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Alat Reproduksi Angiospermae
• Stamen / Benang Sari
– Setiap stamen terdiri atas anthera, yang mengandung
mikrosporangia dan didukung oleh filament
– Meiosis pada sel induk mikrospora yang diploid di dalam antera
menghasilkan empat mikrospora haploid.
– Masing masing mikrospora akan berkembang menjadi serbuk sari
dengan dua sel, kedua sel tersebut adalah :
• Sel buluh serbuk dan
• Sel generatif
• Karpel
– Karpel terdiri atas stigma, stylus dan ovarium. Semua bagian ini
membentuk pistilum.
– The megasporangia, disebut ovul, berkembang di dalam ovarium.
– Meiosis pada sel induk megaspora di dalam setiap ovul
menghasilkan 4 sel haploid :
• 1 sel megaspora yang besar, dan
• 3 sel kecil yang disintegrasi.
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Development of the megaspore
• The nucleus of the megaspore undergoes 3
successive mitotic divisions. The 8 nuclei
that result are distributed and partitioned off
by cell walls to form the embryo sac. This is
the mature female gametophyte generation.
• The egg cell will start the new sporophyte
generation if it is fertilized.
• The large central cell, which in most
angiosperms contains two polar nuclei, will
after its fertilization develop into the
endospermof the seed.
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Pollinasi
• When a pollen grain reaches the
stigma, it germinates into a pollen
tube. The generative nucleus divides
by mitosis forming 2 sperm nuclei.
These, along with the tube nucleus,
migrate down the pollen tube as it
grows through the style and into the
ovule chamber. The pollen tube with its
contents makes up the mature male
gametophyte generation.
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Double Fertilization
• The pollen tube enters the
ovule through the
micropyle and ruptures.
• One sperm nucleus fuses
with the egg forming the
diploid zygote.
• The other sperm nucleus
fuses with the polar nuclei
forming the endosperm
nucleus. Most
angiosperms have two
polar nuclei so the
endosperm is triploid (3n).
• The tube nucleus
disintegrates.
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Ovum (n)
Penyerbukan
Zygota (2n)
:
Antipoda (n)
Inti kandung
Lembaga skunder (2n)
Inti kandung
Lembaga skunder (2n)
Sperma II (n)
Sperma I (n)
Embryo (2n)
Buluh serbuk
Serbuk sari
Benang sari
Sel kandung lembaga
Bakal biji
Putik
Bunga
Endosperm (3n)
Gambar 3 : Pembuahan ganda
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Buah (hasil pembuahan) Buah partenokarpi
Bakal biji
Ovum x sperma Ovarium Buah tak berbiji
Zygota Giberelin
(dihasilkan bakal biji yang tak
dibuahi)
Embryo
Menghasilkan
Giberelin
Ovarium Buah berbiji
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Biji
• Mengandung embrio tumbuhan yang
sedang berkembang dalam selubung
protektif yang disebut testa
• Biji terbentuk dari bakal biji (ovula)
yang dibuahi di dalam ovarium
• Ovarium dengan biji di dalamnya akan
menjadi buah.
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• After double fertilization, each ovule develops into a seed, which
consists of
• a plumule, made up of
– two embryonic leaves, which will become the first true leaves of the
seedling, and
– a terminal (apical) bud. The terminal bud contains the meristemat which
later growth of the stem takes place.
• One or two cotyledons which store food that will be used by the
germinating seedling.
– Angiosperms that produce seeds with two cotyledons are called dicots.
Examples: beans, squashes, Arabidopsis
– Angiosperms whose seeds contain only a single cotyledon are monocots.
Examples: corn and other grasses.
• The hypocotyl and radicle, which will grow into the part of the stem
below the first node ("hypocotyl" = below the cotyledons) and
primary root respectively.
• A pair of protective seed coats derived from the walls of he ovule.
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• The food in the cotyledons is derived from the endosperm
which, in turn, received it from the parent sporophyte. In many
angiosperms (e.g., beans), when the seeds are mature, the
endosperm has been totally consumed and its food
transferred to the cotyledons. In others (some dicots and all
monocots), the endosperm persists in the mature seed.
• The seed is thus a dormant embryo sporophyte with stored
food and protective coats. Its two functions are
– dispersal of the species to new locations (aided in angiosperms
by the fruit)
– survival of the species during unfavorable climatic periods (e.g.,
winter). "Annual" plants (e.g., beans, cereal grains, many weeds)
can survive freezing only as seeds. When the parents die in the
fall, the seeds remain alive - though dormant- over the winter.
When conditions are once more favorable, germination occurs
and a new generation of plants develops.
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Seed:
Seed Coat
Embryo
Storage Tissue (Endosperm)
Seed Hormones
CK-CytoKinin
cell division
GA-Gibberellic Acid
cell expansion
AbA-Abscisic Acid
dormancy
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The Three Fundamental Parts…
…of a Seed
1. Seed Coat
2. Embryo
3. Storage
Tissue
1. Leaf
2. Stem
3. Root
…of an Embryo
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Parts of a Seed
• External seed coat or testa
• Developing plant embryo
• Stored food called endosperm
• Seeds may be in one part (monocot)
or two parts (dicots)
MONOCOT
DICOT
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Parts of a Seed
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Gymnosperm Seed
• A single fertilization produces the
diploid (2n) embryo
• The food source is the haploid
megagametophyte
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Dicot vs. monocot seed
• Dicot has two
cotyledons (like bean)
• Endosperm (food) is
kept in the cotyledon
• Monocot has one
cotyledon which
absorbs the endosperm
tissue during
germination (corn)
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Kulit buah bersatu
dengan kulit biji
Posisi Endosperm
Posisi embryo
Biji utuh
Kulit biji
mikropil
hilum
Biji utuh
endosperm
endosperm
remains of style
Kulit buah dan kulit
biji yg bersatu
coleoptil
plumula
radikula
coleorhiza
A. Irisan membujur
radikula
plumula
kotyledon
A. Irisan membujur
embryo
Gambar 5. Struktur Biji
A. Biji jagung
B. Biji kacang kedelai
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Growth of the shoot
Photosynthesis and Storage
Lifting the shoot above the soil
Producing lateral roots
Penetrating the soil
These functions…. …occur in this part of the embryo
Shoot apex
Cotyledon (leaf)
Hypocotyl (stem)
Radicle (root)
Root apex
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http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/ibc99/koning/seedgerm.html
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Fruits serve many functions
in the plant world
• Food source for the germinating
seedling
• Plants need to get around. They
do this with their fruits.
Adaptations for dispersal
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Fruit and Seed Dispersal
• The main function of the fruit is to
disperse the seeds
• Dispersal is important because
– 1. It spreads the progeny in order to
colonize new environments
– 2. Reduces competition for resources
with parents
– 3. Reduces the chances of predators
destroying all of the plant’s yearly seed
production
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Types of Seed Dispersal
Three types of seed dispersal:
1. Self dispersal
• Mechanical Ejection of Seeds
2. Physical Carrier Dispersal
• Wind dispersal
• Water dispersal
3. Biological Carrier Dispersal
• Animal dispersal
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A. Self dispersal
• Plants disperse their seeds by forceful
ejection – explosive fruits!
• Witch hazel, squirting cucumber (jet
propulsion)
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Mechanical
Ejection
• Geranium
fruit
exploding
Legume
(Pea seeds)
A
combination
of ejection
and
attraction
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Mechanical
Ejection
• Impatiens Fruit
Exploding
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Self dispersal
• The peanut plant sows
(buries) its own seeds!
• Geocarpic: carpel grows
inside the earth (soil)
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B. Wind dispersal
• Small and Lightweight seeds.
• Fruit and seeds may have special
devices for wind dispersal
• Plumes catch wind currents: Dandelion
• Trees take advantage of their great
heights for wind dispersal. Fruits with
wings are used to slow the descent to
land: maple, ash fruit
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C. Water Dispersal
• Fruits and/or seeds use flotation
devices to travel by water (in rivers,
oceans, etc.)
• Fruit may have air spaces and corky
floats: for example coconut
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Coconuts are Water Dispersed
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D. Animal dispersal
• Plants have interaction with animals to
accomplish seed dispersal
• Many plants depend on animals for seed
dispersal; they may offer a nutritional reward
• Animals learn to recognize ripened fruit colors
• Fleshy fruits eaten and dispersed
with feces
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Animal dispersal
• Some dry fruit attach and cling to
animals
(they hitchhike on the animals)
• Some have Velcro-like hooks that cling to
animal fur (burdock, cockleburs)
• Others have sticky substances that stick
to host (mistletoe)
• Oils attract ants.
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Animal Dispersal
• Long distance dispersal by birds:
– fruits and seeds trapped in the mud on
their feet
– Seeds released in excrement
• Animals eat fruit, the seeds pass
through the digestive tract.
– Scarification by digestive enzymes is
necessary for germination
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How Ripened Fruits
Attract Animals
1. Softer, easier to
digest
2. More fragrant
3. Brightly colored
4. Increase in sugar
content is a source
of carbohydrates
(reward)
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Further Study on Seed
Dispersal
• What carries the dandelion seeds for miles?
• What feature of trees gives them a particular
advantage when dispersing seeds by air?
• How does the squirting cucumber disperse its seeds?
• Although plants use wind and water, what do most
plants use as carriers for their seeds?
• Blackberries on a tree do not ripen simultaneously,
why?
• What plant do elephants help to disperse? How do
they do it? What percentage of these seeds
germinate in elephant dung? Why?
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Pithecellobium oblongumfruit shows
some of the traits often found in the
fruits of bird-dispersed seeds
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Fruits and Dispersal
• Fruits remain
distasteful to
most animals
(including
humans) until
they are ripe
• This ensures
that the fruit
will not be
eaten until the
seeds are
mature