1

M.N.Nagabhushana
Principal Scientist
CRRI, New Delhi-110 025
5
th
September, 2012
DESIGN OF OVERLAY
D
Benkelman Beam Deflection Method
IRC:81-1997
x
Direction of traffic
Pavement Shoulder
x
Direction of traffic
Pavement Shoulder

Rebound Deflection Study by
Benkelman Beam
0.9 m for a two lane
1.5 m for a divided
0.6 m for a single lane
Criteria for Classification of Pavement
Sections based on Pavement Condition
Survey
Classification Pavement Condition
Good No Cracking, rutting <10 mm
Fair No Cracking or cracking confined to a
single crack in the wheel track, rutting
between 10 and 20 mm
Poor Extensive cracking and rutting >20 mm
Sections with cracking exceeding 20
per cent shall be treated as failed
DEFLECTION BY BENKELMAN
BEAM
BBD Study
BBD Study
Determination of Pavement Crust
NH-11
Benkelman Beam
Length of the probe arm from pivot to 244cm
probe point
Length of measurement arm from pivot 122cm to dial
Distance from pivot to front legs 25cm
Distance from pivot to rear legs 166cm
Lateral spacing of front support legs 33cm
Equipment
Equipment
A 5 tonne truck is recommended on the reaction. The vehicle shall have
8170 kg rear axle load equally distributed over the two wheels,
equipped with dual tyres.

Tyre pressure measuring gauge
Thermometer (0-100
o
C)
A mandrel for making 4.5cm deep hole
Procedure
(1) The point on the pavement to be tested is selected
and marked. For highways, the points should be located 60cm from the
pavement edge if the lane
width is less than 3.5m and 90cm from the pavement edge for wider lanes.

(2) The dual wheels of the truck are centred above the
selected point


(3) The probe of the Benkelman beam is inserted between
the duals and placed on the selected point
(4) The locking pin is removed from the beam and the spindle is in
contact with stem of the dial gauge. The beam pivot arms are checked
for free movement.
(5) The dial gauge is set at approximately 100mm. The initial reading is
recorded when the rate of deformation of the pavement is equal or less
than 0.025mm per minute
Procedure
(6) The truck is slowly driven a distance of 2.70

m
and stopped

(7) An intermediate reading is recorded when the rate of
recovery of the pavement is equal to or less then
0.025mm per minute

(8) The truck is driven forward a further 9m

Procedure
Procedure
(9) The final reading is recorded when the rate of recovery of
pavement is equal to or less than 0.025mm per minute

(10) Pavement temperature is recorded at least once every hour
inserting thermometer in the standard hole and filling up the hole
with glycerol

(11) The tyre pressure is checked at two to three hour interval during
the day and adjusted to the standard, if necessary
(1) Subtract final dial reading from initial dial reading,
Subtract the intermediate reading from the initial reading

(2) If the differential reading obtained compared within
0.025mm the actual pavement deflection is twice the final differential
reading

(3) If the differential reading obtained do not compare to
0.025mm, twice the final differential dial reading represents apparent
pavement deflection
CALCULATIONS
(4) Apparent deflection are corrected by means of the following formula:
X
T
= X
A
+ 2.91 Y , where
X
T
= True pavement deflection
X
A
= Apparent pavement deflection
Y = Vertical movement of the front legs i.e. twice the difference
between the final and immediate dial
reading
CALCULATIONS
CHARACTERISTIC DEFLECTION
(1) Mean deflection
(2) Standard deviation
(3) Characteristic deflection=D
c
D = Individual deflection
D
a
= Mean deflection
N = Number of deflection measurements
 = Standard deviation

Traffic : A = P (1 + r)
n+10

A = Number of commercial vehicles per day for design
P = Number of commercial vehicles per day at last
count
r = Annual rate of increase of commercial vehicles
(7.5%)
n = Number of years between the last count and the
year of completion of overlay construction
CHARACTERISTIC DEFLECTION
Collection of Soil Sample for Field Moisture
Sandy/Gravelly Soil for Low Rainfall Area
Overlay Thickness Design Chart
Design Example
The following deflection readings were observed
over a 1 km section of a National Highway
Chainage Deflection Chainage Deflection
(mm) (mm)
100.000 1.50 100.550 1.60
100.050 1.24 100.600 1.75
100.100 1.20 100.650 1.80
100.150 1.10 100.700 1.98
100.200 1.76 100.750 1.45
100.250 1.80 100.800 1.72
100.300 1.90 100.850 1.79
100.350 1.78 100.900 2.01
100.400 1.92 100.950 1.98
100.450 1.75 101.000 1.80
100.500 1.50
Data
Sl.
No. Di Df Di~Df
Leg
correctio
n
Def lecti
on dc Temp
Correct
ed f or
Temp.
Correct
ed f or
Moistur
e Mean
Std.
Devi.
Mean+2
*Std.
Devi
Final
Def lection
1 5.5 6.5 1.0 0.020 0.13 0.13 22 0.26 0.27 0.52 0.186 0.89 0.89
2 17.0 19.0 2.0 0.040 0.38 0.38 0.51 0.53
3 10.5 12.0 1.5 0.030 0.24 0.24 0.37 0.38
4 13.5 15.5 2.0 0.040 0.31 0.31 0.44 0.45
5 12.0 18.0 6.0 0.120 0.36 0.71 0.84 0.87
6 10.5 13.5 3.0 0.060 0.27 0.44 0.57 0.59
7 18.0 21.5 3.5 0.070 0.43 0.63 0.76 0.79
8 9.0 11.5 2.5 0.050 0.23 0.23 0.36 0.37
9 10.5 13.0 2.5 0.050 0.26 0.26 0.39 0.40
10 10.0 13.5 3.5 0.070 0.27 0.47 0.60 0.62
11 11.0 13.5 2.5 0.050 0.27 0.27 0.40 0.41
The Subgrade Soil is clay of low plasticity of
PI < 15 with a moisture content of 11 percent.
The pavement temperature was observed
to be 40 º C. The area has annual rainfall less
than 1300 mm. The existing traffic is 5600 cv
per day. Design life is required for 10 years
Traffic growth rate is 8 percent and VDF is 4.5


Example
N = 365 x [(1+0.08)
10
– 1] x 5600 x 0.75 x4.5
-----------------------------
0.08
= 99.2 msa say 100 msa
Calculation of CSA in millions
D
A
= 1.68 mm  = 0 .25
D
c
= D
A
+ 2  = 2.18 mm
Correction factor for temp = 0.01mm/ º C rise
-ve for higher than 35 º C
+ve for lower than 35 º C
Deflection corrected for temperature:
= 2.18 – 5  0.01 = 2.13 mm
Calculations
Referring the chart for clayey soil with PI<15 and
low rainfall, correction factor is 1.2
Corrected deflection = 1.2 x 2.13 = 2.56 mm
Required Overlay thickness = 250 mm BM
Design thickness 50 mm AC + 125 mm DBM
In two layers of 75 mm and 60 mm
Calculations