the linear regression between parallel flow
components u
jj
and u
jjBT
; and the bottom row shows measured and
calculated recirculation strength u
C
¼ ðu
2
t
þ u
2
z
Þ
0:5
against
perpendicular component ut
BT
. In general, the model predictions
agree well with the data: the asymmetry in recirculation for Site 3
(Fig. 8g) is well captured, and contrasts with Site 4 (Fig. 8h) which is
on the opposite side of the street. As Site 4 is much further fromthe
wall than Site 3 (15 m, rx
t
/Wr w0.1 cf. 3 m, rx
t
/Wr w0.4), it is
much closer to the recirculation centre and this may explain the
smaller asymmetry in recirculation strength with wind direction.
Despite the low height of Site 11 (x
z
/H w 0.07), there is a remark-
ably good fit in direction for À45 < q
r
< 45

(Fig. 8c). The large
spread of data for q
BT
wÀ120

is probably due to a fence which was
upstream for this flow direction. Despite the influence of passing
traffic, pedestrians and street furniture, typical street canyon flowis
recognisable. However, for Site 12, at x
z
/H w0.07 but on the north
side of Marylebone Road, the model fit was poor (not shown),
indicating that any street canyon type flow was being disrupted by
local flow patterns. For practical reasons the site was located only
0.5 m from a wall and the in-street wind direction indicated
channelling parallel to the wall for most reference wind directions.
4.2. Second order statistics: turbulent kinetic energy
The previous section demonstrated the coupling between mean
flow dynamics within the street and the mean outer flow at the
reference height. This section now considers coupling between in-
street turbulent mixing and both the mean and turbulent compo-
nents of the outer flow. Site 3 was chosen for this analysis as it has
the largest number of data-points (>4000) over the full range of
wind directions.
Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), represented by e, was chosen to
represent turbulent mixing, and is given by e ¼ ðu
02
þ v
02
þ w
02
Þ=2.
Note that due to the 10 min averaging period, larger scale contri-
butions to TKE will not be included, particularly for upper level
measurements, leading to underestimation. Following Smalley
et al. (2008), data were selected for which there was little influence
from local obstructions. Fig. 9 shows the sector-averaged turbu-
lence intensity calculated for Site 3 (T
3
) as a function of q
BT
. Large
values can be observed for easterly sector flow, i.e. q
r
¼ 180

Æ 90

,
where the sonic is in the lamp-post wake. For the range
À45

< q
r
< þ75

, turbulence intensity at Site 3, and the BT refer-
ence site (see Fig. 4), is low and approximately constant, and there
Fig. 5. Reference wind direction comparison: a) q
LIB
against q
BT
, b) q
WCC
against q
BT
.
Fig. 6. Ratio of reference wind-speeds U
LIB
/U
BT
as a function of U
BT
. Black dots show
a 100 point moving average.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5540
is an even spread of data-points across the bins (mean number per
bin Æ standard deviation: 203 Æ 33). Constant turbulence intensity
is here assumed to indicate that both measurements are not being
influenced by additional wake turbulence, thus only the range
À45

< q
r
< þ75

is used.
Firstly, the relationship between in-street TKE and the outer
mean flow is investigated by calculating the correlation coefficient
between TKE and a) the mean wind-speed ðe
3
jU
2
r
Þ ¼ 0:66 b) the
parallel component ðe
3
ju
2
rjj
Þ ¼ 0:30; and c) the perpendicular
component, ðe
3
ju
2
rt
Þ ¼ 0:68. These results show that variability in
in-street TKE at Site 3 is best explained by the perpendicular
component of the mean flow. As seen in the previous section, there
is a strong relationship between this component and the recircu-
lation within the street. In contrast, TKE is less well correlated with
the parallel component. Therefore it can be deduced that most
turbulent mixing at this site is driven by the recirculation. The
range of winds considered encompasses the range where flow is
parallel to the street, (‘‘channelling flow’’) taken by some authors
(e.g. Rotach, 1995) to be 0 Æ 30

. The present result suggests that
the recirculation is a strong feature of the floweven for channelling
flow.
Secondly, the relationship between in-street TKE and reference
height TKE was investigated. Following the Smalley et al. (2008)
methodology, two further constraints were applied to the data to
ensure that the underlying dependence of TKE on mean wind-
speed was removed: a) the reference wind-speed was constant to
within 0.1 m s
À1
, and b) there was negligible correlation between
reference wind-speed and TKE at both the in-street site and
reference site, i.e. ðe
3
jU
2
r
Þ/0; ðejU
2
r
Þ/0.
For constraint a) data were ranked in intervals of
DU
r
¼ 0.1 m s
À1
, and those intervals with more than 29 data-points
were analysed, which is approximately twice the number used in
Smalley et al. (2008).(NB: U
r
¼ 2.5 m s
À1
was included with only 24
to span the range of wind-speeds). According to constraint b), data
intervals were rejected if correlations ðe
3
jU
2
r
Þ and ðe
r
jU
2
r
Þ were
significant, chosen when R
2
> 0.03, after Smalley et al. (2008). Then
the regression e
3
¼ Ae
r
þB was computed and Table 1 shows the
results, indicating a statistically significant linear relationship at at
least the 2% level. These results concur with the Smalley et al.
(2008) result, that the TKE within the street is directly correlated
with TKE in the flow above roof. Note that the U
r
values lie evenly
spread between the 10th (2.25 m s
À1
), 25th (3.40 m s
À1
), 50th
(4.84 m s
À1
) and 75th percentile (6.51 m s
À1
). The analysis was also
completed for higher values of the wind-speed (7.2, 7.8, 8.5 m s
À1
),
even though the number of samples was 17, 15 and 15 respectively.
Interestingly, the offset value, B, is reasonably constant across
all wind-speed ranges tested (mean B ¼ 0.34, standard deviation
0.09 m
2
s
À2
). As this is in-street TKE when the TKE of the external
flow is extrapolated to zero, one interpretation is that the offset
quantifies TKE production due to processes other than shear
production. Traffic is likely to dominate for this site, being heavy
at most times of day (ca. 3000 vehicles per hour during the day,
Tomlin et al., submitted for publication). Smalley et al. (2008) did
not observe such large, consistent offsets. Their measurement
heights were at z w 5 m w 0.5 H, whereas Site 3 is at
z ¼ 4.1 m w 0.2 H. It is possible that Site 3 experiences stronger
influence from traffic-produced turbulence due to its height and
being next to a bus lane with regular double-decker buses of
height ca. 6 m.
5. Stability effects
Bulk thermal structure of the layer between the roof-top
reference and the BT Tower was determined by calculating the
ratio between virtual potential temperature q
V
(approximated using
the sonic temperature T
S
) at each reference site, i.e. q
VBT
/q
VLIB
.
Fig. 7. Wind direction at Site 3, q
3
, compared to each reference wind direction: a) q
WCC
, b) q
LIB
, and c) q
BT
. Black dots show measured values, solid lines show direction calculated
using equation (2) for each reference.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5541
A ratio greater than 1 implies that the atmosphere is statically
stable. This was found to happen on 1% of occasions (out of 5361
coincident 10 min averaged data-points). Such events happened
overnight on eight nights out of the total of 42 on which data were
recorded. General features associated with each event were
a) increase in the ratio of wind-speeds, U
BT
/U
LIB
(clearly driven on
half of the occasions by an increase in U
BT
) b) normalised TKE at
the BT reference dropped to near zero values whilst the LIB roof-
top TKE was maintained and c) standard deviation of sonic
temperature at the BT reference, s
TsBT
became higher than at the
LIB roof-top, s
TsLIB
. All these observations suggest that the BT
Tower was in a stable layer aloft, where the local temperature
gradient was large, and on occasion a nocturnal jet was probably
occurring.
Fig. 10a and b shows one of the stronger examples of a stable
layer on 2nd May 2004, and a weaker event on 3rd May. Fig. 10a
shows a time series of T
S
and s
Ts
for both BT and LIB reference
sites. Before 2nd May, T
SLIB
is clearly higher than T
SBT
, in contrast
to the 2nd and 3rd May. s
TsBT
is also enhanced relative to s
TsLIB
Fig. 8. Decomposition model results for Site 3: a, d, g; Site 4: b, e,h; Site 11: c, f, i. Top row shows measured (dots) and calculated (solid line) in-street wind direction q as a function
of BT Tower wind direction q
BT
; middle row shows linear regression (solid line) between parallel components of measured in-street ujj and reference winds u
BT
jj; and bottom row
shows measured (dots) and calculated (solid line) recirculation strength u
C
¼ ðu
2
t
þ u
2
z
Þ
0:5
as a function of perpendicular reference wind component u
BT
t.
Fig. 9. Sector averaged turbulence intensity for Site 3, T
3
, as a function of BT tower
wind direction, q
BT
. Bins are 15

wide, error bars show 10th and 90th percentiles.
Table 1
Linear regression between turbulent kinetic energy at Site 3, e
3
and at reference site,
er, for different reference wind-speeds, U
r
. NB: values shown in italics show statis-
tical significance at the 2% level, for other values p < 0.01.
U
r
range (m s
À1
)
a
Number of
samples
Regression coefficients for e
3
¼ Aer þ B
A B R
2
2.5 24 0.24 0.18 0.59
3.3 31 0.18 0.33 0.37
3.9 32 0.17 0.36 0.41
4.6 39 0.22 0.32 0.45
5.0 32 0.15 0.44 0.18
5.8 29 0.24 0.39 0.19
a
Lower interval wind-speed.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5542
during each stable period, reverting back to the opposite situation
during the daytime on the 2nd May (when conditions were sunny
and the atmosphere unstable). Fig. 10b shows the ratio q
VBT
/q
VLIB
,
which peaks sharply on 2nd May. Associated with that, ejU
2
drops
to near zero at the BT reference but is maintained at the LIB roof-
top reference. The bulk Richardson number (based on BT and LIB
measurements) was above the critical threshold R
b
¼ 0.25
between 01:50 and 07:20 on 2nd May, indicating suppression of
turbulence. The correlation between ejU
2
at Site 3 and the BT
reference site dropped to 0.14 during this time, compared to
a campaign average of 0.24. Interestingly, the correlation between
Site 3 and the LIB reference for the whole campaign was 0.13,
suggesting better coupling to the upper level reference. Given that
such overnight decoupling events appear to be rare in London,
overall the BT reference is suitable for scaling street-level turbu-
lent flow.
6. Conclusions
This paper presented data from the second DAPPLE campaign in
late spring 2004, an evaluation of reference measurements and
analysis of coupling between street-level and outer flow. Several
conclusions can be drawn from the results:
1) The paper presented a methodology for assessment of refer-
ence sites. For the conditions studied, the upper level BT
reference at z w9 H was more suitable for scaling street-level
flowas it was free of local obstructions which affected the roof-
top reference site measurements, and was rarely decoupled
due to stable conditions. The LIB roof-top reference showed
some correlation to street-level flow but was more useful in
explaining mean flow variability rather than turbulent kinetic
energy variability. The results support the use of a central
reference site in London in order to inform air quality or
emergency response management studies. The BT Tower could
potentially be a suitable long-termreference to support studies
at street scale – efforts to enable this are currently underway.
2) The decomposition model of Dobre et al. (2005) was applied to
flow recorded within a relatively regular street canyon with H/
W w 0.5, in order to determine which reference level wind
velocity was more appropriate. Whilst the application of the
model to more complex flows is less successful (Klein et al.,
2007), here it explained a reasonable amount of the flow
structure at several sites, even at low heights potentially
influenced by traffic-produced turbulence. The model makes
an assumption that the linear relationship between parallel
components in the street and that above is invariant with wind
direction. Although Soulhac et al. (2008) suggested theoreti-
cally that this should not be the case, given the spread of data
for the current sites, the results show it is a reasonable first
order assumption. It is concluded that the model shows that
the recirculation is a strong feature which dominates mean
flow structure for this particular street.
3) Street-level turbulent kinetic energy was best correlated with
the perpendicular component of the reference flow at Site 3.
This shows the importance of the recirculation in mixing air at
street-level. Noted also was the wide spread in street-level
wind direction for near perpendicular reference flow, particu-
larly when the street-level measurement was in a down-
draught. This indicates two things: a) flow rectification means
that the parallel component of street-level flow does not
disappear for mean perpendicular flows, as in idealised simu-
lations, and b) this unsteady process (even at the scale of
10 min) leads to large amounts of turbulent mixing.
4) Stable conditions occurred occasionally overnight, and street-
level flow was less well coupled to the upper level reference as
a result. However, the present results showed that such events
occurred < 1% of the time over 6 weeks in late spring in
London, which is in agreement with earlier work in central
London by Spanton and Williams (1988) who analysed sodar
reflectivities and determined that ground based inversions
occured <1% of the time over an 18 month period. The present
result is to be contrasted with Klein and Clark (2007)’s analysis
of data from the Joint Urban campaign in July 2003 in Okla-
homa City, where a stable layer was often observed overnight,
with a nocturnal jet. This implies that it cannot be generalised
as to whether stable conditions are uncommon over urban
areas at night, as they are a strong function of thermal advec-
tion due to regional scale flow processes (e.g. Great Plains low
level jet, katabatic winds, sea breezes) in addition to the impact
of local urban cover type on the surface energy balance. Ayear-
long dataset of turbulence statistics for both LIB roof-top and
BT reference sites is currently being analysed to establish
a better climatology of such events for London.
Acknowledgements
This work was funded by EPSRC (GR/R78176/01), JIF (for
LANTERN consortium equipment, Leeds) and NERC (for RJS).
Thanks to Steve Neville (Westminster City Council); Nicola
Cheetham (Transport for London); Brian Glynn (Camden Contrac-
tors); the Metropolitan Police Special Events Officers and Transport
for London Police; Stephen Gill, Andrew Lomas and Ken Spiers
(University of Reading) for fieldwork support; and Surbjit Kaur and
all field workers who helped to collect data.
Fig. 10. Example of stable conditions (2nd May). a) Mean and standard deviation of
sonic temperature, T
s
b) Ratio of virtual potential temperatures, and normalised
turbulent kinetic energy at BT Tower and LIB sites.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5543
References
Arnold, S., ApSimon, H., Barlow, J., Belcher, S., Bell, M., Boddy, D., Britter, R.,
Cheng, H., Clark, R., Colvile, R., Dimitroulopoulou, S., Dobre, A., Greally, B.,
Kaur, S., Knights, A., Lawton, T., Makepeace, A., Martin, D., Neophytou, M.,
Neville, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Nickless, G., Price, C., Robins, A., Shallcross, D.,
Simmonds, P., Smalley, R., Tate, J., Tomlin, A., Wang, H., Walsh, P., 2004.
Dispersion of air pollution and penetration into the local environment, DAPPLE.
Science of the Total Environment 332, 139–153.
Benson, J., Ziehn, T., Dixon, N.S., Tomlin, A.S., 2008. Global sensitivity analysis of
a 3-dimensional street canyon model – part II: application and physical insight
using sensitivity analysis. Atmospheric Environment 42 (8), 1874–1891.
Boddy, J.W.D., Smalley, R.J., Dixon, N.S., Tate, J.E., Tomlin, A.S., 2005. The spatial
variability in concentrations of a traffic-related pollutant in two street canyons
in York, UK – part I: the influence of background winds. Atmospheric Envi-
ronment 39, 3147–3161.
Brown, M.J., Lawson, R.E., Decroix, D.S., Lee, R.L., 2000. Mean flow and turbulence
measurements around a 2-D array of buildings in a wind-tunnel. In: 11th Joint
Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Long Beach,
California, US, January 2000.
Carpentieri, M., Robins, A.G., Baldi, S. Three-dimensional mapping of wind flow at
an urban canyon intersection. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, in press.
Christen, A., 2005. Atmospheric turbulence and surface energy exchange in urban
environments. PhD thesis, University of Basel, 140 pp.
Christen, A., van Gorsel, E., Vogt, R., 2007. Coherent structures in urban roughness
sublayer turbulence. International Journal of Climatology 27, 1955–1968.
Dobre, A., Arnold, S.J., Smalley, R.J., Boddy, J.W.D., Barlow, J.F., Tomlin, A.S.,
Belcher, S.E., 2005. Flow field measurements in the proximity of an urban
intersection in London, UK. Atmospheric Environment 39, 4647–4657.
Elliason, I., Offerle, B., Grimmond, C.S.B., Lindqvist, S., 2006. Wind fields and turbu-
lence statistics in an urban street canyon. Atmospheric Environment 40, 1–16.
Finnigan, J.J., 2000. Turbulence in plant canopies. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics
32, 519–571.
Hamlyn, D., Hilderman, T., Britter, R.E., 2007. A simple network approach to
modelling dispersion among large groups of obstacles. Atmospheric Environ-
ment 41, 5848–5862.
Hoydysh, W.G., Dabberdt, W.F., 1994. Concentration fields at urban intersections –
fluid modeling studies. Atmospheric Environment 28 (11), 1849–1860.
Hunter, L.J., Johnson, G.T., Watson, I.D., 1992. An investigation of three-dimensional
characteristics of flow regimes within an urban canyon. Atmospheric Envi-
ronment 26B, 425–432.
Kastner-Klein, P., Berkowicz, R., Plate, E.J., 2000. Modelling of vehicle-induced
turbulence in air pollution studies for streets. International Journal of Envi-
ronment and Pollution 14 (1–6), 496–507.
Kaur, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Colvile, R.N., 2005. Pedestrian exposure to air
pollution along a major road in Central London, UK. Atmospheric Environment
39, 7307–7320.
Klein, P., Clark, J.V., 2007. Flow variability in a north American downtown street
canyon. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46 (6), 851–877.
Klein, P., Leitl, B., Schatzmann, M., 2007. Driving physical mechanisms of flow and
dispersion in urbancanopies. International Journal of Climatology 27, 1887–1907.
Longley, I.D., Gallagher, M.W., Dorsey, J.R., Flynn, M., Barlow, J.F., 2004. Short-term
measurements of airflow and turbulence in two street canyons in Manchester.
Atmospheric Environment 38, 69–79.
Louka, P., Belcher, S.E., Harrison, R.G., 2000. The coupling between air flow in-
streets and the well- developed boundary layer aloft. Atmospheric Environ-
ment 34, 2613–2621.
Nelson, M.A., Pardyjak, E.R., Klewicki, J.C., Pol, S.U., Brown, M.J., 2007. Properties of
the wind field within the Oklahoma City Park Avenue street canyon. Part 1:
mean flow and turbulence statistics. Journal of Applied Meteorology and
Climatology 46, 2038–2054.
Oke, T.R., 1988. Street design and the urban canopy layer climate. Energy and
Buildings 11, 103–113.
Pascheke, F., Barlow, J.F., Robins, A., 2008. Wind-tunnel modelling of dispersion
from a scalar area source in urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorology
126, 103–124.
Poggi, D., Porporato, A., Ridolfi, L., Albertson, J.D., Katul, G.G., 2004. The effect of
vegetation density on canopy sub-layer turbulence. Boundary-Layer
Meteorology 111 (3), 565–587.
Rafailidis, S., 1997. Influence of building area density and roof shape on the wind
characteristics above a town. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 85, 255–271.
Raupach, M.R., Thom, A.S., 1981. Turbulence in and above plant canopies. Annual
Review of Fluid Mechanics 13, 97–129.
Rotach, M.W., 1995. Profiles of turbulence statistics in and above an urban street
canyon. Atmospheric Environment 29, 1473–1486.
Scaperdas, A., Colvile, R.N., 1999. Assessing the representativeness of monitoring
data from an urban intersection site in central London, UK. Atmospheric
Environment 33 (4), 661–674.
Smalley, R.J., Tomlin, A.S., Dixon, N.S., Boddy, J.W.D., 2008. The influence of back-
ground wind direction on the roadside turbulent velocity field within
a complex urban street. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
134, 1371–1384.
Soulhac, L., 2000. Mode´ lisation de la dispersion atmosphe´ rique a` l’inte´ rieur de la
canope´ e urbaine. PhD thesis, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 345 pp.
Soulhac, L., Perkins, R.J., Salizzoni, P., 2008. Flow in a street canyon for any external
wind direction. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 126, 365–388.
Spanton, A.M., Williams, M.L., 1988. A comparison of the structure of the atmo-
spheric boundary-layers in central London and a rural suburban site using
acoustic sounding. Atmospheric Environment 22 (2), 211–223.
Tomlin, A.S., Smalley, R.J., Tate, J.E., Arnold, S.J., Dobre, A., Barlow, J.F., Belcher, S.E.,
Robins, A. Factors influencing the concentrations of a traffic related pollutant in
the vicinity of a complex urban junction. Atmospheric Environment, submitted
for publication.
Vachon, G., Louka, P., Rosant, J.M., Mestayer, P.G., Sini, J.F., 2003. Measurements of
traffic-induced turbulence within a street canyon during the Nantes’99 exper-
iment. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 127–140.
Vardoulakis, S., Fisher, B.E.A., Pericleous, K., Gonzalez-Flesca, N., 2003. Modelling air
quality in-street canyons: a review. Atmospheric Environment 37, 155–182.
J.F. Barlow et al. / Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 5536–5544 5544