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**in cellular manufacturing systems
**

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

Industrial Engineering Program, College of Engineering, King Saud University,

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Introduction

Nowadays, manufacturing systems have

gone though major changes due to the

advances in technologies and strategies.

Cellular manufacturing has been recognized

as the key to improve productivity,

flexibility, production management, quality

and material flow. Cellular manufacturing

systems (CMS) are the manufacturing

systems which are based on group

technology (GT) concept. This basic concept

of CMS is the decomposition of the

manufacturing system into subsystems

(manufacturing cells), by grouping parts into

families and machines into machine cells,

based upon the simplifies between system

objects (parts and/or machines). CMS have

been implemented in many industries and

their benefits are well realized (Shanker and

Vart, 1999; Wemmerlov and Johnson, 1997).

Formation of cellular manufacturing

systems (CMS) is a complex problem with

broad implications an organization, due to

different issues related to both system

structure and system operations. The

problem of CMS has been considered as a

multi-objective problem in the literature. It

includes selections of parts, machine cells,

tools, fixtures, material handling systems,

and equipment layout in addition to

operational problems such as process plan,

scheduling, etc. These problems have been

widely considered in the literature. There is

no unique solution to these problems due to

the differences among design and operational

requirements and constraints from one

application to another. Therefore, the CMS

should be configured and designed based

upon requirements and constraints of the

system being considered. Consequently,

trading off the objectives related to cell

design variables would be necessary. In

addition, proposing, evaluating and

comparing CMS design methods and

techniques are required to provide an

effective solution to a CMS problem.

A number of CMS design approaches have

been developed. Comprehensive reviews of

cell design approaches are presented by

several researchers (Chu, 1989; Singh, 1993;

Shafer, 1998; Suresh and Kay, 1998; Shanker

and Vart, 1999; Mansouri et al., 2000). These

approaches can be classified into several

categories as follows:

.

mathematical programming approaches;

.

similarity coefficient methods;

.

fuzzy approaches;

.

neural networks methods;

.

artificial intelligence methods; and

.

heuristic approaches.

In selecting part families and machine cells

of CMS, there is uncertainty or vagueness in

system parameters. Most of the methods

proposed are metric: a convenient distance

measure being selected (Euclidean, diagonal,

etc.) in p-space, some concept of homogeneity

yields an objective function to be minimized

(Roubens, 1977). Therefore, there is a need to

use and develop practical approaches such as

fuzzy approaches which can deal with

uncertainty or vagueness in system

parameters.

The fuzzy clustering algorithms offer a

special advantage of a conventional

clustering and allow a description of some of

the uncertainties that often go with real data

and reveal the specific part family/machine

cell that a part/machine belongs to. In

addition, these algorithms provide the degree

of membership of a part/machine associated

with each part family/machine cell. This

would provide users with more flexibility in

designing part families and machine cells.

Few researchers have proposed fuzzy

approaches to CMS problems (Hu and Wang,

1989; Chu and Hayya, 1991; Maznata and

Settineri, 1997; Gindy and Ratchev, 1997;

Susanto et al., 1999), whereas fuzzy

approaches have the advantages of much

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0957-6061.htm

[ 489]

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

# MCB UP Limited

[ISSN 0957-6061]

[DOI 10.1108/09576060210442653]

Keywords

Cellular manufacturing, Design,

Cluster analysis, Fuzzy logics

AbstractAmong the many

accepted clustering techniques,

the fuzzy clustering approaches

have been developed over the last

decades. These approaches have

been applied to many areas in

manufacturing systems. In this

paper, a fuzzy clustering approach

is proposed for selecting machine

cells and part families in cellular

manufacturing systems. This fuzzy

approach offers a special

advantage over existing clustering

approaches as it presents the

degree of membership of the

machine or part associated with

each machine cell or part family

allowing users flexibility in

formulating machine cells and part

families. The proposed algorithm

is extended and validated using

numerical examples to

demonstrate its application in

cellular manufacturing.

Received May 2000

Revised February 2001

Accepted August 2001

The author gratefully

acknowledges the two

anonymous referees for their

valuable suggestions for

improving this paper. Thanks

are also due to Dr Naser Aziz

(King Saud University) for

his contributions throughout

the revision stage of this

research.

more detailed information on the structure of

the data. In fuzzy clustering, each object

(machine or part) is more or less ``spread out''

over the various clusters via membership

grades that range from zero to one

(Rousseeuw et al., 1989).

In this paper a fuzzy clustering approach is

proposed to select part families and machine

cells of CMS. This approach is tested and

evaluated using numerical examples from

the literature.

Fuzzy clustering approaches

The objective of cluster analysis is to group a

set of objects into a number of clusters.

Different clustering algorithms have been

used for this purpose. These algorithms can

be classified into three main categories:

1 heuristical;

2 hierarchical; and

3 partitional clustering methods (Zahid

et al., 1999).

Fuzzy clustering algorithms are partitioning

methods that can be used to assign objects of

the data set to their clusters. These

algorithms optimize a subjective function

that evaluates a given fuzzy assignment of

objects to clusters. Various fuzzy clustering

algorithms have been developed such as

fuzzy c-means (Bezdek, 1981), MND2

(Roubens, 1977), and a fuzzy clustering

algorithm (Kaufman and Rousseeuw, 1990),

but the most widely used is the fuzzy c-means

algorithm.

Fuzzy c-mean algorithm is based on the

objective function:

i

k

(u

ki

)

m

d

2

(k. i). (1)

MND2 algorithm is based on the following

objective function:

k

ij

u

2

ik

u

2

jk

d(i. j). (2)

Kaufman and Rousseeuw (1990) proposed the

following fuzzy objective function:

k

v=1

n

i.j=1

u

2

iv

u

2

jv

d(i. j)

2

n

j=1

u

2

jv

. (3)

where u

iv

represents the membership of

machine/part i in cluster v. The d(i,j) is the

given distance between machines/parts i

and j.

More details about fuzzy clustering

algorithms can be found in Roubens (1977;

1982), Bezdek (1974), Ruspini (1970), Dunn

(1974), Hathaway and Bezdek (1988), and

Kaufman and Rousseeuw (1990).

It has been found that much of the previous

work in the application of fuzzy clustering in

CMS has been concentrated on the fuzzy

c-means algorithms. Hu and Wang (1989)

proposed a fuzzy approach to define the

relationships between part-type and

part-type cluster and machine-type and

machine-type cluster in designing part

families and machine cells. They used the

fuzzy-c-means algorithm given by Bezdek

(1981). This approach has been simplified

by Chu and Hayya (1991) by using

machine/part incidence matrices as input

for configuration of part and machines

clusters. These approaches have also been

adopted by Maznata and Settineri (1997),

Gindy and Ratchev (1997) and Susanto et al.

(1999).

In general, most of the existing fuzzy

approaches which have been used in CMS are

based on Chu and Hayya's method and its

subsequent modifications by other

researches. However, Chu and Hayya's (1991)

method can result in a solution with empty

part-type cluster(s) and/or empty

machine-type cluster(s). Recently, Susanto

et al. (1999) modified Chu and Hayya's idea to

overcome these problems.

This paper focuses on the problem of

formulating part families and machine cells

of cellular manufacturing systems. It differs

from the previous work reviewed above in

that it uses a fuzzy clustering approach

(Kaufman and Rousseeuw, 1990) with

extensions instead of fuzzy c-means

algorithms. The fuzzy c-means algorithm

implicitly assumes that the different objects

(machines) are given by means of

coordinates of a p-dimensional space. This is

a restrictive condition in comparison with

the approach proposed in this paper, for

which no representation of machines

and/or parts is required. In fact, only

the distances between objects (machines)

are needed. In addition, each iteration

cycle in the algorithm presented here

performs a loop over all pairs of parts or

machines, whereas fuzzy c-means perform

loops for each part or machine over the

measurement variables.

The proposed fuzzy approach

The fuzzy clustering technique proposed

aims to minimize the objective function

(Kaufman and Rousseeuw, 1990):

C =

k

v=1

n

i.j=1

u

2

ij

u

2

jv

d(i. j)

2

n

j=1

u

2

jv

. (4)

Subject to:

[ 490]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

u

iv

_ 0 for i = 1 . . . n; v = 1 . . . k. (5)

v

u

iv

= 1 for i = 1 . . . n. (6)

Constraint (5) ensures that memberships

cannot be negative. Constraint set (6) ensures

that each object has a constant total

membership, distributed over different

clusters.

In general, the classification results can be

represented by the matrix U as:

U = (i)

(k)

1 2 3 . . . K

1

2

3

.

.

.

n

u

11

u

12

u

13

. . . u

1K

u

21

u

22

u

23

. . . u

2K

u

31

u

32

u

33

. . . u

3K

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . .

.

.

.

u

n1

u

n2

u

n3

. . . u

nK

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

.

(7)

This type of classification yields a fuzzy

clustering with K clusters (matrix columns).

It should be noted that some fuzzy clustering

are fuzzier than others. The complete

fuzziness occurs when each object (machine

or part) has equal memberships in all

clusters (1/k) and when each object (machine

or part) has a membership of one in some

clusters, the clustering is entirely hard. To

measure how hard a fuzzy clustering is,

several approaches have been developed such

as:

.

Dunn's partition coefficients (Trauwaert,

1987):

F

k

=

n

i=1

k

v=1

u

2

iv

n

. (8)

.

Non-fuzziness index (Roubens, 1977):

F

/

k

=

kF

k

÷1

k ÷1

. (9)

.

Partition coefficient (Bezdek, 1974):

F

c

(U). (10)

.

Separation ratio (Zahid et al., 1999):

SC = SC

1

(U. V : X) ÷SC

2

(U). (11)

The local optima of equation (4) can be

found from the Lagrange equation.

Depending on the Lagrange equation

derivatives with respect to the

membership variables and the

corresponding Kuhan and Tucker

conditions, Kaufman and Rousseeuw

(1990) defined the following

functions:

a

iv

=

2

j

u

2

jv

d(i. j)

j

u

2

jv

÷

h

u

2

hv

u

2

jv

d(h. j)

(

j

u

2

jv

)

2

. (12)

¸

iv

=

1 ÷

v

(·

iv

,a

iv

)

v

(1,a

iv

)

. (13)

u

iv

=

1,a

iv

w

(1,a

iv

)

÷

·

iv

a

iv

÷

w

(·

iwv

,a

iw

)

a

iv

w

(1,a

iw

).

(14)

a

iv

u

iv

÷¸

i

÷·

iv

= 0. (15)

·

iv

_ 0. (16)

U

iv

·

iv

= 0. (17)

where ¸

i

and ·

jv

are Lagrange multipliers. From

equation (13), ·

jv

takes two forms, it can be either

·

jv

= 0 or ·

jv

0:

If ·

jv

= 0 then:

u

iv

=

1,a

iv

w

(1,a

iv

)

. (18)

if ·

jv

0 then at least for some v:

u

iv

= 0. (19)

The partition can be defined as:

V÷ = ¦v; u

iv=0

¦ = v;

1,a

iv

w

(1,a

iw

_ 0

_ _

.

V÷ = ¦v; u

iv0

¦ = v;

1,a

iv

w

(1,a

iw

0

_ _

. (20)

The algorithm

Kaufman and Rousseeuw (1990) proposed an

algorithm to solve the fuzzy problem as

follows:

Step 1. Initialize the membership function as:

0

u

iv

for all i = 1. . . . . n and all v = 1 . . . k.

u

iv

_ 0 and

v

u

iv

= 1.

Step 2. For all i = 1. . . . . n.

Step 2.1. Compute

m

a

iv

using equation (3)

for all v = 1 . . . k.

Step 2.2. Compute:

A

v

=

1,

m

a

iv

w

(1,

m

a

iw

)

.

for all v = 1 . . . k.

Step 2.3.

A

v

_ 0 = V÷ = V ÷¦v¦.

A

v

0 = V÷ = V ÷¦v¦.

Step 2.4. For all v ÷ V÷, put

m÷1

u

iv

= 0.

Step 2.5. Compute:

m÷1

u

iv

=

1,

m

a

iv

w÷V

÷ (1,

m

a

iv

)

for all v ÷ V÷

Step 2.6. Put V÷ = V÷ = c go to step 2.1

with

the next i.

[ 491]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

Step 3. Compute

m÷1

C by (1). If

m

C

m÷1

C

÷1 < c

_ _

.

then go to step 2; otherwise stop.

Extension of the algorithm

The final clustering matrix U provides the

degree or grade of membership of a machine

associated with each machine cell. In this

extension, the final matrix would be used to

Table I

Data for the numerical example

Parts (p)

Machines (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

4 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

6 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

7 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

8 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0

9 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

Figure 1

The objective function

Table II

The membership matrix for machines

Memberships for cells

Machines 1 2 3

M1 0.525 0.268 0.207

M2 0.255 0.579 0.167

M3 0.017 0.011 0.972

M4 0.450 0.233 0.316

M5 0.745 0.116 0.138

M6 0.022 0.961 0.017

M7 0.017 0.011 0.972

M8 0.446 0.172 0.381

M9 0.022 0.961 0.017

Table III

The membership matrix of part families

Membership for part families

Parts 1 2 3

P1 0.589 0.213 0.198

P2 0.325 0.439 0.236

P3 0.137 0.087 0.776

P4 0.485 0.171 0.344

P5 0.730 0.110 0.161

P6 0.014 0.975 0.011

P7 0.231 0.147 0.623

P8 0.220 0.113 0.667

P9 0.014 0.975 0.011

Table V

Data input for the second example

Parts (p)

Machines (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

6 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

7 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

11 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

12 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

Table VI

The membership matrix for machines

Degree of membership

Machine 1 2 3

M1 0.870 0.069 0.062

M2 0.867 0.069 0.062

M3 0.648 0.186 0.166

M4 0.518 0.257 0.225

M5 0.058 0.887 0.056

M6 0.058 0.887 0.056

M7 0.271 0.500 0.229

M8 0.025 0.026 0.949

M9 0.025 0.026 0.949

M10 0.204 0.215 0.582

M11 0.355 0.439 0.206

M12 0.354 0.439 0.206

Table IV

Comparison of Chu and Hayya's (1991) and

the proposed approaches

Chu and Hayya's

approach

The proposed

approach

Machine

cells

Part

families

Machine

cells

Part

families

Cell-1 M1, M5 P1, P4,

P5

M1, M4,

M5, M8

P1, P4,

P5

Cell-2 M2, M6,

M9

P2, P6,

P9

M2, M6,

M9

P2, P6,

P9

Cell-3 M3, M4,

M7, M8

P3, P7,

P8

M3, M7 P3, P7,

P8

[ 492]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

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[ 493]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

find machine cells and their part families. In

addition, the empty clusters are removed

from final matrix and a performances

measure is used to determine the optimal

number of part families and machine cells.

Avoiding the result in some empty cells

To determine the nonempty machine/part

clusters, the following algorithm can be used:

Let number_of_cells be equal to the

nonempty cells:

1 _number_of_cells _k.

Step 1. Find Max(u

1v

: v = 1, . . ., k) and

Cell(1) =v.

Step 2. Assign machine (1) to cell (1):

number_of_cells = 1:

cell_size(number_of_cells) =1.

Step 3. For each i =2 to n (number of machines)

.

Find Max (u

2v

: v =1, . . ., k), and

determine its related cell =v (using new

cell counter).

.

If v is related to any existing cell then

assign machine i to that cell and

increase the cell size as: (cell_size

(number_of_cells) =cell_size

(number_of_cells) +1) Cell_member

(cell_size (number_of_cells)) =i.

.

Else: construct new cell and assign the

machine i to the new cell and increase

the number of cells

(number_of_cells =number_of_cells +1)

and (cell_size (number_of_cells)) =1,

Cell_member (cell_size

(number_of_cells)) =i.

Step 4. Go to Step 2 with next machine i.

Step 5. Construct the new matrix U for

the nonempty cells.

Designing machine cells and part families

The design of machine cells can be obtained

using the matrix of nonempty cells, as follows:

For nc =1 to number_of_cells

Find Cell_member(cs)

(For cs =1 to cell_size(nc))

Next nc

In the same manner, part families can be

configured using number_of_cells obtained in

the previous section. Each part family can be

assigned to its machine cell.

Numerical examples

In this section, examples from the literature

are considered to illustrate the application of

the proposed fuzzy algorithm in CMS. The

first example from Chu and Hayya (1991) is

illustrated in Table I.

This problem consists of nine machines

and nine parts. In Table I, any entry of 1

indicates that the part (p) visits machine (i).

Using the proposed approach, the algorithm

requires 17 iteration steps, as illustrated in

Figure 1. The final value of objective function

is 2.11.

The final membership matrix for

nonempty machine cells is illustrated in

Table II. These values indicate the degree of

membership of each machine associated with

machine cell.

Machine cells can be configured as:

machine_cell(1) ={M1, M4, M5, M8},

machine_cell(2) ={M2, M6, M9}, and

machine_cell(3) ={M3, M7}.

Similarly, part families can be configured,

as illustrated by the relationship matrix

(Table III).

Therefore, part_family(1) ={P1, P4, P5},

part_family(2) ={P2, P6, P9}, and

part_family={P3, P7, P8}.

Table IV compares Chu and Hayya's (1991)

and the proposed approach results.

As illustrated in the Table, machine cells 1

and 3 are different, when no changes are

observed between part families.

The second example is taken from Susanto

et al. (1999), as shown in Table V.

The obtained results are illustrated in

Table VI: machine_cell(1) ={M1, M2, M3,

M4}, machine_cell(2) ={M5, M6, M7, M11,

Table VIII

Solutions to Venugopal and Narendran's (1993) data set

Number

of cells

Number

of non-

empty

cells Machine cells

Partition

coefficient

of Dunn

2 2 {1 2 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 13 14 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24} {6 8 12 15 18} 0.52

3 3 {1 3 4 7 9 10 13 14 16 17 20 21 22 23 24} {2 5 11 19} {6 8 12 15 18} 0.59

4 4 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 4 7 9 10 14 16 17 20 23 24} {6 8 12 15 18} 0.57

5 5 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 7 9 10 14 17 20 23 24}{4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} 0.82

6 6 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 7 11 14 19 23 24} {3 20} {4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} {9 10 17} 0.85

7 7 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 20} {4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} {7 14 23 24} {9 10 17} 1

8 7 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 20} {4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} {7 14 23 24} {9 10 17} 1

9 7 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 20} {4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} {7 14 23 24} {9 10 17} 0.98

10 7 {1 13 21 22} {2 5 11 19} {3 20} {4 16} {6 8 12 15 18} {7 14 23 24} {9 10 17} 1

[ 494]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

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[ 495]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

M12}, and machine_cell(3) ={M8, M9, M10}.

Part families are: part_family(1) ={P1, P2, P3,

P4}, part_family(2) ={P5, P6, P7}, and

part_family(3) ={P8, P9, P10}.

The proposed approach is also tested on

different problems of various sizes. Two large

sized problems are taken from the literature.

In the first example, the CMS problem with

24 machines and 40 parts is considered (Table

VII). Different numbers of manufacturing

cells are used (i.e. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10).

The final solution of this problem is

illustrated in Table VIII. In this example, the

nonempty cells for the selected numbers of

cells (2, 3, 4, and 5) are the same, when the

selected number of cells is 7, 8, 9, or 10. The

number of nonempty cells is 7 with different

configurations, as shown in the Table. To

evaluate the number of cells, Dunn's

partition coefficient from equation (8) is

used. This partition coefficient has been

shown to vary between 1, for hard clusters,

and 1/k for completely fuzzy sets of

machines. Therefore, this presents a measure

of how far is a given fuzzy partition from a

hard one. Table VIII illustrates the Dunn's

partition coefficient values for each selected

number of cells indicating that the optimum

number of cells is 7.

The second example involves 30 machines

and 41 parts, as shown in Table IX. In the

same manner, numbers of desired

manufacturing cells, nonempty cells, and

Dunn's partition coefficient are illustrated in

Table X. These two examples demonstrate the

possibility of using the approach proposed

for large-scale CMS problems, and evaluate

the obtained results (part families and

machines cells) using Dunn's partition

coefficient.

Conclusion

In this paper, a fuzzy clustering approach

with extensions is proposed for selecting part

families and machine cells of CMS. The

proposed approach is more consistent as

compared with conventional clustering and

other fuzzy-c-means algorithms. Fuzzy

c-means algorithm implicitly assumes the

different machines or parts are given by

means of coordinates in a p-dimensional

space, whereas there is no such

representation is needed in the proposed

approach, only the distances between

machines/parts are required. In this paper,

the proposed algorithm is used to form

machine cells and part families

simultaneously and to avoid the

shortcomings of the algorithm, such as the

possibility that the approach will result in

some empty machine cells or part families,

extension procedures are introduced.

The presented numerical examples

confirm the effectiveness of the proposed

approach. It is found that this algorithm

provides a good solution to part-machine

selection in CMS, allowing user flexibility in

formulating the required size of machine

cells and part families.

References

Bezdek, J.C. (1974), ``Cluster validity with fuzzy

sets'', J. Cybernetics, Vol. 3, pp. 58-72.

Bezdek, J.C. (1981), Pattern Recognition with

Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithm, Plenum

Press, New York, NY.

Chu, C.H. (1989), ``Clustering analysis in

manufacturing cell formation'', International

Journal of Management Science, Vol. 17,

pp. 289-95.

Chu, C. and Hayya, J. (1991), ``A fuzzy clustering

approach to manufacturing cell formation'',

International Journal of Production Research,

Vol. 29, pp. 1475-87.

Dunn, J.C. (1974), ``Fuzzy relative of the ISODATA

process and its use in detecting compact

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Table X

Solutions to the 30×41 initial machine/part incidence matrix

Number

of cells

Number of

nonempty

cells Machine cells

Partition

coefficient

of Dunn

2 2 {1 2 3 10 11 12 21 22 23}

{4 5 6 7 8 9 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 28 29 30}

0.50

3 3 {1 2 3 10 11 12 21 22 23} {4 13 14}

{5 6 7 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 28 29 30}

0.33

4 3 {1 2 3 10 11 12 21 22 23} {4 5 7 13 14 15 16 17 18 26}

{6 8 9 19 20 24 25 27 28 29 30}

0.25

5 3 {1 2 3 10 11 12 21 22 23} {4 5 6 7 13 14 15 16 17 18 26}

{8 9 19 20 24 25 27 28 29 30}

0.20

[ 496]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

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[ 497]

A.M.A. Al-Ahmari

A fuzzy analysis approach for

part-machine grouping in

cellular manufacturing

systems

Integrated Manufacturing

Systems

13/7 [2002] 489±497

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