International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !

Aruna $hat
%epartment of &lectrical &ngineering, II' %elhi, (au) *has, Ne+ %elhi
Face recognition is one of the most unobtrusive biometric techniques that can be used for access control as
well as surveillance purposes. Various methods for implementing face recognition have been proposed with
varying degrees of performance in different scenarios. The most common issue with effective facial
biometric systems is high susceptibility of variations in the face owing to different factors like changes in
pose, varying illumination, different expression, presence of outliers, noise etc. This paper explores a novel
technique for face recognition by performing classification of the face images using unsupervised learning
approach through K!edoids clustering. "artitioning #round !edoids algorithm $"#!% has been used for
performing K!edoids clustering of the data. The results are suggestive of increased robustness to noise
and outliers in comparison to other clustering methods. Therefore the technique can also be used to
increase the overall robustness of a face recognition system and thereby increase its invariance and make it
a reliably usable biometric modality.
M&%,I%S, C-.S'&/IN0, *1M&ANS, *1M&%,I%S, 2A/'I'I,NIN0 A/,.N% M&%,I%S
3ace is a natural mode of identification and recognition in humans. It comes intuiti4el5 to people
for recognising others. 'he5 ha4e a remar6a7le a7ilit5 to accuratel5 identif5 faces irrespecti4e of
4ariations caused due to changes in e8pression or emotion, pose, illumination, ma6eup, ageing,
hair gro+th etc. 'herefore face +as also included in the set of 7iometric modalities. S5stems
+hich can identif5 or recognise indi4iduals using their facial information +ere designed 9":. ,ne
of the most useful ad4antages of ha4ing face as a morphological trait for recognition purpose +as
its non in4asi4eness. It +as 7eneficial 7oth in terms of cost, time and efforts to record the data for
the 7iometric s5stem. It altogether remo4ed the need of ha4ing e8pensi4e scanners +hich +ere
4ital for other 7iometric s5stems li6e fingerprint, iris etc. It could also 7e used e4en +ithout the
6no+ledge of the user and immediatel5 found its application in sur4eillance.
'here ha4e 7een different approaches for de4eloping an efficient face recognition s5stem. Various
techni;ues for face detection, feature e8traction and classification ha4e 7een designed. Viola and
Jones de4eloped the method of face detection using a com7ination of filters to accuratel5 identif5
face in an image 9:. 'he method +as further enhanced 75 /. -ienhart and J. Ma5dt 93:. (o+e4er
detecting a face +hich is the first step in face recognition is far more challenging in uncontrolled
en4ironments. 'he detection is follo+ed 75 image processing and feature e8traction. 'he method
of using 2rincipal component Anal5sis (2CA) 9#: +as proposed 75 M.A.'ur6 < A.2.2entland 9=:
%,I > "!."#?"!@iAscmc.!"#.33!" "
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
9B:. 'he face images are con4erted into &igen faces +hich represent the principal components of
the former in the form of eigen 4ectors. M. *ir75 < -. Siro4ich de4eloped the *arhunen1-oCe4e
procedure for the characteri)ation of human faces 9D:. It +as follo+ed 75 a ne+ s5stem +hich
used 3isher -inear %iscriminant Anal5sis 9?: instead of 2CA and generated 3isher faces 9E: for
recognition. Se4eral 4ariations of the methodolog5 ha4e 7een de4eloped 7ased on *ernel 2CA,
2ro7a7ilistic and Independent Component Anal5sis 9"!:. 'hese methods ha4e 7een enhanced
further and utilised in d5namic face recognition 9"":. /easona7le success has also 7een achie4ed
+ith the use of unsuper4ised learning methods. Variants of clustering techni;ues for face
recognition ha4e 7een proposed. Mu1Chun Su and Chien1(sing Chou suggested a modified
Version of the *1Means Algorithm for face recognition 9":. Statistical 3ace /ecognition using
*1Means Iterati4e algorithm +as proposed 75 Cifarelli, Manfredi and Nieddu 9"3:. *1Means
algorithm also has 7een applied in recognising 4ariations in faces li6e e8pression and emotions
9"#:. 3ace recognition using 3u))5 c1Means clustering and su71NNs +as de4eloped 75 -u J,
Fuan G and Fahagi ' 9"=:. Clustering has also found its use in d5namic and 3% face recognition
applications too 9"B: 9"D:. 'here are man5 other methodologies +hich ha4e 7een proposed for
efficient face recognition and are 7eing impro4ised incessantl5 9"?:.
'he method discussed in this paper descri7es a no4el approach of *1Medoids clustering 9": for
face recognition. 'he choice of using this algorithm comes from its ro7ustness as it is not affected
75 the presence of outliers or noise or e8tremes unli6e clustering techni;ues 7ased on *1Means
9"E: 9!:. 'his ad4antage clearl5 leads to+ards the de4elopment of sturd5 face recognition
s5stem +hich is in4ariant to the changes in pose, gait, e8pressions, illumination etc. Such a ro7ust
and uno7trusi4e 7iometric s5stem can surel5 7e applied in real life scenarios for authentication
and sur4eillance.
'he rest of this paper is organi)ed as follo+s> Section discusses the conceptual details a7out *1
Medoids Clustering and 2artitioning Around Medoids (2AM) 9":. 'he proposed methodolog5 of
appl5ing *1Medoids Clustering to face recognition is discussed in Section 3. &8perimental results
are pro4ided in Section #. Section = discusses the conclusion and the future scope.
Clustering is an unsuper4ised learning approach of partitioning the data set into clusters in the
a7sence of class la7els. 'he mem7ers of a cluster are more similar to each other than to the
mem7ers of other clusters. ,ne of the most fundamental and popular clustering techni;ues are *1
Means 9"E: and 3u))5 *1Means 9!: clustering algorithms. *1Means clustering techni;ue uses
the mean@centroid to represent the cluster. It di4ides the data set comprising of n data items into 6
clusters in such a +a5 that each one of the n data items 7elongs to a cluster +ith nearest possi7le
Procedure for K-Me!" C#u"$er%!&'
6> num7er of clusters
%> the data set containing n items
A set of 6 clusters that minimi)es the s;uare1error function,
( ) *
* ,,--c

International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
H> the sum of the s;uared error for all the n data items in the data set
8> the data point in the space representing an item in cluster C
> is the centroid@mean of cluster C
"> Ar7itraril5 choose an5 6 data items from %. 'hese data items represent the
initial 6 centroids@means.
> Assign each of the remaining data items to the cluster that has the closest
3> ,nce all the data items are assigned to a cluster, recalculate the positions of the
#> /eassign each data item to the closest cluster 7ased on the mean 4alue of the
items in the cluster.
=> /epeat Steps 3 and # until the centroids no longer mo4e.
'his approach although 4er5 con4enient to understand and implement has a maAor dra+7ac6. In
case of e8treme 4alued data items, the distri7ution of data +ill get une4en resulting in improper
clustering. 'his ma6es *1Means clustering algorithm 4er5 sensiti4e to outliers and noise, there75
reducing its performance too. *1means is also does not +or6 ;uite +ell in disco4ering clusters
that ha4e non1con4e8 shapes or 4er5 different si)e. 'his calls for another approach to clustering
that is 7ased on similar lines, 5et is ro7ust to outliers and noise +hich are 7ound to occur in
realistic uncontrolled en4ironment.
*1Medoids clustering 9": is one such algorithm. /ather than using con4entional mean@centroid,
it uses medoids to represent the clusters. 'he medoid is a statistic +hich represents that data
mem7er of a data set +hose a4erage dissimilarit5 to all the other mem7ers of the set is minimal.
'herefore a medoid unli6e mean is al+a5s a mem7er of the data set. It represents the most
centrall5 located data item of the data set.
'he +or6ing of *1Medoids clustering 9": algorithm is similar to *1Means clustering 9"E:. It
also 7egins +ith randoml5 selecting 6 data items as initial medoids to represent the 6 clusters. All
the other remaining items are included in a cluster +hich has its medoid closest to them.
'hereafter a ne+ medoid is determined +hich can represent the cluster 7etter. All the remaining
data items are 5et again assigned to the clusters ha4ing closest medoid. In each iteration, the
medoids alter their location. 'he method minimi)es the sum of the dissimilarities 7et+een each
data item and its corresponding medoid. 'his c5cle is repeated till no medoid changes its
placement. 'his mar6s the end of the process and +e ha4e the resultant final clusters +ith their
medoids defined. * clusters are formed +hich are centred around the medoids and all the data
mem7ers are placed in the appropriate cluster 7ased on nearest medoid.
Procedure for K-Medo%d C#u"$er%!&'
6> num7er of clusters
%> the data set containing n items
A set of 6 clusters that minimi)es the sum of the dissimilarities of all the o7Aects
their nearest medoids.
( ) *
* ,--0

H> Sum of a7solute error for all items in the data set
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
8> the data point in the space representing a data item
> is the medoid of cluster Ci
"> Ar7itraril5 choose 6 data items as the initial medoids.
> Assign each remaining data item to a cluster +ith the nearest medoid.
3. /andoml5 select a non1medoid data item and compute the total cost of
s+apping old medoid data item +ith the currentl5 selected non1medoid data item.
#. If the total cost of s+apping is less than )ero, then perform the s+ap operation
to generate the ne+ set of 61medoids.
=. /epeat steps , 3 and # till the medoids sta7ili)e their locations.
'here are 4arious approaches for performing *1Medoid Clustering. Some of them are listed
I. 2AM (2artitioning Around Medoids)>
It +as proposed in "E?D 75 *aufman and /ousseeu+ 9":. 'he a7o4e *1Medoid
clustering algorithm is 7ased on this method.
It starts from an initial set of medoids and iterati4el5 replaces one of the medoids 75
one of the non1medoids if it impro4es the total distance of the resultant clustering. It
selects 6 representati4e medoid data items ar7itraril5. 3or each pair of non1medoid data
item 8 and selected medoid m, the total s+apping cost S is calculated. If SI !, m is
replaced 75 8. 'hereafter each remaining data item is assigned to cluster 7ased on the
most similar representati4e medoid. 'his process is repeated until there is no change in
". .se the real data items in the data set to represent the clusters.
. Select 6 representati4e o7Aects as medoids ar7itraril5.
3. 3or each pair of non1medoid item 8
and selected medoid m
, calculate the total
s+apping cost S(8
). 3or each pair of 8
and m

If S I !, m
is replaced 75 8
Assign each data item to the cluster +ith most similar representati4e item i.e.
#. /epeat steps 13 until there is no change in the medoids.
II. C-A/A (C-ustering -A/ge Applications) 93: +as also de4eloped 75 *aufmann <
/ousseeu+ in "EE!. It dra+s multiple samples of the data set and then applies 2AM
on each sample gi4ing a 7etter resultant clustering. It is a7le to deal more efficientl5
+ith larger data sets than 2AM method.
C-A/A applies sampling approach to handle large data sets. /ather than finding
medoids for the entire data set %, C-A/A first dra+s a small sample from the data
set and then applies the 2AM algorithm to generate an optimal set of medoids for the
sample. 'he ;ualit5 of resulting medoids is measured 75 the a4erage dissimilarit5
7et+een e4er5 item in the entire data space % and the medoid of its cluster. 'he cost
function is defined as follo+s>
,%) J *
, rpst(m
, 8
) @ n
+here, m
is a set of selected medoids, d(a, 7) is the dissimilarit5 7et+een items a
and 7 and rpst(m
, 8
) returns a medoid in m
+hich is closest to 8
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
'he sampling and clustering processes are repeated a pre1defined num7er of times.
'he clustering that 5ields the set of medoids +ith the minimal cost is selected.
III. C-A/ANS (/andomi)ed C-A/A) +as designed 75 Ng < (an 9#:. C-A/ANS dra+s
sample of neigh7ours d5namicall5. 'his clustering techni;ue mimics the graph search
pro7lem +herein e4er5 node is a potential solution, here, a set of 6 medoids. If the local
optimum is found, search for a ne+ local optimum is done +ith ne+ randoml5 selected
node. It is more efficient and scala7le than 7oth 2AM and C-A/A.
1.1. Pre-3roce""%!& !d Fe$ure E-$rc$%o!
,pen source data sets +ere used to e4aluate the performance of the techni;ue. JA33& data7ase
9=: contains the face images +ith 4ar5ing e8pressions and emotions. 'he face images +ere
segmented and processed as these preliminar5 steps directl5 impact the final results in
recognition. After determining the /,I, the features +ere e8tracted. Viola1Jones o7Aect detection
algorithm 9: +as used to detect the frontal faces as +ell the features li6e e5es, nose and lips in
the respecti4e /,I images of the faces. Viola1Jones o7Aect detection frame+or6 is a ro7ust
techni;ue and is 6no+n to perform accurate detection e4en in real time scenarios. It has 7een
used e8tensi4el5 to detect faces and face parts in the images. 'herefore this algorithm +as used to
e8tract the faces from the images and features from the former. 3or n face images, a t+o
dimensional feature 4ector % +as created such that n ro+s represent each of the n faces and p
columns represent the complete feature information of e4er5 face.
1.2. C#""%f%c$%o! $4rou&4 C#u"$er%!&
'he information thus o7tained from the facial images in the data set +as clustered using *1
Medoid Clustering. 2artitioning Around Medoids (2AM) 9": techni;ue +as used to perform the
clustering of the data space %.
'he num7er of clusters is decided 75 the num7er of classes +e ha4e in the data set i.e. the num7er
of indi4iduals +hose face images are present in the data set. 'o find the 6 medoids from the
feature data space %, 2AM 7egins +ith an ar7itrar5 selection of 6 o7Aects. It is follo+ed 75 a
s+ap 7et+een a selected o7Aect 's and a non1selected o7Aect 'n, if and onl5 if this s+ap +ould
result in an impro4ement of the ;ualit5 of the clustering. 'o measure the effect of such a s+ap
7et+een 's and 'n, 2AM computes costs 'Cost
for all non1selected o7Aects 'A. -et d(a,7)
represent the dissimilarit5 7et+een items a and 7. 'he cost 'Cost
is determined as follo+s
depending on +hich of the cases 'A is in>
I. 'A currentl5 7elongs to the cluster represented 75 C
and 'A is more similar to 'AK than 'n.
d('A, 'n) LJ d('A, 'AK) +here 'AK is the second most similar medoid to 'A.
So if 's is replaced 75 'n as a medoid, 'A +ould 7elong to the cluster
+hich is represented 75 'AK.
'he cost of the s+ap is>
J d('A, 'AK) M d('A, 's)

'his al+a5s gi4es a non1negati4e 'Cost
indicating that there is a non1negati4e cost
incurred in replacing 's +ith 'n.
II. 'A currentl5 7elongs to the cluster represented 75 C
and 'A is less similar to 'AK than 'n,
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
d('A,'n) I d('A, 'AK)
So if 's is replaced 75 'n as a medoid, 'A +ould 7elong to the cluster represented 75 'n.
'hus, the cost for 'A is>
J d('AK, 'n) M d('A, 's)

(ere, 'Cost
can 7e positi4e or negati4e, 7ased on +hether 'A is more similar to 's or to
III. 'A currentl5 7elongs to a cluster other than the one represented 75 's and 'A is more
similar to 'AK than 'n,
-et 'AK 7e the medoid of that cluster. 'hen e4en if 's is replaced 75 'n, 'A +ould sta5 in
the cluster represented 75 'AK.
'hus, the cost is )ero>
J !

IV. 'A currentl5 7elongs to a cluster represented 75 'AK and 'A is less similar to 'AK than 'n.
/eplacing 's +ith 'n +ould cause 'n to shift to the cluster of 'n from that of 'AK.
'hus the cost in4ol4ed is>
J d('A, 'n) M d('A, 'AK)

'his cost is al+a5s negati4e.
Com7ining the a7o4e four cases, the total cost for replacing 's +ith 'n is gi4en 75>
J 'Cost

". 3rom the data space %, select 6 representati4e o7Aects randoml5 and mar6 these as medoids.
. /emaining data items are non1medoids.
3. /epeat till medoids sta7ilise@con4erge
for all medoid items 's
for all non medoid items 'n
calculate the cost of s+apping 'Cost
Select sNmin and nNmin such that 'Cost
J Min 'Cost
if 'Cost
I !,
mar6 sNmin as non medoid and nNmin as medoid item.
#. 0enerate 6 clusters C
,nce the clustering is done, all the face images are assigned to a particular cluster 7ased on the
e8tent of similarit5 to the medoid data item of that cluster.
'hus resultant clustering also classifies the face images (in different
e8pressions@pose@emotions@illumination) to correct indi4idual classes.
JA33& data7ase 9=: +as used to e8perimentall5 e4aluate the efficac5 of the proposed method.
After performing processing and feature e8traction of the face images in the data set, *1Medoid
clustering using 2artitioning Around Medoids (2AM) 9": +as done o4er the data space % +hich
represented the feature information from n face images.
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
'he standard *1Means clustering 9"E: techni;ue +as also e4aluated in order to compare the
performance of face recognition 75 *1Medoid and *1Means clustering.
'he results +ith *1Medoid clustering +ere more ro7ust to the outliers. It +as also effecti4e in
classif5ing the images reasona7l5 e4en in presence of 4ariations in the image o+ing to changes in
e8pressions and emotions. 'he algorithm is effecti4e in terms of accurac5 and time +ith medium
si)ed data sets and performs 7etter than *1Means clustering techni;ue in case of noise and
outliers. 'he classification precision of *1Medoid clustering using 2AM +as o7ser4ed to 7e more
than that of *1Means clustering for all the data sets +here outliers and noise +as present. 'he
2AM algorithm recognised the faces +ith different e8pressions more accuratel5 as summarised in
'a7le ".
(o+e4er as the data set si)e increases and the e8tent of noise and outliers are reduced, the
performance is nearl5 similar to standard *1Means +ith compara7l5 higher computation cost
'a7le ". Comparison of results *1Medoids 4s *1Means 3ace /ecognition
D$ 2e$
.Accurac5 P/
K-Me!" K-
Si)e images@indi4idual
(4ar5ing e8pressions)
Noise ,utliers
Set I "!! # F F 65 78
"!! # F N 70 78
"!! # N F 72 77
"!! # N N 81 79
Set II "=! = F F 66 78
"=! = F N 70 77
"=! = N F 72 76
"=! = N N 82 79
Set III !! ! F F 68 77
!! ! F N 72 76
!! ! N F 72 76
!! ! N N 82 77
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
3igure ". Comparison of results *1Means 4s. *1Medoids (Noise> F, ,utliers> F)
3igure . Comparison of results *1Means 4s. *1Medoids (Noise> F, ,utliers> N)
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
3igure 3. Comparison of results *1Means 4s. *1Medoids (Noise> N, ,utliers> F)
3igure #. Comparison of results *1Means 4s. *1Medoids (Noise> N, ,utliers> N)
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
3igure =. An instance from the *1Medoid clustering results
'he results o7tained clearl5 depict an increase in the recognition accurac5 in spite of the presence
of noise and@or outliers in the face images +hen the classification is done using 2artioning
Around Medoids method of *1Medoid clustering. 'he resultant s5stem is also reasona7l5
in4ariant to the changes in e8pressions as +ell. In comparison to *1Means clustering, the
proposed method is far more ro7ust and usa7le in real scenarios +here noise and outliers are
7ound to 7e present.
As o7ser4ed through the e8perimental anal5sis, the *1Medoids clustering 9": techni;ue using
2artitioning Around Medoids (2AM) has performance compara7le to that of *1Means clustering
techni;ue in a7sence of noise and outliers. (o+e4er its remar6a7le efficienc5 in the presence of
e8treme 4alues or outliers in the data in the data set ma6es it uni;ue.
It also sho+cased ro7ustness to noise and 4ariations of e8pressions and emotions in the face
images. 'he recognition accurac5 sta5s high +ithout an5 ad4erse impact 75 a7errations that are
caused 75 noise and outliers.
'herefore *1Medoid clustering techni;ue can help in designing sturd5 face recognition s5stems
+hich are in4ariant to the changes in pose, illumination, e8pression, emotions, facial distractions
li6e ma6e up and hair gro+th etc. 'he real time uncontrolled en4ironment +ill al+a5s ha4e some
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
noise factor or 4ariations in face. 'he a7ilit5 of this algorithm to deal +ith these una4oida7le
distractions in the data set encourages its use in designing ro7ust face recognition s5stems.
'he higher computation cost of *1Medoid clustering techni;ue using 2AM in comparison to *1
Means clustering is a concern for its application to 7igger data sets. (o+e4er man5 4ariants to
2AM ha4e 7een de4eloped no+ +hich are computationall5 as fa4oura7le as *1Means algorithm
and perform 7etter than 7oth 2AM and *1means. Qe can appl5 such *1Medoid algorithms to face
recognition and e4aluate their performance.
Qe ma5 also use different facial feature e8traction techni;ues li6e &igen faces and 3isher faces
9: etc and perform *1Medoid clustering o4er that data. It could also 7e used +ith 4arious
feature detectors and descriptors li6e SI3' 9B: and S./3 9D:.
'he author +ould li6e to than6 the facult5 and staff at the %epartment of &lectrical &ngineering,
II' %elhi for the immense guidance and help the5 ha4e graciousl5 pro4ided.
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/ecognition .sing QM2CA, ICV0I2 !!#.
9": Mu1Chun Su and Chien1(sing Chou, (June !!")A Modified Version of the *1Means Algorithm +ith
a %istance $ased on Cluster S5mmetr5, I&&& 'ransactions ,n 2attern Anal5sis And Machine
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recognitionT, Information 'echnolog5 and e1Ser4ices (ICI'eS).
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
9"=: -u J, Fuan G, Fahagi '., (!!D Jan)A method of face recognition 7ased on fu))5 c1means clustering
and associated su71NNs, I&&& 'rans Neural Net+,"?(")>"=!1B!.
9"B: Marios *5perountasa, Author Vitae, Anastasios 'efasa, Author Vitae, Ioannis 2itas, (March !!?)
%5namic training using multistage clustering for face recognition 2attern /ecognition , &lse4ier,
Volume #", Issue 3, 2ages ?E#ME!=.
9"D: Hheng Hhang, Hheng Hhao, 0ang $ai , (!!E) 3% /epresentati4e 3ace and Clustering $ased
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Net+or6s M ISNN !!E -ecture Notes in Computer Science Volume ===3, pp #"B1#.
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of the /o5al Statistical Societ5, Series C ? (")> "!!M"!?.
9!: $e)de6, James C. ("E?"). 2attern /ecognition +ith 3u))5 ,7Aecti4e 3unction Algorithms.
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9#: Ng, /.'., Jia+ei (an, (!!) TC-A/ANS> a method for clustering o7Aects for spatial data miningT,
*no+ledge and %ata &ngineering, I&&& 'ransactions on (Volume>"#, Issue>=), 2g "!!3 1 "!"B,
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9=: JA33& data7ase, Coding 3acial &8pressions +ith 0a7or Qa4elets Michael J. -5ons, Shigeru
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'he author is a research scholar at Indian Institute of 'echnolog5, (au) *has, %elhi.