GENERAL SAFETY

Accident Reporting
An accident is an unplanned occurrence that may result in damage to people, property,
equipment, or the environment. When accidents are reported promptly, injured
employees, students, and visitors receive timely medical care and unsafe conditions
receive prompt corrective action. The Safety Office investigates accidents to identify
accident trends, determine the effectiveness of current safety programs, and prevent
future accidents.
IMPORTANT:
Report all accidents to your supervisor, the Safety Office,
or the University Police Department, as appropriate.
ACCI!"T#I"$%&' &!(O&TI") (&OC!%&!
I. Tarleton State %niversity !mployees
Complete *&eport of Accident#Illiness* form and send original to Safety
Office and a copy to +uman &esources. ,orms are availa-le in the Safety
Office or from the Tarleton (olicy (age.
II. Tarleton State %niversity Students
Complete the Tarleton State %niversity Student Services *Accident
&eport*. Send the original to Student Services and a copy to the Safety
Office. ,orms are availa-le in the Safety Office or from the Tarleton
(olicy (age.
EXAMPLE:
Report hazards, such as missing manhole covers or
chemical spills, to the Safety Office. Report accidents such
as vehicle collisions to the University Police Department
(UPD).
&eport unsafe conditions or potentially ha.ardous situations to the Safety Office as
quic/ly as possi-le. The Office 0ill then contact other departments and outside agencies
as appropriate.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Tarleton State %niversity complies 0ith the requirements and guidelines of the Americans
0ith isa-ilities Act. This means that ne0 facilities and renovations to e1isting facilities
are designed to provide accessi-ility for handicapped people.
+andicapped par/ing and 0heelchair ramps must remain accessi-le at all times. o not
-loc/ these areas or tamper 0ith other accessi-ility equipment. In addition, do not
remove 2raille ta-s on elevator -uttons or other signs.
&eport accessi-ility violations such as -loc/ed 0heelchair ramps and -loc/ed
handicapped par/ing to the Safety Office or the %niversity (olice epartment.
Contact the Safety Office for more information on accommodating handicapped
individuals or ma/ing your 0or/place more accessi-le.
Asbestos
As-estos is a mineral fi-er that causes cancer and various respiratory illnesses. Older
-uildings constructed prior to 3456 may contain as-estos. As-estos is commonly found in
older appliances, insulation, shingles, siding, putties, and caul/ing. )enerally, it is not a
pro-lem unless the material that contains it crum-les or fla/es.
The Te1as As-estos +ealth (rotection &ules do not require -uilding o0ners to conduct
inspections and identify all as-estos locations. Inspections are required, ho0ever, prior to
renovation or dismantling activities.
NOTE:
all the Physical Plant !efore performing "or# on campus
that "ill distur! !uilding fi$tures, "alls, or ceiling (e.g.,
installing computer ca!les in the ceiling). %he Physical
Plant "ill help ensure that the "or# does not affect
as!estos containing materials.
IMPORTANT:
Do not handle as!estos or suspected as!estos or try to
remove it yourself.
Tarleton State %niversity has an ongoing As-estos 7anagement (rogram that strives to
eliminate the potential ha.ards associated 0ith as-estos. A copy of the Tarleton State
%niversity As-estos 7anagement (rogram is availa-le from the Safety Office.
epending on the si.e of the project, either the Tarleton State %niversity ,acilities
(lanning 8 Construction or the (hysical (lant handles contracts for consultation and#or
a-atement. irect any questions a-out identifying or removing as-estos to the (hysical
(lant. Address any safety related questions to the Safety Office.
Dress Code
ress in a manner that does not impair safety. 9oose clothing, long hair, dangle je0elry,
and sandals may -e dangerous around moving equipment.
Al0ays 0ear clothing that is appropriate for your jo-. &efer to the chapters on (ersonal
(rotective !quipment and Office Safety for more information.
Graphic Arts Media
The art supplies and chemicals associated 0ith graphic media are often e1tremely
ha.ardous. epending on the type of art supplies used, artists can develop the same types
of occupational diseases as industrial 0or/ers. Studies sho0 that people 0ho 0or/ 0ith
ha.ardous graphic media chemicals can develop dermatitis, lead poisoning, silicosis, liver
and /idney damage, nerve damage, reproductive pro-lems, car-on mono1ide poisoning,
cancer, and other ailments.
The ris/ of chemical ha.ards is directly lin/ed to the follo0ing factors:
• uration and frequency of e1posure
• Chemical to1icity
• Chemical amount
Wor/ers are e1posed to graphic media ha.ards through s/in contact, inhalation, and
ingestion.
,ollo0 these safety guidelines for 0or/ing 0ith graphic media materials:
• Wear protective clothing and follo0 7SSs, as appropriate.
• %se nonto1ic or less to1ic solvents and chemicals 0hen possi-le.
• !liminate to1ic metals such as lead and cadmium. Instead, use cadmium;free
silver solders and lead;free paint, gla.es and enamels.
• %se 0ater;-ased instead of solvent;-ased materials.
• %se liquid materials to replace po0ders.
• %se 0et techniques <such as 0et sanding= instead of dry techniques.
• Apply coatings -y -rushing or dipping instead of spraying.
• !liminate cancer;causing chemicals.
Solvents
Solvents are used to dissolve oils, resins, varnishes, and in/s. They are also used to
remove paint and lacquer. ue to their common usage, solvents are one of the most
underrated media ha.ards. 7ost organic solvents are poisonous if s0allo0ed or inhaled
in sufficient quantities. They also cause dermatitis and narcosis.
%se the least to1ic solvent possi-le. enatured or isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and
odorless mineral spirits are less to1ic than solvents such as chloroform or ethylene.
Aerosol Sprays
Aerosol sprays, such as fi1atives, paint sprays, and adhesive sprays, are e1tremely
dangerous if someone inhales the fine mists produced -y these products. Air -rushes and
spray guns are equally ha.ardous. %se aerosol sprays in a 0ell;ventilated area and 0ear a
dust#vapor mas/ to protect you from the ha.ardous vapors.
Acids and Alkalis
The acids and al/alis used in ceramics, photo chemicals, paint removers, and similar
materials can -e very caustic to the s/in, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal
system. 9i/e0ise the acids and al/alis used to etch metals and glass can -e very
dangerous. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, and perchloric acid, require
special handling as outlined in the 7SS. Al/alis, such as caustic potash, caustic soda,
quic/lime, and unsla/ed lime, also require special treatment. &emem-er to add acid to
0ater, not 0ater to acid, 0hen mi1ing chemicals.
Paints and Pigments
7any paints and color pigments contain ha.ardous chemical compounds. 9ead paint, for
e1ample, is e1tremely dangerous, and should never -e used in its po0der form. Other
paint components, such as chromate, cadmium, and co-alt pigments, are equally
ha.ardous. o not inhale po0dered paint or spray paint vapors or accidentally ingest
pigment -y placing the -rush tip in your mouth. In addition, do not eat, drin/, or smo/e
0hile painting. Any of these activities could result in chronic poisoning.
The ta-le -elo0 outlines common paint pigments and their ha.ardous chemical
component:
Hazardous Chemical Pigment (Paint Name)
Arsenic !merald )reen
Co-alt >iolet
Antimony True "aples 'ello0
Cadmium All Cadmium (igments
Chromium ?inc 'ello0
Strontium 'ello0
Chrome 'ello0
Co-alt Co-alt >iolet
Co-alt )reen
Co-alt 'ello0
Cerulean 2lue
9ead ,al/ White
9ead White
Creminit. White
7i1ed White
7anganese 7anganese 2lue
7anganese >iolet
2urnt %m-er
&a0 %m-er
7ars 2ro0n
7ercury >ermilion
Cadmium >ermilion &ed
Photography
7any of the chemicals used for photographic processing can cause severe s/in and lung
pro-lems. The greatest ha.ards associated 0ith photography include the preparation and
use of concentrated chemical solutions. "ever touch chemical po0ders or solutions 0ith
unprotected hands. In addition, ta/e care not to stir up and inhale chemical dusts.
IMPORTANT:
&ood ventilation is essential "hen "or#ing "ith
photographic chemicals.
The follo0ing are common photographic agents and their ha.ards:
eveloper:
7ay cause s/in irritation and allergic reactions.
Stop;-ath:
7ay cause -urns and throat irritation.
,i1er:
+ighly irritating to lungs.
Intensifier:
>ery corrosive and may cause lung cancer.
&educer:
Contact 0ith heat, concentrated acids, or ultraviolet radiation produces poisonous gas.
Toners:
+ighly to1ic.
+ardeners and sta-ili.ers:
Often contain formaldehyde 0hich is poisonous, a s/in irritant, and a /no0n carcinogen.
Plastics, Acrylics, Epoxy Resins
(lastic ha.ards result from ma/ing plastic and 0or/ing 0ith finished plastic. The greatest
ha.ards associated 0ith ma/ing plastic come from the monomers, solvents, fillers,
catalysts, and hardeners that are commonly to1ic. The ha.ards involved 0ith finished
plastics result mainly from the methods used to 0or/ the plastic. ,or e1ample,
overheating or -urning plastic produces to1ic gases. (olishing, sanding, and sa0ing
plastic produces harmful dusts.
Certain types of plastics, such as acrylics and epo1y resins are also ha.ardous. The
components in acrylic, for e1ample, include irritants, e1plosives, and flamma-les. The
main ha.ard associated 0ith acrylic compounds, ho0ever, is inhalation. Al0ays maintain
good ventilation 0hen 0or/ing 0ith acrylic.
The epo1y resins used in laminating, casting, glues, and lacquer coatings, are also s/in
irritants, sensiti.ers, and suspected cancer;causing agents. Avoid s/in contact and
inhalation 0hen 0or/ing 0ith epo1y resins.
Pottery and Ceramics
(ottery clay contains silicates that can -e ha.ardous if inhaled. 7any lo0;fire clays and
slip;casting clays also contain talc, 0hich may -e contaminated 0ith as-estos. 9ong;term
inhalation of as-estos can cause cancer and respiratory diseases. When mi1ing clay dust
or -rea/ing up dry grog, use e1haust ventilation and#or 0ear a to1ic dust respirator. Wor/
0ith 0et clay 0hen possi-le.
(ottery gla.es also contain free silica, including flint, feldspar, and talc. Wear a to1ic dust
respirator 0hen mi1ing or spraying gla.es.
To1ic fumes and gases are often produced during the firing process. !nsure that all /ilns
are ventilated. In addition, use infrared goggles or a shield to loo/ in the /iln peep hole.
(roper eye protection 0ill help prevent cataracts.
ood!orking
The ha.ards associated 0ith 0ood0or/ing include sa0dust inhalation, e1posure to to1ic
solvents and adhesives, and e1cessive noise from 0ood0or/ing tools. 9ong term
inhalation of sa0dust can cause chronic respiratory diseases. epending on the type of
0ood, short term sa0dust inhalation may also produce allergic reactions. To1ic
preservatives, such as arsenic compounds and creosote, may cause cancer and
reproductive pro-lems. !po1y resins and solvent;-ased adhesives, also pose potential
ha.ards. %se dust collectors around 0ood0or/ing machines, ensure proper ventilation,
and 0ear personal protective equipment, as appropriate.
Hearing Conser"ation Program
!1cessive noise levels may permanently or temporarily damage a person@s hearing.
Whenever possi-le, employees should reduce noise levels to an accepta-le level. The
follo0ing ta-le outlines OS+A limits for accepta-le noise e1posure indicated as deci-els
<d2=.
#uration$#ay
(Hours)
%ound
&e"el(d')
5 46
A 4B
C 4D
E 4F
B 366
3G 36B
3 36D
G 336
H or less 33D
Hearing loss can be permanent---wear protective equipment when noise levels are
high.
2efore using personal protective equipment, such as ear plugs or muffs, to reduce noise
e1posure, try to reduce noise levels -y changing 0or/ procedures. 7aintenance practices
such as the follo0ing can reduce noise levels:
• &eplacing 0orn or loose machine parts
• (erforming high;noise operations during hours 0hen people are less li/ely to -e
affected
• 7aintaining and lu-ricating equipment to eliminate rattles and squea/s
The follo0ing ta-le illustrates various noise levels:
Whisper 36 d2
Iuiet Office E6 d2
Street Sounds F6 d2
,actory 56;46 d2
Sander 5D d2
Su-0ay 46 d2
(neumatic rill 366 d2
Artillery#Car +orn 3B6 d2
!ngineering controls, such as the follo0ing, can also reduce noise levels:
• &eplacing noisy materials
• %sing large, lo0 speed fans
• Considering the noise level of ne0 equipment or processes -efore purchasing or
implementing
• (lacing heavy machines on ru--er mountings
• %sing sound;a-sor-ing acoustical tiles or -affles
• (lacing noisy machinery or operations in a separate area or room
• !nclosing noisy conveyors
Areas that may require hearing protection include machine shops, the po0er plant, etc.
O-serve all 0arning signs and 0ear hearing protection 0henever necessary. o not
interfere 0ith, remove, or modify noise a-atement equipment. Jeep all equipment
properly maintained, and report any malfunctions immediately.
&efer to the chapter on (ersonal (rotective !quipment for more information on hearing
protection. irect all questions regarding hearing conservation to the Safety Office. When
requested and necessary, the Safety Office monitors noise levels.
Heat %tress
(eople may suffer from heat stress during hot, humid conditions. 2ecause the climate at
Tarleton State %niversity is conducive to heat stress, people must ta/e preventive
measures to reduce their ris/. To prevent heat stress, employees should limit strenuous
physical activity during the hottest portion of the day, 0ear a -rimmed hat 0hen in the
sun, ta/e frequent -rea/s, and drin/ plenty of fluids.
+eat stress occurs in t0o forms: heat e1haustion and heat stro/e.
Heat Exhaustion
+eat e1haustion is usually caused -y strenuous physical activity and hot, humid
conditions. 2ecause heat e1haustion is the -ody@s response to insufficient 0ater and salt,
it should -e treated as quic/ly as possi-le.
Signs and symptoms of heat e1haustion include the follo0ing:
• !1haustion and restlessness
• +eadache
• i..iness
• "ausea
• Cold, clammy, moist s/in
• (ale face
• Cramps in a-domen and lo0er lim-s
• ,ast, shallo0 -reathing
• &apid, 0ea/ pulse
• ,alling -ody temperature
• ,ainting
Ta/e the follo0ing steps to administer first aid for heat e1haustion:
3. +ave the victim lie do0n in a cool or shaded place.
B. If the victim is conscious, have him#her slo0ly sip cool 0ater.
If the victim is unconscious or is conscious -ut does not improve, see/ medical
aid as soon as possi-le.
E. If the victim is s0eating profusely, have him or her sip cool 0ater that contains
one teaspoon of ta-le salt per pint of 0ater.
Heat %troke
+eat stro/e is usually caused -y e1posure to e1treme heat and humidity and#or a feverish
illness. +eat stro/e occurs 0hen the -ody can no longer control its temperature -y
s0eating. +eat stro/e is e1tremely dangerous and may -e fatal if not treated immediately.
The signs and symptoms of heat stro/e include the follo0ing:
• +ot, dry s/in
• +eadache
• i..iness
• +igh temperature
• Strong pulse
• "oisy -reathing
• %nconsciousness
Immediately ta/e the follo0ing steps to administer first aid for heat stro/e:
3. If possi-le, move the victim to a cool place.
B. See/ medical attention as soon as possi-le.
E. &emove the victim@s clothing.
C. If the victim is conscious, place him in a half;sitting position and support the head
and shoulders.
If the victim is unconscious, place him on the side 0ith the head facing side0ays.
D. ,an the victim and sponge the -ody 0ith cool 0ater.
Housekeeping
)ood house/eeping s/ills are essential for personal safety. Tarleton State %niversity
employees are responsi-le for reducing potential ha.ards and /eeping their 0or/ areas
safe and clutter;free. )ood house/eeping guidelines include /eeping aisles and stair0ays
free from clutter, cleaning spills, minimi.ing com-usti-les in 0or/place and storage
areas, and /eeping all e1its free from o-structions.
7aintain clear and uno-structed access to emergency equipment, such as fire
e1tinguishers, pull stations, eye 0ash units, sho0ers, etc.
,or more specific information on house/eeping, refer to the section in this manual that
corresponds to your 0or/place <i.e., 9a-oratory Safety, Office Safety, etc.=
(ndoor Air )uality
Indoor air quality refers to the condition of air 0ithin an enclosed 0or/place. The indoor
environment of any -uilding is -ased on several factors including location, climate,
-uilding design, construction techniques, -uilding occupant load, and contaminants.
,our /ey elements are involved in the development of poor indoor air quality:
3. 7ultiple contaminant sources
B. (oor ventilation systems
E. (ollutant path0ays
C. 2uilding usage and occupant load
Outside sources for indoor air contaminants include pollen, dust, industrial pollutants,
vehicle e1haust, and unsanitary de-ris near outdoor air inta/e vents. Other outdoor
agents, such as underground storage tan/s or landfills, may also affect indoor air quality.
Indoor contaminants are classified according to these categories:
• Com-ustion products <e.g., smo/e=
• >olatile organic compounds <e.g., solvents and cleaning agents=
• &espiratory particulates <e.g., dust, pollen, and as-estos=
• &espiratory -yproducts <e.g., car-on dio1ide=
• 7icro-ial organisms <e.g., mold, milde0, fungi, and -acteria=
• &adionuclides <e.g, radon=
• Odors <e.g., perfume, smo/e, mold, and milde0=
Additional e1amples of indoor contaminants include dust, dirt or micro-ial gro0th in
ventilation systems, emissions from office equipment, and fumes or odors from any
source.
Tarleton State %niversity follo0s recogni.ed guidelines for ne0 -uilding ventilation
systems and air quality controlK ho0ever, employees are also responsi-le for the quality
of their indoor air. 2ecause indoor air often contains a variety of contaminants at levels
far -elo0 most e1posure standards, it is difficult to lin/ specific health pro-lems 0ith
/no0n pollutants. !mployees must minimi.e all contaminants to reduce the lo0;level
pollutant mi1tures that commonly cause health pro-lems.
The follo0ing practices 0ill help ensure optimum indoor air quality:
• ,i1 lea/s and drips. <7oisture promotes micro-ial Li.e., mold and milde0M
gro0th.=
• Clean mold and milde0 gro0ths 0ith a -leach#0ater mi1ture to prevent regro0th.
• !nsure that indoor ventilation filters are changed regularly.
• Jeep la-oratory doors closed.
• 7inimi.e chemical and aerosol usage. >entilate your area 0hen chemical or
aerosol usage is required. <These compounds include paint, cleaning agents,
hairspray, perfume, etc.=
• o not -loc/ air ducts to control the temperature in your office.
• Avoid smo/ing or coo/ing in enclosed areas. <Smo/ing is strictly prohi-ited
0ithin %niversity facilities and vehicles.=
• If possi-le, open 0indo0s 0hen it is cool and dry outside.
If you have any questions concerning indoor air quality, please contact the Safety Office.
&ead Paint
According to the Centers for isease Control, lead poisoning is a leading environmental
health ris/. 9ead accumulation in a person@s system may lead to fatigue, sudden
-ehavioral change, a-dominal pain, anore1ia, chronic headaches, joint aches, depression,
anemia, impotence, and severe fetal damage in un-orn infants.
2uildings that 0ere constructed or painted prior to the early 3456@s may contain lead
paint. 2ecause common sources of lead e1posure include ingestion <lead paint= or
inhalation <lead;containing dust=, it is important to identify all areas that contain lead
paint. If lead paint fla/es or chips, it must -e encapsulated or removed -y qualified
persons.
The follo0ing locations should also -e inspected for lead paint:
• Areas 0here young children or pregnant 0omen are present
• Areas 0ith fla/ing or deteriorating paint
• Areas that 0ere -uilt or painted prior to the early 3456@s <9ead testing is
particularly important -efore -eginning renovation on older -uildings.=
Contact the Safety Office if you have any questions a-out lead paint ha.ards.
&i*ting
All employees must use proper lifting techniques to avoid injury 0hen lifting heavy
o-jects. In general, employees should see/ assistance 0hen lifting o-jects that 0eigh D6
pounds or more. %se your good judgement to determine if you need assistance, a dolly,
-ac/ support -elt, or other tool to safely lift an o-ject.
The -ac/ supports the 0eight of the entire upper -ody. When you lift o-jects or move
heavy loads, your -ac/ has to support even more 0eight. If you e1ceed your -ody@s
natural limits, your -ac/ cannot support -oth your -ody and the e1tra load. The e1cess,
unsupported pressure is transferred to the lo0er -ac/, 0here injury is imminent. 2y using
the muscles in your arms and legs and e1ercising proper lifting techniques, you can move
loads safely and protect your -ac/ from possi-le injury.
,ollo0 these guidelines to help avoid -ac/ injuries:
• Avoid moving o-jects manually. (lan jo-s and arrange 0or/ areas so that heavy
items may -e moved mechanically.
• Jeep in good physical condition. If you are not used to lifting and vigorous
e1ercise, do not attempt difficult lifting tas/s.
• Thin/ -efore you act. %se proper lifting techniques and lifting aides such as -ac/
support -elts, dollies, etc. )et help if you need it.
When lifting heavy o-jects, follo0 these steps and refer to the illustration on the
follo0ing page:
3. Test the o-ject@s 0eight -efore handling it. If it seems too heavy or -ul/y, get
assistance.
B. ,ace the o-ject, place one foot -ehind the o-ject and one foot along its side.
E. 2end at the /nees.
C. )et a firm, -alanced grip on the o-ject. %se the palms of your hands, use gloves if
necessary.
D. Jeep the o-ject as close to your -ody as possi-le. <(ull the load in close -efore
lifting.=
A. 9ift -y straightening your legs and slightly un-ending your -ac/.

o If the o-ject is too heavy or -ul/y, get help.
o o not t0ist the -ac/ or -end side0ays.
o o not perform a0/0ard lifts.
o o not lift o-jects at arm@s length
F. When moving o-jects, proceed 0ith caution through doors and around corners.
Polychlorinated 'iphenyls (PC's)
(C2s are found in many oil;-ased items, electrical fluids, capacitors, light -allasts, and
transformers. (C2s are /no0n carcinogens that are to1ic to humans through s/in
e1posure, inhalation, and ingestion. (C2s cause s/in disorders and they irritate the eyes,
ears, nose, and throat.
2efore shipping, handling, or disposing of oil;-ased products, Tarleton State %niversity
employees must determine if their products contain (C2s. Common trade names for
(C2s include the follo0ing:
• Aroclor and Aroclor 2
• A-estol
• As/arel and Ad/arel
• Chlore1tol
• Chlorinol
• Clorphen
• iaclor
• y/anol
• !leme1
• !ucarel
• +yvol
• Inerteen
• "o;,lamol
• (yranol
• (yroclor
• Saf;T;Juhl
• Sanotherm
O0ners are specifically responsi-le for properly handling any equipment containing
(C2s. ,or e1ample, (C2 transformers must meet the follo0ing requirements:
• (C2 transformers and o0ners must -e registered 0ith the local ,ire epartment.
• The (C2 transformers and access to the (C2 transformer <fences, doors, etc.=
must -e plainly mar/ed 0ith a (C2 la-el.
• Com-usti-le materials may not -e stored 0ithin five meters of a (C2 transformer
or enclosure.
• If a transformer is involved in a fire;related incident, the "ational &esponse
Center must -e notified.
• &adial (C2 transformers must -e equipped 0ith high current fault protection.
%nits 0ith secondary voltage of C56 volts or greater must -e equipped 0ith lo0
current fault protection.
The T"&CC considers (C2s to -e special 0aste. Contact the Safety Office for disposal
procedures.
IMPORTANT:
Report all P' lea#s (e.g., transformer lea#s) to the Safety
Office immediately.
Pre"enting %lips and +alls
It is easy to prevent falling accidents. !mployees should al0ays follo0 good
house/eeping practices and pay attention to their environment to avoid slips and falls.
In addition, employees should follo0 these guidelines:
• Turn on office lights. !nsure that passage0ays are adequately lighted.
• Avoid horseplay.
• Avoid unnecessary haste. o not run in 0or/ areas.
• %se ladders or step;stools to reach high places. "ever clim- onto a chair, dra0er,
or shelves.
• Jeep hall0ays and stair0ells neat and free of o-stacles.
• &emove items that may pose a potential slipping ha.ard.
• Clean up spills as soon as they occur.
• "ever o-struct your vie0 0hen 0al/ing.
• o not 0ear clothing that is too long or shoes that have slippery heels or soles.
• +old the handrail 0hen using stairs.
• 2e careful 0hen 0al/ing on 0et surfaces or 0hen entering a -uilding 0hile
0earing 0et shoes.
• &eport uneven surfaces, such as loose or missing floor tiles, to the (hysical (lant
for repair.
%moking
The %nited States Surgeon )eneral and the !nvironmental (rotection Agency have
determined the follo0ing:
• 2reathing secondary smo/e causes various diseases and allergic reactions in
healthy non;smo/ers.
• Separating smo/ers and non;smo/ers 0ithin the same air space does not eliminate
e1posure to environmental to-acco smo/e for non;smo/ers.
• To-acco smo/e and secondary to-acco smo/e are Class A carcinogens.
To promote a safe, healthy, and pleasant environment for employees, students, and
visitors, Tarleton State %niversity has instituted a smo/e;free policy.
SMOKING POLICY:
(ll University facilities, !uildings, and vehicles, regardless
of location or o"nership, must !e entirely smo#e)free. %his
includes all foyers, entry"ays, classrooms, restrooms,
offices, athletic facilities (indoor and outdoor), eating
areas, and university)o"ned*leased housing.
,isitor %a*ety
!mployees must ta/e special care to ensure visitor safety. This is particularly important
0hen -ringing visitors to potentially ha.ardous areas such as construction sites or
la-oratories.
IMPORTANT:
Office visitors should !e escorted+ "or#site visitors should
!e escorted, supervised, and monitored. Do not !ring
children to the "or#place.
If a visitor is injured, -e sure to report the occurrence to the Safety Office after attending
to the injury.
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OFFICE SAFETY
-eneral ./ce %a*ety
A large percentage of 0or/place accidents and injuries occur in office -uildings. 9i/e the
shop or la-oratory the office requires a fe0 preventive measures to ensure a safe and
healthful environment. Common causes of office accidents include the follo0ing:
• Slipping, tripping, and falling ha.ards
• 2urning, cutting, and pinching ha.ards
• Improper lifting and handling techniques
• %no-servant and inattentive employees
• Improper office layout and arrangement
• angerous electrical 0iring
• !1posure to to1ic su-stances
• +orseplay
The follo0ing sections address several office safety practices. Other preventive measures
not mentioned here may -e necessary also.
REMEMBER:
%he office !uilding is not a sterile "or#ing environment+
common "or#place hazards can !e e$tra dangerous "hen
you ignore them.
&efer to other chapters in this manual, such as !lectrical Safety, )eneral Safety, ,ire
Safety, and others for more information on 0or/place safety. Al0ays use common sense
0hen safety is a concern.
-ood Housekeeping Practices
7any office accidents are caused -y poor house/eeping practices. 2y /eeping the office
floor -oth neat and clean, you can eliminate most slipping, tripping, and falling ha.ards.
Other good house/eeping practices include the follo0ing:
• !nsure that office lighting is adequate and availa-le. &eplace -urned out light
-ul-s, and have additional lighting installed, as necessary.
• !nsure that electrical cords and phone cords do not cross 0al/0ays or other0ise
pose a tripping ha.ard. If you cannot move a cord, have a ne0 outlet installed or
secure the cord to the floor 0ith cord covering strips. o not tape cords do0n or
run them underneath carpet.
• &eport or repair tripping ha.ards such as defective tiles, -oards, or carpet
immediately.
• Clean spills and pic/ up fallen de-ris immediately. !ven a loose pencil or paper
clip could cause a serious falling injury.
• Jeep office equipment, facilities, and machines in good condition.
• Store items in an approved storage space. Ta/e care to not stac/ -o1es too high or
too tight. !nsure that -o1es are clearly la-eled 0ith their contents.
Hazardous .01ects and 2aterials
+a.ardous o-jects such as /nives and firearms are not permitted in the 0or/place. In
addition, ha.ardous chemicals and materials should not -e stored in the general office.
+a.ardous materials include, -ut are not limited to, the follo0ing:
• Carcinogens
• Com-usti-les
• ,lamma-les
• )as cylinders
• Irritants
• O1idi.ers
• &eactives
Pre"enting Cuts and Punctures
Cuts and punctures happen 0hen people use everyday office supplies 0ithout e1ercising
care. ,ollo0 these guidelines to help reduce the chance for cuts and punctures:
• When sealing envelopes, use a liquid dispenser, not your tongue.
• 2e careful 0hen using /itchen /nives, scissors, staplers, letter openers, and -o1
openers. Any of these items could cause a painful injury.
• Avoid pic/ing up -ro/en glass 0ith your -are hands. Wear gloves and use a
-room and a dust pan.
• (lace used -lades or -ro/en glass in a rigid container, such as a -o1, -efore
disposing in a 0aste-as/et.
Pre"enting 2achine Accidents
Only use machines that you /no0 ho0 to operate. "ever attempt to operate an unfamiliar
machine 0ithout reading the machine instructions or receiving directions from a qualified
employee. In addition, follo0 these guidelines to ensure machine safety:
• Secure machines that tend to move during operation.
• o not place machines near the edge of a ta-le or des/.
• !nsure that machines 0ith moving parts are guarded to prevent accidents. o not
remove these guards.
• %nplug defective machines and have them repaired immediately.
• o not use any machine that smo/es, spar/s, shoc/s, or appears defective in any
0ay.
• Close hand;operated paper cutters after each use and activate the guard.
• Ta/e care 0hen 0or/ing 0ith copy machines. If you have to open the machine for
maintenance, repair, or trou-leshooting, remem-er that some parts may -e hot.
Al0ays follo0 the manufacturer@s instructions for trou-leshooting.
• %nplug paper shredders -efore conducting maintenance, repair, or
trou-leshooting.
Some items can -e very dangerous 0hen 0orn around machinery 0ith moving parts.
Avoid 0earing the follo0ing items around machines 0ith unguarded moving parts:
• 9oose -elts
• $e0elry
• 9ong, loose hair
• 9ong, loose sleeves or pants
• Scarves
• Ties
Pre"enting %lips and +alls
As outlined in the )eneral Safety chapter of this manual, the easiest 0ay to avoid slips
and falls is to pay attention to your surroundings and to avoid running or rushing. To
ensure safety for others in the office, ho0ever, follo0 these guidelines:
Arrange office furnishings in a manner that provides uno-structed areas for
movement.
Jeep stairs, steps, flooring, and carpeting 0ell maintained.
!nsure that glass doors have some type of mar/ing to /eep people from 0al/ing
through them.
Clearly mar/ any difference in floor level that could cause an accident.
Secure thro0 rugs and mats to prevent slipping ha.ards.
o not place 0aste-as/ets or other o-jects in 0al/0ays.
Pre"enting %tress
To reduce stress and prevent fatigue, it is important to ta/e mini;-rea/s <not many -rea/s=
throughout the day. If possi-le, change tas/s at least once every t0o hours. Stretch your
arms, nec/, and legs often if you do the same type of 0or/ for long periods of time. &est
your eyes often -y closing them or loo/ing at something other then the 0or/ at hand. ,or
a quic/ pic/;me;up, -reathe deeply several times -y inhaling through your nose and
e1haling through your mouth. In addition, al0ays try to eat your lunch some0here other
than your des/.
Other examples of stress-relieving exercises that can be done at your
desk include the following:
Head and Neck Stretch:
Slowly turn your head to the left, and hold it for three seconds
Slowly turn your head to the right, and hold it for three seconds
!rop your chin gently toward your chest, and then tilt it back as
far as you can "epeat these steps #ve to ten times

Shoulder "oll:
"oll your shoulders forward and then backward using a circular
motion

$pper %ack Stretch:
&rasp one arm below the elbow and pull gently towards the other
shoulder Hold this position for #ve seconds and then repeat with
the other arm

'rist 'ave:
'ith your arms extended in front of you, raise and lower your
hands several times

(inger Stretch:
)ake #sts with your hands and hold tight for one second, then
spread your #ngers wide for #ve seconds
E3uipment %a*ety
*s mentioned earlier, common o+ce machines, such as the following,
re,uire special safety consideration: copiers, microwaves, adding
machines, typewriters, and computers %e sure you know how to
operate these machines before using them, and never use one of these
machines if you think it is defective
Other o+ce e,uipment that re,uires safety consideration includes
furniture such as #le cabinets and shelves, desks, and chairs
+ile Ca0inets and %hel"es
2ecause file ca-inets and shelves tend to support heavy loads, treat them 0ith special
care.
,ollo0 these safety guidelines for file ca-inets:
• Secure file ca-inets that are not 0eighted at the -ottom. !ither -olt them to the
floor or to the 0all.
• !nsure that file ca-inet dra0ers cannot easily -e pulled clear of the ca-inet.
• o not -loc/ ventilation grates 0ith file ca-inets.
• Open only one dra0er at a time to /eep the ca-inet from toppling.
• Close dra0ers 0hen they are not in use.
• o not place heavy o-jects on top of ca-inets. 2e a0are that anything on top of a
ca-inet may fall off if a dra0er is opened suddenly.
• Close dra0ers slo0ly using the handle to avoid pinched fingers.
• Jeep the -ottom dra0er full. This 0ill help sta-ili.e the entire ca-inet.
In addition, follo0 these safety guidelines for office shelves:
• Secure shelves -y -olting them to the floor or 0all.
• (lace heavy o-jects on the -ottom shelves. This 0ill /eep the entire structure
more sta-le.
• !nsure that there is at least 35 inches -et0een the top shelf items and the ceiling.
This space 0ill allo0 ceiling sprin/lers <if present= to function properly if a fire
occurs.
• o not -loc/ ventilation grates 0ith shelves.
• "ever clim- on shelves <even lo0er shelves=. %se an approved ladder.
#esks
(ollow these safety guidelines for o+ce desks:
• -eep desks in good condition .ie, free from sharp edges, nails,
etc/
• 0nsure that desks do not block exits or passageways
• 0nsure that glass-top desks do not have sharp edges
• 0nsure that desks with spring-loaded tables function properly
1he table should not spring forth with enough force to cause an
in2ury
• !o not climb on desks $se an approved ladder
• -eep desk drawers closed when not in use
• "epair or report any desk damage that could be ha3ardous
Chairs
Safety guidelines for o+ce chairs include the following:
• !o not lean back in o+ce chairs, particularly swivel chairs with
rollers
• !o not climb on any o+ce chair $se an approved ladder
• O+ce desk chairs should have ad2ustable back supports and seat
height )ake sure that your chair4s back support position and
seat height are comfortable
• 1ake care when sitting in a chair with rollers )ake sure it does
not roll out from under you when you sit down
• "epair or report any chair damage that could be ha3ardous
• !o not roll chairs over electrical cords
&adders
Al0ays use an approved ladder or stool to reach any item a-ove your e1tended arm
height. "ever use a ma/eshift device, such as a des/top, file ca-inet, -oo/shelf, or -o1,
as a su-stitute for a ladder.
,ollo0 these guidelines 0hen using ladders:
• o not load a ladder a-ove its intended 0eight capacity.
• (lace ladders on slip;free surfaces even if they have slip;resistant feet. Secure the
ladder if a slip;free surface is not availa-le.
• Avoid placing ladders in 0al/0ays. Secure a ladder if its location could cause an
accident.
• Jeep areas around ladders clean and free of de-ris. o not use a ladder in front of
a door unless the door is loc/ed and -arricaded.
&efer to the Shop Safety chapter in this manual for more information on ladder safety.
ork %tation Arrangement
With the e1tensive use of computers and other automated des/ devices in the 0or/place,
employees must ta/e special care to ensure proper 0or/ station arrangement. ,or the
purpose of this manual, a 0or/ station consists of the equipment and furniture associated
0ith a typical des/ jo- <i.e., des/, chair, and computer components=.
In recent years, computer screens or >ideo isplay Terminals <>Ts= have received
much attention concerning nonioni.ing radiation levels. Tests prove, ho0ever, that >Ts
do not emit harmful levels of radiation. Improper 0or/ station arrangement com-ined
0ith repetitive motion, ho0ever, may contri-ute to visual and musculos/eletal fatigue.
Cumulative trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome may result from the stress
of repetitive motion. Therefore, it is very important to arrange your 0or/ station properly
and to ta/e -rea/s frequently.
The follo0ing sections offer recommendations for ensuring employee comfort through
proper 0or/ station arrangement.
.perator4s Position
'our seating position at 0or/ is important to your comfort and safety. To reduce the
painful effects of repetitive motion, follo0 these guidelines 0hen 0or/ing 0ith
computers or type0riters:
• Al0ays sit up straight. 7a/e sure your chair is adjusted to provide adequate
support to your -ac/.
• (lace your feet flat on the floor or on a footrest. 9o0er legs should -e
appro1imately vertical, and thighs should -e appro1imately hori.ontal. The
majority of your 0eight should -e on the -uttoc/s.
• !nsure that there is at least 3 inch of clearance -et0een the top of your thighs and
the -ottom of the des/ or ta-le.
• Jeep your 0rists in a natural position. They should not rest on the edge of the
des/.
• Jeep the front edge of your chair appro1imately C inches -ehind your /nees.
E3uipment Arrangement
%y properly arranging your e,uipment, you can also help reduce the
harmful e5ects of repetitive motion (ollow these guidelines for
arranging o+ce e,uipment:
 &ighting5
6ighting around computer work stations should illuminate the work
area without obscuring the 7!1 or causing glare 8osition computer
screens, draperies, blinds, and pictures to reduce glare during work
hours .eg, place the 7!1 screen at a right angle to the window/
 ,#6 %creen5
7!1 images should be clear and well-de#ned *d2ust the screen4s
brightness, contrast and display si3e to meet your needs 9f a screen
:ickers or 2umps, have it repaired or replaced
8lace the 7!1 ;<-;= inches away from your face 1he center of the
7!1 should be approximately >? to ;? degrees below your line of
vision
 7ey0oard5
8osition computer keyboards so that the angle between the forearm
and upperarm is between =< and >;< degrees 8lace the keyboard in
an area that is accessible and comfortable
 rist %upport5
$se wrist supports made of a padded material 1he support should
allow you to type without bending your wrists
 #ocument Holders5
-eep documents at approximately the same height and distance from
your face as the 7!1 screen
 6elephones5
Neck tension is a common problem caused by holding the telephone
between the head and neck $se a headset or speakerphone if you use
the telephone for extended periods of time
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ELECTRICAL SAFETY
-eneral Electrical %a*ety
The danger of injury through electrical shoc/ is possi-le 0henever electrical po0er is
present. When a person@s -ody completes a circuit and thus connects a po0er source 0ith
the ground, an electrical -urn or injury is imminent. 7ost fatal injuries result from high;
voltage e1posureK ho0ever, people can sustain severe injuries from lo0 voltage po0er if
it has a high current flo0.
!lectrical safety is important in every 0or/ environment. The follo0ing sections cover
circuit -rea/er loads, electrical grounding, electrical safety guidelines, and electrical
emergency response.
#e8nitions
The follo0ing definitions help clarify general electrical safety:
 Amps: The standard unit for measuring electrical current.
 Watt: A unit of electrical po0er, equal to the po0er developed
in a circuit -y a current of amp flo0ing through a potential
difference of one volt.
 >oltage: !lectromotive force e1pressed in volts.
 Circuit 2rea/er: A device that automatically interrupts the flo0
of an electrical current.
 2rea/er 2o1: An insulated -o1 on 0hich interconnected
circuits are mounted.
 !lectrical (anel: An insulated panel on 0hich electrical 0ires
are mounted.
 Current ,lo0: The rate of flo0 of an electrical charge,
generally e1pressed in amps.
 !lectrical 9oad: The amount of po0er delivered -y a generator
or carried -y a circuit. A device to 0hich the po0er is delivered.
 )round;,ault Circuit Interrupter <),CI=: A ),CI detects
grounding pro-lems and shuts electricity off to prevent a possi-le
accident.
 +igh >oltage: The term high voltage applies to electrical
equipment that operates at more than A66 >olts <for terminal to
terminal operation= or more than E66 >olts <for terminal to ground
operation=. 9o0 voltage, high current AC or C po0er supplies
are also considered to -e high voltage.
 +a.ardous !nergy Sources: This term applies to stored or
residual energy such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated
machine mem-ers, rotating fly0heels, hydraulic systems, and air,
gas, steam, or 0ater pressure.
 9oc/out: The placement of a loc/ on an energy;isolating
device. This act prevents 0or/ers from operating a piece of
equipment until the loc/ is removed.
 Tagout: The placement of a tag on an energy;isolating device.
A tagout device is a prominent 0arning device of a loc/out.
 !nergy;Isolating evice: A mechanical device that prevents the
transmission or release of energy. !1amples include the follo0ing:

 7anually operated circuit -rea/ers
 isconnect s0itches
 9ine or -loc/ valves
(ush-uttons, selector s0itches, and other control circuit devices do
not isolate energy.
!nergy;isolating devices should -e loc/a-le -y means of a hasp or
other type of attachment. It should not -e necessary to dismantle or
reassem-le a device to loc/ it.
 Authori.ed !mployee: A person 0ho loc/s out or tags out
equipment for service or maintenance. Authori.ed employees have
-een formally trained in proper loc/out#tagout procedures.
Circuit 'reaker &oads
7ost office and la-oratory locations have B6 amp circuit -rea/ers that serve t0o or more
outlets. These -rea/ers can handle most office equipmentK ho0ever, the 0idespread use
of personal computers and associated hard0are can create an electrical overload. To
determine your current electrical load, follo0 these steps:
3. Chec/ office#la-oratory equipment for a manufacturer@s rating la-el that indicates
total 0atts or amps. Ta/e special care to chec/ appliances that use electricity to
generate heat.
B. Convert the 0atts rating to amps: Amps N Watts ÷ 3B6 >olts
E. Total the amps for each circuit.
C. If the total equals more than 3D amps per B6 amp circuit, you may -e overloading
the circuit. 7ove enough equipment to a different circuit to reduce the circuit
loadK other0ise, have the (hysical (lant inspect the circuit 0iring.
Electrical -rounding
(roper electrical grounding can help prevent electrical injury. 7ost electrical equipment
is grounded 0ith either a three;prong plug or a t0o;prong plug and insulation. 2ecause a
grounding system may -e defective 0ithout your /no0ledge, use a ),CI to ensure
electrical safety. ),CIs are required in moist or potentially damp environments.
Electrical Panels
!lectrical panels or -rea/er -o1es require special safety considerations, including the
follo0ing:
• Jno0 0here your panel -o1 is located.
• o not tape circuit s0itches to /eep a -rea/er from tripping.
• !nsure that -rea/er circuits are accurately la-eled 0ithin panel -o1es.
• !nsure that panel -o1 doors are securely attached.
• o not -loc/ panel -o1es. There should -e at least E6 inches of clear space in
front of a panel -o1.
&eport tripped -rea/ers and refer any electrical questions to the (hysical (lant.
Electrical %a*ety -uidelines
,ollo0 these guidelines for general electrical safety:
• 2e familiar 0ith the electrical ha.ards associated 0ith your 0or/place.
• %nplug electrical equipment -efore repairing or servicing it.
• If a prong -rea/s off inside an outlet, do not attempt to remove it yourself. Call
the (hysical (lant for assistance.
• !nsure that outlets are firmly mounted. &eport loose outlets to the (hysical (lant.
• &eport all electrical pro-lems, including tripped -rea/ers, -ro/en s0itches, and
flic/ering lights, to the (hysical (lant.
• All appliances used in Tarleton State %niversity -uildings must -e %9 or ,7
<,actory 7utual= la-elled.
• !o not use an appliance that sparks, smokes, or becomes
excessively hot, unless the appliance is speci#cally designed to
exhibit these characteristics
• 8ortable electrical heaters must be placed to avoid causing a trip
ha3ard and must be kept away from combustible material Never
leave a heater unattended $nplug the heater at the end of the
day or when not in use
• -eep electrical e,uipment away from water, unless the appliance
is speci#cally designed for use around water, such as a wet-dry
shop vacuum
• $se &(@9s whenever possible
• %e aware of overhead power lines when working with tall
e,uipment .eg, grain augers, cranes, sailboats, etc/
• (ollow lockoutAtagout procedures, as appropriate
(ollow these guidelines for electrical plug and cord safety:
• !o not remove the prongs of an electrical plug 9f plug prongs are
missing, loose, or bent, replace the entire plug
• !o not use an adapter or extension cord to defeat a standard
grounding device .eg, Only place three-prong plugs in three-
prong outletsB do not alter them to #t in a two-prong outlet/
• $se extension cords only when necessary and only on a
temporary basis !o not use extension cords in place of
permanent wiring "e,uest new outlets if your work re,uires
e,uipment in an area without an outlet
• $se extension cords that are the correct si3e or rating for the
e,uipment in use 1he diameter of the extension cord should be
the same or greater than the cord of the e,uipment in use
• !o not run electrical cords above ceiling tiles or through walls
• -eep electrical cords away from areas where they may be
pinched and areas where they may pose a tripping or #re ha3ard
.eg, doorways, walkways, under carpet, etc/
• Avoid plugging more than one appliance in each outlet. If multiple appliances are
necessary, use an approved po0er strip 0ith surge protector and circuit -rea/er.
o not overload the circuit -rea/er.
• iscard damaged cords, cords that -ecome hot, or cords 0ith e1posed 0iring.
• "ever unplug an appliance -y pulling on the cordK pull on the plug.
Electrical Emergency Response
The follo0ing instructions provide guidelines for handling three types of electrical
emergencies:
3. !lectric Shoc/:
When someone suffers serious electrical shoc/, he or she may -e /noc/ed unconscious. If
the victim is still in contact 0ith the electrical current, immediately turn off the electrical
po0er source. If you cannot disconnect the po0er source, try to separate the victim from
the po0er source 0ith a nonconductive o-ject, such as a 0ood;handled -room.
IMPORTANT:
Do not touch a victim that is still in contact "ith a po"er
source+ you could electrocute yourself.
+ave someone call for emergency medical assistance immediately. Administer first;aid,
as appropriate.
B. !lectrical ,ire:
If an electrical fire occurs, try to disconnect the electrical po0er source, if possi-le. If the
fire is small, you are not in immediate danger, and you have -een trained in fighting fires,
use any type of fire e1tinguisher e1cept 0ater to e1tinguish the fire.
IMPORTANT:
Do not use "ater on an electrical fire.
C 8ower 6ines:
Stay away from live power lines and downed power lines %e
particularly careful if a live power line is touching a body of water 1he
water could conduct electricity
9f a power line falls on your car while you are inside, remain in the
vehicle until help arrives
&ockout$6agout Procedures
6ockoutAtagout procedures are used to isolate ha3ardous energy
sources from electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic machinery
(urthermore, when service or maintenance work is re,uired, lockout
and tagout devices help ensure personal safety from possible energy
releases *ll employees whose work involves ha3ardous energy sources
must be trained in lockoutAtagout procedures
%efore performing service or maintenance work on machines, turn
them o5 and disconnect them from their energy sources 1o further
ensure employee safety, lockout and tagout energy-isolating devices
1he following sections provide information on lockoutAtagout
procedures 9n addition to the procedures in this manual, 1arleton State
$niversity maintains a 6ockoutA1agout 8rogram for the @ontrol of
Ha3ardous 0nergy * copy of this document is available from the Safety
O+ce
Applying &ockout$6agout #e"ices
Only authori.ed employees may apply loc/#out devices. The follo0ing steps provide a
-rief outline of approved application procedures:
3. "otify employees that the equipment requires service or maintenance and is
scheduled for shutdo0n and loc/out#tagout.
B. %se esta-lished procedures to identify the type, magnitude, and ha.ards of the
equipment@s energy source. 7a/e sure you /no0 the proper methods for
controlling the energy source.
E. If the equipment is currently operating, shut it do0n using normal shutdo0n
procedures.
C. Isolate the equipment from its energy source -y activating the energy;isolating
device<s=. !ither loc/out or tagout the energy;isolating device<s=.
D. issipate or restrain stored and residual energy using methods such as grounding,
repositioning, -loc/ing, -leeding, etc.
A. !nsure that all employees are removed from the equipment. Then, test the
equipment for successful isolation -y attempting to operate it.
IMPORTANT:
(fter verifying isolation, return the controls to neutral or
off.
Remo"ing &ockout$6agout #e"ices
When service and maintenance are complete, authori.ed employees may remove
loc/out#tagout devices and return equipment to normal operations. The follo0ing steps
provide a -rief outline of approved removal procedures:
3. Inspect the 0or/ area and remove any nonessential items. 7a/e sure the isolation
equipment is intact and in good 0or/ing condition.
B. !nsure that all employees are safely removed from the equipment.
E. >erify that the equipment controls are in neutral or off.
C. &emove the loc/out#tagout devices and re;energi.e the equipment.

NOTE:
%he removal of some forms of !loc#ing may re,uire
the e,uipment to !e re)energized !efore safe
removal.
D. "otify employees that the equipment is ready for operation.
High ,oltage Procedures
In addition to the guidelines associated 0ith general electrical safety and loc/out#tagout
procedures, there are more stringent safety requirements for high voltage procedures.
The follo0ing list provides high;voltage safety tips. ,or more information, please refer to
Title B4 Section 3436.BA4 of the Code of ,ederal &egulations or ",(A F6 <"ational
!lectric Code=.
• !nsure that only authori.ed employees 0or/ around high voltage equipment.
• 9a-el entrances 0ith a +igh >oltage Sign.
• !nsure that terminal voltage ratings can 0ithstand surges caused -y electrical
faults or s0itching transients.
• 2e careful around output circuits even 0hen the input po0er is off. (arallel po0er
sources and energy storage devices can still -e dangerous.
• 2e careful 0hen 0or/ing 0ith po0er supplies that serve more than one area.
• 2efore 0or/ing in a high voltage area, inspect the po0er supply and chec/ all
protective devices.
• o not 0or/ alone near high voltage.
• 9a-el equipment to identify po0er sources. 9a-el input po0er sources to identify
connected po0er supply loads.
• Attach emergency shutdo0n instructions and phone num-ers to equipment that is
remotely controlled or unattended 0hile energi.ed.
• 2efore entering a po0er supply or associated equipment enclosure to 0or/ on
ha.ardous energy sources, complete the follo0ing:

• e;energi.e the equipment.
• Open and loc/out the main input po0er circuit -rea/er.
• Chec/ for au1iliary po0er circuits that could still -e energi.ed.
• Inspect automatic shorting devices for proper operation.
• Short the po0er supply 0ith grounding hoo/s.
2inimum Clear orking %pace
The follo0ing ta-le from the "ational !lectric Code provides minimum depth of clear
0or/ing space in front of electrical equipment:
"ominal >oltage to )round Conditions
i ii iii
<ft= <ft= <ft=
A63 ; B,D66 E C D
B,D63; 4,666 C D A
4.663 ; BD,6666 D A 4
BD,663 ; FD/> A 5 36
A-ove FD /> 5 36 3B
Where conditions <i=, <ii=, and <iii= are as follo0s:
• <i= !1posed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side
of the 0or/ing space, or e1posed live parts on -oth sides effectively guarded -y
suita-le 0ood or other insulating materials. Insulated 0ire or insulated -us -ars
operating at not over E66 volts shall not -e considered live parts. <ii= !1posed live
parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. Concrete, -ric/, or tile
0alls 0ill -e considered as grounded surfaces.
• <iii= !1posed live parts on -oth sides of the 0or/space not guarded as provided in
condition <i= 0ith the operator -et0een.
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CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
-eneral Construction -uidelines
Construction 0or/ can -e particularly ha.ardous. (ersonal protective equipment, fire
safety, electrical safety, and other precautions are essential for safe construction 0or/.
&efer to other chapters in this manual for more information. ,ollo0 these guidelines
0hen visiting or 0or/ing at construction sites:
• o not 0al/, stand, or 0or/ under suspended loads. If you raise a load, -e sure to
cri-, -loc/, or other0ise secure the load as soon as possi-le.
• Avoid placing unusual strain on equipment or materials.
• 2e prepared for une1pected ha.ards. BE ALERT!
'arriers and -uards
%niversity employees must use -arriers and guards as necessary to protect employees,
students, contractors, and visitors from physical ha.ards. If you suspect a ha.ard is not
sufficiently protected, notify the attending 0or/ers or the Safety Office immediately.
NOTE:
'arriers, guards, and "arning signs are re,uired to ensure
safety against e$isting hazards.
6ypes o* 'arriers and -uards
Standard types of -arriers and guards include the follo0ing:
• )uardrails and handholds
• Sa0 horses
• Tape
• Toe-oards
• Cones
• Other physical -arriers and solid separators <dust -arriers, ha.ard -arriers,
temporary 0al/0ays, etc.=
NOTE:
Signs that state D(-&.R, /(R-0-&, or (U%0O- are
also important "hen !arriers or guards are necessary.
Remem!er to ma#e signs legi!le, visi!le, and !rief.
Areas that Need 'arriers or -uards
Any area that poses a physical threat to 0or/ers and#or pedestrians requires -arriers or
guards. Areas that typically require permanent or temporary protection include the
follo0ing:
• Stair0ays
• +atches
• Chutes
• Open 7anholes
• !levated platforms
• Areas 0ith moving machinery
• !1cavation sites
• Construction sites
• Temporary 0all or floor openings
9sing 'arriers or -uards
The follo0ing list provides guidelines for using -arriers and guards:
• When necessary, reroute pedestrian and vehicular traffic to completely avoid a
construction site.
• )uard any permanent ground opening into 0hich a person could fall 0ith a
guardrail, load;-earing cover, or other physical -arrier.
• !nsure that temporary floor openings, such as pits and open manholes, are
guarded -y secure, remova-le guardrails. If guardrails are not availa-le, have
someone guard the opening.
• !nsure that all stair0ays, ladder0ays, hatch0ays, or chute floor openings have
handrails or hinged covers.
• !nsure that enclosed stair0ays 0ith four or more steps have at least one railing,
and that open stair0ays 0ith four or more steps have t0o railings.
• !nsure that all platforms and 0al/0ays that are elevated or located ne1t to
moving machinery are equipped 0ith handrails, guardrails, or toe-oards.
• 2arricade any 0all openings through 0hich a person or tools could fall. %se
gates, doors, guardrails, or other physical -arriers to -loc/ the opening.
• 7ar/ and guard any e1cavation that is deeper than 3B inches.
• 7ar/ and#or guard potholes and side0al/ damage as appropriate.
• (rotect smo/e detectors 0ith some type of cover 0hen construction 0or/, such as
dust or fume producing activities, may affect smo/e detectors. &emove protectors
immediately at the end of the activity or at the end of each day.
Hea"y E3uipment %a*ety
When using heavy equipment, there are five -asic guidelines that employees must al0ays
follo0 to ensure safety:
3. Jno0 ho0 to properly operate the equipment you are using.
B. o not use heavy machinery 0hen you are dro0sy, into1icated, or ta/ing
prescription medication that may affect your performance.
E. %se only equipment that is appropriate for the 0or/ to -e done.
C. Inspect your equipment to ensure that it is in good 0or/ing condition -efore
-eginning a jo-. In addition, ensure that regular inspections and maintenance are
conducted as appropriate.
D. o not stress or overload your equipment.
Accidents do not just happen, they are caused. Therefore, employees should also follo0
these guidelines:
• !nsure the follo0ing -efore leaving equipment unattended:

• All -uc/ets, -lades, etc. are on the ground.
• Transmission is in neutral.
• !ngine is off.
• !quipment is secure against movement.
• "ever get on or off moving equipment.
• o not attempt to lu-ricate or adjust a running engine.
• Turn the engine off -efore refueling.
• Jeep all shields and safety guards in place.
• Avoid underground utilities and overhead po0er lines.
The follo0ing sections provide -asic guidelines for 0or/ing 0ith for/lifts, front;end
loaders, and -ac/hoes. &efer to the product documentation that accompanied your
equipment for more information and specific instructions.
+orkli*ts
Only authori.ed employees may operate for/lifts. The follo0ing list provides general
safety guidelines:
• o not allo0 riders. o not raise people on a for/lift.
• o not speed.
• rive up and -ac/ do0n ramps.
• o not 0al/, stand, or 0or/ under the elevated portion of a for/lift <even if it is
not loaded=.
• !nsure that the for/lift has an overhead -arrier to protect the operator from falling
o-jects.
In addition, follo0 these guidelines for safe for/lift operation:
• Al0ays 0or/ 0ithin the capacity limits of your for/lift. Consult 0ith the
manufacturer -efore modifying the operation or capacity limits of a for/lift.
• o not operate a for/lift in areas 0ith ha.ardous concentrations of acetylene,
-utadiene, hydrogen, ethylene, or diethyl ether, or other e1plosive environment.
• "ever lift a load 0hile moving. Wait until you are completely stopped -efore
raising the mast.
• 2e sure the top load sits squarely on the stac/. An uneven load could topple.
• Travel 0ith loads slightly tilted -ac/ to provide sta-ility.
• 1ravel with loads at the proper height * stable clearance height
is usually D to E inches at the tips and ; inches at the heels of
fork blades 6ift stacked loads in the same manner as loads on
the :oor
• 'hen preparing to leave the forklift unattended, lower the mast,
neutrali3e the controls, shut the power o5, and set the brakes
1he forklift is FunattendedF when the operator is more than ;?
feet away or the forklift is out of view
• 'hen ascending or descending a grade in excess of >< percent,
drive the forklift with the load upgrade
• 9f you cannot see over a load, drive in reverse !o not try to look
around a load and drive forward
'ack Hoes
Only authori3ed employees may operate backhoes and front-end
loaders 1he following list o5ers general safety guidelines for both
types of machinery:
• *lways operate at a safe speed
• 1ravel with the bucket low to the ground
• *lways lower the bucket before servicing the e,uipment or
leaving the loader unattended
• $se a rigid-type coupler when towing loads
• *lways check with the utility company before digging
• %e extremely careful when operating near banks and slopes
• 'hen cutting a bank, be careful not to cause a cave-in !o not
drive on an overhang
Hoists
Only authori3ed employees may use hoists to move heavy ob2ects and
e,uipment 'hen using hoists, remember to follow the #ve safety
guidelines for working with heavy e,uipment ."efer to the section on
heavy e,uipment for more information/ 9n addition, follow the
guidelines in the following sections
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
6ypes o* Con8ned %paces
A confined space is any enclosed area 0ith the follo0ing characteristics:
• 9imited means of entry or e1it
• Structure that is not designed for e1tended human occupation
• Atmosphere that is actually or potentially ha.ardous
• (otential for other ha.ards
2ecause confined spaces offer limited means of entry or e1it and may contain ha.ards,
employees must comply 0ith B4 C,& 3436.3CA and the Tarleton State %niversity
Confined Space !ntry (rogram 0hen 0or/ing in these areas. The Confined Space !ntry
(rogram is availa-le from the Safety Office. If you have any questions a-out confined
spaces, contact the Safety Office.
7ost confined spaces are actually or potentially ha.ardous. These confined spaces
require 0or/ permits -ecause they have one or more of the follo0ing:
• +a.ardous atmosphere or the potential to contain ha.ardous atmosphere
• 7aterials that could engulf 0or/ers
• Internal structure or contents that could trap or asphy1iate employees
• Other recogni.a-le ha.ards
!1amples of confined spaces include the follo0ing:
• 7anholes
• Cra0l spaces
• Tunnels
• Tan/s
• Trenches
#e8nitions
Conined Spaces!
Any enclosed space 0ith limited means of entry or egress, 0hich is not designed
for continuous occupation.

"ermit-#equired Conined Space!
Confined space that contains actually or potentially ha.ardous atmosphere, or the
potential for engulfment -y particulate matter or liquid.

$ntry!
(hysical act of entering a confined space. An entry occurs 0hen a 0or/er@s face
-rea/s the plane of the confined space opening.

Authori%ed $ntrants!
(roperly trained 0or/ers 0ith the authori.ation to enter confined spaces.

Authori%ed Attendant!
(roperly trained 0or/er 0ho is positioned outside a confined space. This person
monitors the entrants 0ithin a confined space and the e1ternal surroundings.

"erson Authori%ing $ntry!
Wor/er 0ho is properly trained in administrative, technical, and managerial
aspects of confined space entry. This person authori.es entry and has the authority
to terminate entry 0hen conditions -ecome unfavora-le.

Ha%ardous Atmosphere!
Atmosphere that is o1ygen enriched, o1ygen deficient, com-usti-le, to1ic, or
other0ise immediately dangerous to life or health.

Hotwor&!
Operations that could provide a source of ignition, such as riveting, 0elding,
cutting, -urning, or heating.
Employee Responsi0ilities
All employees and contractors must follo0 the guidelines in the Tarleton State %niversity
Confined Space !ntry (rogram and other required programs to ensure safe entry into
confined spaces.
In addition, epartments and Supervisors are responsi-le for the follo0ing:
• Selecting a person to authori.e entry
• Authori.ing entrants and attendants, as appropriate
• (roviding atmospheric monitoring equipment, personal protective equipment, and
other necessary equipment
• Training the people 0ho authori.e entry and the people 0ho enter and attend
confined spaces
The Safety Office is responsi-le for the follo0ing:
• Assisting 0ith identifying confined spaces, as necessary
• Assisting 0ith training employees, as necessary
• 7onitoring program compliance
%a*ety Procedures
The follo0ing sections cover proper procedures and guidelines for safely 0or/ing 0ithin
confined spaces.
NOTE:
.lectrical manholes and other confined spaces "ith high
voltage electrical hazards are covered !y 12 R3R
4245.162. Please refer to the code for more information.
(nspecting the %pace and Completing
the Checklist
%efore entering a con#ned space, evaluate the area and complete a
Confned Space Checklist Form and Entry Document. * sample form is
included after this section
1o complete the form, determine the following information:
• 9dentity and location of the con#ned space
• 8urpose for entering the area
• -now any potential ha3ards
• "e,uired isolation methods .eg, lockoutAtagout/
• 0nvironmental conditions of the con#ned space
• *tmospheric readings to verify that acceptable environmental
conditions are met and maintained
• "escue services, procedures, and e,uipment that may be
necessary in case of an emergency
• @ommunication procedures to be used
• 8ersonal protective e,uipment to be used
• *ny additional information relating to the speci#c circumstances
of the con#ned space
• Names of the following
- 8erson authori3ing entry
- Supervisor
- *uthori3ed entrants
- *uthori3ed attendants
IMPORTANT:
If you intend to perform hotwork within the
confned space, you must note this on the
form.


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.0taining Entry Permission
!mployees must notify the person 0ho authori.es entry -efore 0or/ing in confined
spaces.
The person 0ho authori.es entry refers to any records on file and identifies the actual or
potential ha.ards of the area in question. If no file e1ists for the specific space, a ne0 one
is developed.
The person 0ho authori.es entry then revie0s and approves the entry form as
appropriate. A copy of the form is filed for future reference.
Preparing the Entry 6eam
2efore entering a confined space, all employees involved 0ith the entry must attend a
preparation meeting. The agenda for this meeting includes the follo0ing:
• iscussion of actual and potential ha.ards
• &evie0 of emergency procedures including rescue and evacuation
• Completion of the entry form -y all team mem-ers to ac/no0ledge their
understanding of the ha.ards involved 0ith the confined space
• Issuance of personal protective equipment
• iscussion of site location and other essential information
2onitoring the Atmosphere
ue to poor ventilation and physical structure, the atmosphere in confined spaces may -e
actually or potentially ha.ardous. Atmospheric ha.ards include the follo0ing:
• O1ygen deficient or o1ygen enriched atmospheres
• Com-usti-le atmospheres
• To1ic atmospheres
• Any other atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health
!mployees trained in atmospheric monitoring 0ill test several points in a confined space
for the follo0ing:
• O1ygen content
• Com-usti-le atmosphere
• (otential to1ic contaminants
'()G$* A+M'S"H$#$S
O1ygen enriched atmospheres are more than BE.DQ o1ygen: o1ygen deficient
atmospheres are less than 34.DQ o1ygen. Certain chemical or -iological reactions may
reduce o1ygen over time, -ut employee operations such as cutting or 0elding may reduce
o1ygen content very quic/ly. O1ygen levels must -e tested regularly 0henever hot0or/
is performed 0ithin a confined space.
C.2'9%6('&E A62.%PHERE%
Com-usti-le atmospheres have enough o1ygen and flamma-le vapor, gas, or dust to
ignite and support a fire or e1plosion if e1posed to flames, spar/s, or heat. O1ygen;
enriched atmospheres and ha.ardous atmospheres in e1cess of their lo0er flamma-le
limits are e1tremely com-usti-le and dangerous.
+'(,C A+M'S"H$#$S
To1ic atmospheres can cause injury, illness, or death. Safety concerns include inhalation
and s/in e1posure. If the identity of the to1ic atmosphere is /no0n, chec/ all appropriate
7aterial Safety ata Sheets <7SSs= for threshold limit values and recommended
personal protective equipment. If the identity of the to1ic atmosphere is not /no0n, use
ma1imum ((! <i.e., SC2A=.
,entilation
>entilation controls the atmospheric ha.ards of a confined space -y replacing unsafe air
0ith clean, -reatha-le air. There are several methods for ventilating a confined space. The
method and equipment used depend on the follo0ing factors:
• Si.e of the confined space
• Atmosphere
• Source of the ma/eup air
,or most confined spaces, fans or other air;moving equipment can provide adequate
ventilation. T0o common types of mechanical ventilation include local e1haust
ventilation and general ventilation.
9ocal e1haust ventilation captures contaminants at their point of origin and removes
them. This type of ventilation method is ideal for flamma-le and to1ic materials produced
at a single point <e.g., hot0or/ and 0or/ involving cleaning solvents=. When using this
type of ventilation system, /eep the e1haust inta/e close to your 0or/. o not use this
type of ventilation system for contaminants that are 0idely dispersed or for confined
spaces that ma/e ventilation difficult. Instead, use general ventilation.
)eneral ventilation flushes the atmosphere -y supplying and e1hausting large volumes of
air. 2ecause this system does not reduce the amount of contaminants released, it is not
recommended for highly to1ic atmospheres. )eneral ventilation is ideal for providing
o1ygen and controlling lo0 concentrations of materials that are not highly to1ic. When
using this type of ventilation system during hot0or/, monitor the atmosphere
continuously and 0ear a SC2A, as necessary.
IMPORTANT:
7entilation alone cannot reduce some atmospheric hazards
to safe levels. Use atmospheric testing to confirm "hether
the ventilation system has !een successful.
,ollo0 these guidelines for ventilating confined spaces:
• 2egin ventilation in time to assure that the space is safe -efore entry.
• Test the atmosphere -efore entry to confirm that the ventilation system is 0or/ing
properly and that the space is safe.
• Continue ventilation as long as the space is occupied, or at least until the o1ygen
levels and ha.ardous concentrations are 0ithin safe limits.
• If 0or/ inside the space can ma/e the air unsafe <e.g., hot0or/, painting, using
solvents, sand-lasting, etc.= continue ventilation as long as the 0or/ is in
progress.
Preparing the %ite *or Entry
!mployees must complete the follo0ing steps to prepare confined spaces for entry:
3. Isolate the confined space entry site from the surrounding area using guards and
-arriers <including signs, rope, or tape=.
B. rain, clean, ventilate, and#or purge the confined space, as necessary, to prevent
flamma-le, to1ic, and corrosive ha.ards.
E. Isolate all electrical, mechanical, and pneumatic energy sources as outlined in the
9oc/out#Tagout section of this manual.
C. !nsure that all 0or/ers are 0earing appropriate personal protective equipment,
and that all persons 0earing respirators have -een properly trained in their usage.
D. (rovide continuous ventilation, as necessary.
A. !nsure that non;spar/ing tools and e1plosion proof equipment are used 0hen
0or/ing in a potentially com-usti-le atmosphere.
F. (osition gas cylinders for cutting or -urning outside the confined space.
5. !nsure that a stand-y SC2A is availa-le.
4. O-tain personal protective equipment, including lifelines, 0inches, and harnesses,
as required. !nsure that the equipment has -een inspected as scheduled.
36. Ta/e precautions to ensure against engulfment ha.ards, such as 0ater, dirt, grain,
etc.
%a*eguarding Con8ned %pace
.perations
9ife support safety is critical during confined space operations. The follo0ing items are
requirements for safeguarding confined spaces:
• !mployees must 0ear appropriate personal protective equipment at all times.
• !mployees must use harnesses, lifelines, and#or 0inches, as appropriate.
The Authori.ed Safety Attendant is specifically responsi-le for the follo0ing:
• Jeeping a log of all authori.ed entrants 0or/ing 0ithin the confined space
• 7aintaining constant ver-al contact 0ith the authori.ed entrants 0ithin a confined
space
• Ta/ing necessary precautions and measures to prevent unauthori.ed persons from
entering a confined space
• Initiating evacuation procedures 0henever conditions 0ithin or outside the
confined space pose a ne0 ha.ard
All employees must evacuate a confined space 0hen one or more of the follo0ing
conditions occur:
• Authori.ed Safety Attendant orders evacuation
• Automatic atmospheric alarm sounds
• Authori.ed entrants -elieve they are in danger
Emergency Procedure
If a 0or/er is una-le to evacuate the confined space during an emergency, the Authori.ed
Safety Attendant 0ill contact rescue personnel -y radio or other means.
The Authori.ed Safety Attendant and other 0or/ers outside the confined space should
attempt to hoist the 0or/er out of the confined space using a lifeline.
IMPORTANT:
Under no circumstances should unauthorized employees
enter a confined space during an emergency.
6renching and %horing
Some operations such as trenching result in confined spaces. Shoring systems are
necessary to protect these spaces and reduce the chance for cave;ins.
A trench is a narro0 e1cavation -elo0 the ground. Trenches are typically deeper than
they are 0ideK ho0ever, the 0idth of a trench is less than 3D feet.
A shoring system consists of a structure that supports the sides of an e1cavation and is
designed to prevent cave;ins.
!mployees must follo0 all the requirements associated 0ith confined spaces 0hen
0or/ing 0ithin trenches.
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FIRE/LIFE SAFETY
-eneral +ire$&i*e %a*ety
,ire#life safety involves numerous safety issues including fire prevention, fire
suppression, and emergency evacuation#response. ,ire#life safety is everyone#s
responsi-ility.
IMPORTANT:
8earn ho" to prevent fires and respond to fires)))"hat you
learn "ill !e invalua!le.
Tarleton State %niversity is committed to providing a safe environment for -uilding
occupants and emergency response personnel. Tarleton State %niversity uses nationally
accepted codes as guidelines for inspections, testing, and procedures.
6he E=ects o* a +ire
7ost fires produce an immense amount of smo/e that is highly to1ic. In fact, smo/e is
responsi-le for more fire fatalities than flames. A smo/ey fire can have the follo0ing
effect on humans:
Within E6 seconds
→isorientation
Within B minutes →
%nconsciousness
Within E minutes → eath
Timing is critical during a fire. To ensure your safety, you must /no0 ho0 to prevent and
respond to any fire emergency.
+ire Pre"ention
The greatest protection against property loss and injuries from fire is prevention. ,ollo0
these guidelines to promote fire#life safety:
• 7inimi.e com-usti-le storage.
• Store 0aste materials in suita-le containers.
• %se flamma-le materials in 0ell;ventilated areas. %se and store flamma-les a0ay
from ignition sources, such as cigarettes.
• Jeep equipment in good 0or/ing order. +ave electrical 0iring and appliances
inspected regularly.
• !nsure that heating units are properly safeguarded.
• o not hunt for gas lea/s using an open flame. %se approved gas indicators.
• &eport and repair all gas lea/s immediately.
• Conduct hot 0or/ in 0ell;ventilated areas.
• Test enclosed or confined spaces for flamma-le atmospheres.
• %se open flames carefully. o not use open flames 0here flamma-le atmospheres
may -e present.
,or more information on fire#life safety, refer to other chapters in this manual, including
!mergency (reparedness, !lectrical Safety, 9a-oratory Safety, Chemical Safety,
Confined Space, etc.
+ire Response
If you see a fire or smo/e, or if you smell smo/e, complete the follo0ing steps:
3. (ull the fire pull station to -egin evacuating the -uilding.
B. If you are not in immediate danger, call 433 to report the fire. (rovide the operator 0ith
the follo0ing information:
• 2uilding or area name
• Appro1imate location of the fire
• Si.e and type of fire
• 'our name
E. If you are formally trained in fire fighting techniques and are not in immediate danger,
you may attempt to fight the fire. o not place yourself or others in unnecessary danger.
C. !1it the -uilding -y follo0ing posted evacuation routes. o not use elevators during an
emergency.
uring actual emergencies, -uilding occupants must receive permission from the %(,
the ,ire epartment, or the Safety Office -efore re;entering the -uilding.
NOTE:
.vacuation plans and fire drills are essential for !uilding
occupants to respond correctly to a fire alarm. Refer to the
.mergency Preparedness chapter for more information.
Arson
If you suspect arson, no matter ho0 small the incident, contact the %( or the Safety
Office. o not alter the fire scene in any 0ay, unless you are trying to e1tinguish a live
fire. The %( and ,ire epartment 0or/ together to investigate possi-le arson.
Com0usti0le %torage
2y storing e1cess com-usti-le materials improperly, employees not only increase the
potential for having a fire, they increase the potential severity of a fire. To reduce the
ha.ards associated 0ith com-usti-le storage, follo0 these guidelines:
• !liminate e1cess com-usti-le materials such as paper and card-oard.
• o not store com-usti-le materials in hall0ays, stair0ells, or mechanical rooms.
• When stac/ing com-usti-le materials, leave at least 35 inches -et0een the top of
the stac/ and the ceiling.
Porta0le &P-
The Te1as &ailroad Commission regulates the sale and use of 9iquified (etroleum )as
<9()=, including -utane and propane. These regulations govern several types of 9();
po0ered equipment including the follo0ing:
• ,or/lifts
• ,loor -uffers
• Coo/ing and heating equipment
• 9a-oratory equipment
!1haust fumes may contain car-on mono1ide 0hich can present a health ha.ard. !1haust
can also create smo/e 0hich may activate a smo/e detector. Ta/e special precautions to
ensure adequate ventilation 0hen using these machines indoors.
2ecause 9() is e1tremely flamma-le, it is a potential fire ha.ard. o not store 9() near
heat, flame, or other ignition sources. In addition, do not leave porta-le 9() containers
larger than 3A o.. in a -uilding overnight. Instead, place porta-le 9() containers and
9() equipment outside in a storage area that is at least BD feet a0ay from other
-uildings, com-usti-le materials, road0ays, railroads, pipelines, utility lines, and the
property line. This storage area should prevent unauthori.ed entry and have a porta-le
fire e1tinguisher 0ithin BD feet. &efer to the Agriculture Safety chapter of this manual for
more information on 9().
Emergency Access and Egress
0mergency access and egress are critical during an emergency
situation such as a #re !uring a #re, timing and ,uick response are
essential to save lives and property 05ective emergency access
ensures that #re trucks can reach a building in time to extinguish the
#re $nobstructed emergency egress ensures that building occupants
can exit a building to safety
1hese de#nitions help clarify the concept of emergency access and
egress:
 Emergency Access5
8ertinent facilities and e,uipment remain available and
unobstructed at all times to ensure e5ective #re detection,
evacuation, suppression, and response

 Emergency Egress5
* continuous and unobstructed way to travel from any point in a
public building to a public way * means of egress may include
hori3ontal and vertical travel routes, including intervening rooms,
doors, hallways, corridors, passageways, balconies, ramps,
stairs, enclosures, lobbies, courts, and yards
IMPORTANT:
Each location within a uildin! must ha"e a
clear means of e!ress to the outside.
1he following sections o5er safety guidelines and procedures for
maintaining emergency access and egress
Corridors, %tair!ays, and Exits
*n exit corridor andAor stairway is a pedestrian pathway that allows
direct access to the outside of a building andAor allows access to a
building entrance and subse,uent pathways to the outside of a
building .ie, an exit corridor is the ,uickest, easiest, and most direct
pathway for leaving a building/ %ecause exit corridors or passageways
are the primary means of egress during an emergency, employees
must follow the safety guidelines outlined in this section
IMPORTANT:
%here must !e at least 99 inches clear "idth of
uno!structed, clutter)free space in all corridors, stair"ays,
and e$its.
,ollo0 these guidelines to promote safe evacuation in corridors, stair0ays, and e1its:
• Jeep all means of egress clean, clutter;free, and uno-structed.
• o not place ha.ardous materials or equipment in areas that are used for
evacuation.
• o not use corridors or stair0ays for storage or office#la-oratory operations.
Corridors may not -e used as an e1tension of the office or la-oratory.
+ire &anes
A fire lane is an area designated for emergency personnel only. It allo0s them to gain
access to -uilding and#or fire protection systems. Although most fire lanes on campus are
clearly mar/ed, not all fire lanes are easy to distinguish. Tarleton State %niversity has a
program in place to clearly mar/ all fire lanes.
IMPORTANT:
Do not par# in fire lanes or "ithin 4: feet of fire hydrants
and other fire e,uipment.
+ire #oors
A fire door serves as a -arrier to limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of
smo/e. %nless they are held open -y the automatic systems, fire doors should remain
closed at all times. o not tamper 0ith fire doors or -loc/ them 0ith equipment, potted
plants, furniture, etc.
,ire doors are normally located in stair0ells, corridors, and other areas required -y ,ire
Code. The door, door frame, loc/ing mechanism, and closure are rated -et0een B6
minutes and three hours. A fire door rating indicates ho0 long the door assem-ly can
0ithstand heat and a 0ater hose stream.
*lways keep #re doors closed 9f it is necessary to keep a #re door
open, have a special closure installed 1his closure will connect the #re
door to the building4s #re alarm system, and will automatically close
the door if the alarm system activates
IMPORTANT:
#now which doors are fre doors and keep
them closed to protect uildin! occupants and
e$it paths from fre and smoke. %e"er lock a
fre door with a non&appro"ed closure de"ice
such as a door stop, lock of wood, or potted
plant. For fre doors with appro"ed closure
de"ices, make sure that nothin! around the
door can impede the closure.
Never alter a #re door or assembly in any way Simple alterations such
as changing a lock or installing a window can lessen the #re rating of
the door
!oors to o+ces, laboratories, and classrooms help act as smoke
barriers regardless of their #re rating -eep these doors closed
whenever possible
REMEMBER:
' closed door is the est way to protect your
path to safety from the spread of smoke and
fre.
+ire #etection and Noti8cation
Tarleton State %niversity uses several types of fire detection and notification systems
including heat detectors, smo/e detectors, pull stations, and horns and lights. The
follo0ing sections discuss these components.
Heat and %moke #etectors
,ire detectors at Tarleton State %niversity are lin/ed to the %niversity !mergency
&eporting System. Once a -uilding alarm system is activated, the &eporting System alerts
the !mergency Operator 0ho initiates emergency response.
There are t0o types of fire detection devices used on the Tarleton State %niversity
campus: heat detectors and smo/e detectors. (lease note the location of the detectors in
your area and prevent damage and accidental activation.
 Heat Detectors!
+eat detectors respond to the convected energy in hot smo/e and fire gases <i.e.,
heat=. +eat detectors are normally in la-oratories, mechanical rooms, storage
areas, and areas that could produce high levels of dust, steam, or other air-orne
particles.

 Smo&e Detectors!
Smo/e detectors respond to the solid and liquid aerosols produced -y a fire <i.e.,
smo/e=. Since smo/e detectors cannot distinguish -et0een smo/e particles and
other particles such as steam, -uilding occupants must -e a0are of detector
locations and -e considerate 0hen 0or/ing around them. Smo/e detectors are
normally found in e1it corridors, office areas, assem-ly areas, and residence halls.
If your 0or/ produces steam, dust, or an environment that could damage or activate a
detector, protect the detector 0ith some type of covering <e.g., plastic -ag=. &emem-er to
remove the protective covering at the end of the day or as soon as your 0or/ is done.
Alarm %ystems5 Pull %tations
,ire alarm manual pull stations are installed to manually activate a -uilding@s alarms in
addition to the automaticsfire sensing devices. When pulled manually, a pull station
activates the fire alarm system and notifies %niversity personnel that an emergency
e1ists. (ull stations are located near e1it stair0ays and#or -uilding e1its.
If you smell smo/e or if you see smo/e or a fire, complete these steps:
3. (ull a manual pull station to evacuate the area.
B. If you are not in immediate danger, call 433.
E. If you are trained in fire fighting and it is reasona-ly safe to do so, attempt to
e1tinguish the fire.
Alarm %ystems5 Horns and &ights
!mergency horns#-ells and lights are located throughout %niversity -uildings 0ith fire
alarm systems. They are typically found near emergency pull stations. o not -loc/
emergency horns or lights. &eport damaged or defective horns and lights to the Safety
Office.
+ire %uppression
Tarleton State %niversity uses various types of fire suppression equipment including
porta-le fire e1tinguishers, sprin/lers, halon systems, car-on dio1ide systems, and fire
hose#standpipe systems. The follo0ing sections discuss each type of fire suppression
equipment.
+ire Extinguishers
,ires are classified according to three -asic categories. !ach type of fire requires special
treatment to control and e1tinguish it. Therefore, all fire e1tinguishers are clearly mar/ed
to indicate the fire classes for 0hich they are designed.
,ires are classified as indicated -elo0.
 Class A!
,ires involving ordinary com-usti-les such as 0ood, te1tiles, paper, ru--er, cloth,
and trash. The e1tinguishing agent for a Class A fire must -e cool. Water and
multi;purpose dry chemical fire e1tinguishers are ideal for use on these types of
fires.

 Class -!
,ires involving flamma-le or com-usti-le liquids or gases such as solvents,
gasoline, paint, lacquer, and oil. The e1tinguishing agent for a Class 2 fire must
remove o1ygen or stop the chemical reaction. Car-on dio1ide, multi;purpose dry
chemical and halon fire e1tinguishers are ideal for use on these types of fires.

 Class C!
,ire involving energi.ed electrical equipment or appliances. The e1tinguishing
agent for a Class C fire must -e a nonconducting agent. Car-on dio1ide, multi;
purpose dry chemical, and halon fire e1tinguishers are ideal for use on these types
of fires. *ever use a water ire e.tinguisher on a Class C ire.
There are numerous types of fire e1tinguishersK ho0ever, most e1tinguishers contain
0ater, car-on dio1ide, or dry chemicals. The +alon agent is no longer availa-le for
purchase. +alon has -een determined to -e an o.one;depleting agent. +alon fire
e1tinguishers are safe to use, ho0ever, if used, the e1tinguisher 0ill -e replaced -y a
different type.
,nspection/ +esting/ 0 #echarging
The Safety Office inspects and tests fire e1tinguishers regularly. The Safety Office
also recharges e1tinguishers. <,ire e1tinguishers must -e recharged after every
use.= To move a fire e1tinguisher to a ne0 location or report a missing or
damaged fire e1tinguisher, call the Safety Office.

1sing 2ire $.tinguishers
7ost fire e1tinguishers provide operating instructions on their la-elK ho0ever, the
time to learn a-out fire e1tinguishers is not during a fire. The sooner you /no0
ho0 to use a fire e1tinguisher, the -etter prepared you are.
NOTE:
Porta!le fire e$tinguishers are located throughout all
University facilities. %hey are mounted in readily
accessi!le locations such as hall"ays, near e$it doors, and
areas containing fire hazards. ;a#e sure that fire
e$tinguishers are accessi!le and securely mounted.
The Safety Office provides fire e1tinguisher classes. When using a fire e1tinguisher to
fight or control a fire, aim the spray at the -ase of the fire. 2ecause most e1tinguishers
only 0or/ for a short time, employ a s0eeping motion and 0or/ quic/ly to control the
fire.
IMPORTANT:
Do not attempt to fight a fire unless it is small and
controlla!le. Use good <udgment to determine your
capa!ility to fight a fire. /hen fighting a fire, al"ays
maintain an escape route. -ever allo" a fire to !loc# your
egress.
"ortable $.tinguishers and Automobile
All state;o0ned vehicles in e1cess of B6 horsepo0er must contain a BG
pound A;2;C class fire e1tinguisher.
%prinkler %ystems
1he purpose of water sprinkler systems is to help extinguish and
minimi3e the spread of #res Sprinklers are normally activated only by
heat 1hey are not connected to emergency pull stations 1o ensure
that sprinklers are e5ective in the event of a #re, maintain at least >=
inches of clearance between any e,uipment or storage items and the
ceiling .*nything close to the ceiling can defeat the sprinkler system/
Never hang anything from a sprinkler head *rrange work areas to
facilitate sprinklers and allow even water distribution
Halon and Car0on #ioxide %ystems
Special work areas, such as computer rooms and chemical storage
rooms, may contain speciali3ed #re suppression systems (or example,
many computer rooms contain halon systems and many chemical
storage rooms contain carbon dioxide systems *reas with special #re
suppression systems will be clearly identi#ed on the room door 8eople
who work in these areas must do the following:
• -eep all room doors and windows closed
• -now how the #re suppression system works .ie, operation,
abort switch, etc/
• !o not tamper with ceiling tiles
9f you have any ,uestions about supplemental #re suppression
systems, please contact the Safety O+ce
+ire Hoses and %tandpipe %ystems
(ire hose cabinets are located in several buildings near the exit
stairwells and in corridors 0mployees who use a #re hose to extinguish
a #re should have received training to ensure proper usage and safety
.pen 'urning
Tarleton State %niversity must comply 0ith T"&CC regulations for open -urning.
,ollo0 these steps -efore -urning anything outside:
3. Only natural ground cover may -e -urned. It is not accepta-le to store items for
-urning at a later date. Open -urning must only -e used as a 0ay to remove -rush
and other accepta-le items if no alternate removal can -e used.
B. Smo/e and flying de-ris may not cross or contact pu-lic thoroughfares.
E. &esponsi-le persons must -e present during the entire -urn, -e equipped 0ith
adequate fire fighting agents, and -e a-le to quic/ly communicate 0ith
emergency response personnel.
(lease contact the Safety Office for additional information on open -urning and
alternative methods of disposal and for o-taining permits.
Holiday #ecorations
+oliday decorations are often fire ha.ards. ,ollo0 these guidelines to improve fire safety
during the holidays:
• o not use live Christmas trees in %niversity -uildings unless they are treated
0ith fire retardants. %se an artificial tree that is fire resistant.
• o not place holiday decorations 0here they may -loc/ emergency egress <e.g.,
stair0ays, corridors, near doors, etc.=
• Only use decorations that are flame retardant.
• (ractice good house/eeping -y minimi.ing paper and other com-usti-le
decorations.
• Avoid using e1tension cords. If you must use an e1tension cord, use a heavy
gauge cord and place it in plain vie0. 7a/e sure the cord does not pose a tripping
ha.ard.
• %se ,7 or %9 la-eled electrical decorations.
• o not light candles or use other decorations 0ith open flames.
• Turn off lights 0hen the room is unoccupied.
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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Elements o* Emergency Preparedness
*n emergency consists of any situation that poses immediate and
extreme danger to people, property, or process %ecause most
emergencies are sudden, severe, and unexpected, it is extremely
important to be prepared for a possible emergency 8roper preparation
helps ensure safety and survival * written emergency response or
action plan is the best preparation tool for handling emergencies
1o ensure e5ectiveness, review and update emergency response plans
regularly )ake sure that each response plan includes the following
information:
• 8rocedure for sounding alarms
• 0mergency escape procedures and escape route assignments
• 0mergency procedures for employees with special needs
• "escue and medical assistance re,uirements
• Names of persons or departments to contact for more
information on handling emergencies
• )ethod for reporting emergencies
• 8rovision for training emergency procedures
Handling Emergencies$>??
"egardless of the type of emergency in progress, you may call G>>
andAor sound the #re alarm immediately "emain calm, notify others,
and respond to the emergency as appropriate !o not attempt to
handle any emergency situation in which you do not have training
.eg, #re #ghting, #rst aid, spill response, etc/
IMPORTANT:
Call and(or pull the fre alarm whene"er a
situation poses immediate dan!er to people,
property, or process.
When you call to report an emergency, provide the operator 0ith the follo0ing
information:
• 2uilding or area name
• 9ocation
• 2rief description of the emergency
• 'our name and phone num-er
!7!&)!"C' T!9!(+O"! CA99 &!S(O"S!
The 433 operator 0ill contact the Tarleton State %niversity (olice, ,ire epartment, or
!mergency 7edical Service. The appropriate service group 0ill respond -ased upon the
operator@s notification. Tarleton State %niversity (olice and the ,ire epartment
personnel are trained in Cardiopulmonary &esuscitation <C(&= and ,irst Aid and can
provide sta-ili.ation until !7S arrives.
ST%!"T +!A9T+ C!"T!&
The purpose of the Student +ealth Center is to promote, protect, and maintain the health
of enrolled students so that they may accomplish their academic goal.
The Student +ealth Center does not have life support equipment and is not licensed as an
!mergency &oom and, therefore, cannot handle emergencies or life;threatening
situations.
+ealth care is "OT provided for faculty and staff.
The follo0ing sections offer specific safety guidelines and procedures for handling
different types of emergencies.
'om0 6hreats
2om- threats and other threats of violence are serious emergencies that require prompt
attention. Although -om- threats are rare, they are most li/ely to occur during final
e1ams. The follo0ing sections offer guidelines for handling -om- threats.
Ho! to Handle a 6hreatening Phone
Call
If you receive a -om- threat over the phone, remain calm and act courteous. If feasi-le,
notify another person to listen on another e1tension. Ta/e notes on the caller@s threat,
tone, voice characteristics, and -ac/ground noise. If the caller seems tal/ative, as/
questions such as the follo0ing:
• When 0ill the -om- go offP +o0 much time remainsP
• Where is the -om- locatedP
• What /ind of -om- is itP
• +o0 do you /no0 a-out this -om-P
• What is your nameP
• o you /no0 there are people in the -uilding 0ho could -e hurt or /illedP
IMPORTANT:
If you receive a treate!i!" #o!e ca$$% re&ai! ca$& a!'
ta(e !ote)* Try to fi!' out a) &uc a) #o))i+$e a+out te
ca$$er a!' treat*
The follo0ing form is an e1ample of sounds to note 0hile the caller is on the phone:
Caller4s (dentity

)ale

(emale

*pproximate *ge

,oice Characteristics

6oud 7oice

Soft 7oice

High 8itched 7oice

6ow 8itched 7oice

9ntoxicated

Accent

6ocal *ccent

(oreign *ccent

"ace

%peech

(ast Speech

Slow Speech

!istinct Speech

Slurred Speech

Nasal Speech

6isp Speech

Normal Speech

2anner

@alm

*ngry

"ational

9rrational

@oherent

9ncoherent

0motional

6aughing
&anguage$-rammar

0xcellent &rammar

&ood &rammar

(air &rammar

8oor &rammar

(oul &rammar

'ackground Noises

7oices in %ackground

)usic in %ackground

*nimals in %ackground

Street 1ra+c in %ackground
9ni"ersity Response to 'om0 6hreats
(2P.R6AN65
9mmediately after the call is terminated, obtain
a dial tone and call HG>> 1he HG>> @ontrol
@enter Operator will contact the %omb 1hreat
Search 1eam
1arleton regards all bomb threats as serious *fter noti#cation of a
bomb threat, the F1eamF will conduct the search and investigate the
incident 1he building .s/ may be evacuated dependent upon the
F1eam4sF evaluation
Handling %uspicious@&ooking (tems
9f you locate a suspicious-looking item, do not handle the item @lear
the area of personnel and notify the @ontrol @enter immediately
'om0 6hreat .0ser"ations
(or most bomb threats, the caller announces that a bomb is set to go
o5 at a certain time and then hangs up %ecause routine bomb threat
evacuations may spawn numerous hoax calls, consider the following:
• )ost intended explosions have no warning $sually, after the
bomb is detonated, a party claims credit and then explains why
the bomb was set
• 9n cases where an actual device is located, the caller usually
provides speci#c information for #nding the device before the
detonation time
• 'ith few exceptions, bomb threats on campus are hoaxes
designed to avoid or postpone an unpleasant task .eg, exam/
$niversity policy is to use restraint from evacuating buildings based on
the following:
• * bomb that is set to detonate at a certain time is either a timed
explosive device or a site-activated device %oth devices re,uire
considerable expertise to develop (urthermore, a site activated
device, such as a radio-controlled mechanism, must be activated
in close proximity of the bomb
• $nless a bomb contains a large amount of volatile explosive
.eg, @-D plastic/, damage will be limited to the immediate area
of the detonation
Emergency Po!er
Some -uildings on campus provide automatic emergency po0er during electrical outages.
The emergency po0er only supports essential life safety equipment such as elevators,
corridor lighting, fire alarms, and e1it lighting. Some ne0 -uildings have red emergency
po0er outlets for essential equipment and machinery. Contact the (hysical (lant to
determine if other emergency outlets are availa-le in your 0or/ area.
There are three types of emergency po0er sources:
• (orta-le generators
• 2uilding generators
• 2attery po0er pac/s
Contact (hysical ,acilities for more information on emergency po0er.
E"acuation Plans
A 0ritten plan for emergencies and fire drills is essential for each major %niversity
-uilding. !vacuation e1ercises are particularly important for student;residence facilities,
high;rise -uildings, patient treatment facilities, and daycare centers. Studies sho0 that
0hen occupants discuss, plan, implement, and practice evacuation plans, they are -etter
a-le to protect themselves and others.
#e"eloping a Plan
!ach department or -uilding manager is responsi-le for developing a comprehensive plan
for evacuations and fire drills. The -est 0ay to develop this plan is to form an
implementation committee 0ith mem-ers from each -uilding floor and each department.
The team should consider the follo0ing 0hen developing the plan:
• Contact the Safety Office for assistance in developing an evacuation plan for your
-uilding.
• 2uilding evacuation routes or maps should provide an accurate layout of the
-uilding and multiple e1it routes from any location. These plans must -e posted in
prominently traveled areas <e.g., hall0ays, stair0ells, dorm rooms, etc.=. %nusual
-uilding layouts require more evacuation maps to -e posted.
• Special attention must -e given to evacuation procedures for the physically
challenged. !ven if no /no0n -uilding occupants have special needs, the
evacuation plan must contain these provisions to ensure the safety of visitors or
others 0ith special needs.
• A preplanned meeting place for evacuated occupants should -e at least B66 feet
from the -uilding and clear of fire hydrants and access roads.
• Certain people on each floor <floor proctors= should -e responsi-le for the
follo0ing:

• !nsuring that persons on the floor are a0are of an emergency and the need
to evacuate.
• !nsuring that -uilding evacuation routes are clearly posted in prominently
traveled areas.
• !nsuring that ne0 employees are familiar 0ith evacuation and fire drill
procedures.
Conducting +ire #rills and E"acuations
1o ensure that building occupants are prepared for an emergency
evacuation, #re drills must be conducted every semester * safe and
orderly evacuation is more important than a ,uick evacuation
%efore conducting a practice #re drill, do the following:
3. Notify )aintenance at least one week in advance
B. Notify the Operator at the @ontrol @enter so they do not contact
the local #re department
E. @ontact the Safety O+ce one week in advance so they may
assist you with the drill
8ractice #re drills should proceed as follows:
3. (ire drills should involve all occupants 0veryone should leave the
building when the #re alarm sounds * person may be exempt
from a #re drill if it will cause undue hardship .eg, interrupt an
experiment/B however, exemptions are strongly discouraged
B. Occupants should close .not lock/ doors as they leave the work
area 9tems that re,uire security may be placed in a locking #le
cabinet or desk drawer on the way out
E. (loor proctors should check all rooms and close doors on their
way out
C. *ll building occupants should gather in the preplanned meeting
place
D. (loor proctors should take a Fhead countF to determine if all
occupants have left the building
A. $pon completion of the drill, the building proctor completes a
(ire !rill @hecklist and forwards it to the Safety O+ce .%ox 1-
<=C</
+irst Aid
(irst aid training is necessary to prevent and treat sudden illness or
accidental in2ury 1he primary ob2ective of #rst aid is to save lives 1his
ob2ective is achieved with the following:
• 8reventing heavy blood loss
• )aintaining breathing
• 8reventing further in2ury
• 8reventing shock
• &etting the victim to a physician or 0mergency )edical Service
.0)S/
8eople who provide #rst aid must remember the following:
• *void panic
• 9nspire con#dence
• !o only what is necessary until professional help is obtained
1he following sections provide general information for handling
common in2uries and illnesses
+irst Aid 7its
A -asic first aid /it should -e availa-le in each -uilding, department, and vehicle.
Suita-le contents for this /it include sterile -andages, tape, scissors, ice pac/s, plastic
gloves, and a mouth;to;mouth -reathing tu-e. Aspirin or other oral medications,
ointments or creams, eye drops, antiseptic solutions, or inhalants are not recommended in
first aid /its.
Inform employees of the location of first aid /its. Inventory supplies and restoc/ items, as
necessary.
(nitial +irst Aid
If you are the first one on the scene of a medical emergency, your first priority is to
remain calm. 'our action 0ill vary depending upon the nature of the situation, -ut the
follo0ing four rules apply to any medical emergency:
3. Assess the Situation:
• Can you safely approach the victimP If not, 0hat can you do to help 0ithout
threatening your o0n safetyP
• etermine 0hat is 0rong 0ith the victim.
B. Set (riorities:
• Is the victim consciousP
• +o0 serious is the emergencyP
• Can someone else call !7S, if necessaryP If no one else is availa-le, decide if it
is more important to administer first aid immediately or to call !7S and leave the
victim unattended.
NOTE:
-ever leave a victim in a life)threatening situation "ithout
first trying to help.
E. Chec/ the A2Cs <unconscious victims only=:
A. Airway
(lace the victim on his#her -ac/. (lace one hand on the forehead and one hand
under the chin and tilt the head -ac/.
NOTE:
-ever move a victim if you suspect !ac# or nec# in<ury.
Open the victim@s mouth and chec/ for o-structions. If the victim is unconscious and an
o-struction is visi-le, remove it 0ith your fingers.
-. -reathing
(lace your ear a-ove the victim@s mouth and loo/ at the chest. 9isten for -reathing
and loo/ for the rise and fall of the chest. If the victim is not -reathing, someone
formally trained in mouth;to;mouth -reathing should -egin resuscitation.

C. Circulation
%sing t0o fingers, gently feel for the carotid artery in the nec/ and chec/ the
pulse. To find the artery, place your fingers on the victim@s Adam@s apple and then
slide them do0n the side of the nec/ until you feel the groove -et0een the
0indpipe and nec/ muscles. If there is no pulse, someone formally trained in C(&
should -egin cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
C. Administer first aid and#or call !7S, as appropriate.
'leeding (External)
)ost bleeding in2uries are minorB however, heavy external bleeding can
cause death in three to #ve minutes
9n addition to the procedures for initial #rst aid, follow these steps for
external bleeding:
> $sing a sterile dressing, clean cloth, or other material, apply
pressure directly over the wound
IMPORTANT:
Direct contact with a "ictim)s lood may
e$pose you to "arious communicale diseases.
'lways wear plastic !lo"es when assistin! a
leedin! "ictim.
; 9f possible, elevate the bleeding area Otherwise, lay the victim :at,
and elevate the legs
C -eep the victim lying down
D 1reat the victim for shock, if necessary
? !o not release pressure or lift the bandage until you are sure the
bleeding has stopped
E Have someone call 0)S, if necessary
IMPORTANT:
Do not use a tourni*uet unless an arm or le!
has een amputated.
NOTE:
For deep chest wounds, use a hea"y dressin!
to keep air from passin! throu!h the sound.
For !apin! stomach wounds, use a damp
dressin!+ do not mo"e or try to replace
protrudin! or!ans.
'urns
Thermal and chemical -urns require immediate attention. In addition to the procedures
for initial first aid, follo0 these steps for thermal -urns:
,or first and second degree -urns:
3. Immerse the -urned area in cold 0ater or apply ice pac/s to the affected area.
B. Cover the -urned area 0ith a clean cloth.
E. Treat the victim for shoc/, if necessary.
C. o not apply -utter, oil, or cream to a -urn.
,or serious -urns <e.g., large area -urns and charred s/in=:
3. &emove clothing from the injured area. Cut around clothing that adheres to the
s/in.
B. (lace an approved -urn -lan/et or the cleanest availa-le cloth over the entire -urn
area.
E. Treat the victim for shoc/.
C. If the victim is conscious, provide nonalcoholic fluids.
D. Call !7S as soon as possi-le.
Cardio@Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
When a person stops -reathing, immediate assistance is necessary. If the person stops
-reathing due to cho/ing, follo0 the first aid instructions for cho/ing victims. If the
person stops -reathing due to a ha.ardous atmosphere, move the victim to fresh air
immediately.
IMPORTANT:
(l"ays "ear personal protective e,uipment "hen entering
hazardous atmospheres. Do not attempt a rescue "ithout
ade,uate protection or proper training.
NOTE:
Someone formally trained in PR should provide
assistance to victims "ho are not !reathing and victims
"ho do not have a pulse.
3. Try to arouse the victim.
B. (lace the victim on his -ac/. Open the victim@s air0ay -y placing one hand on the
forehead and one hand under the chin and tilting the head -ac/. Chec/ for any
o-structions in the mouth or throat.
E. 9oo/, listen, and feel for -reathing.
C. If the victim is not -reathing, pinch the victim@s nose closed and use a mouth;to;
mouth -reathing tu-e to give t0o slo0, deep -reaths.
D. Chec/ the carotid pulse and loo/, listen, and feel for -reathing. If a pulse is
present -ut the victim does not start -reathing, continue rescue -reathing as
follo0s:
• Adult: one -reath every five seconds
• Child: one -reath every four seconds
• Infant: one -reath every three seconds
If a pulse is not present, have someone formally trained in C(& -egin mouth;to;mouth
-reathing and chest compressions as follo0s:
• Adult: 3D compressions using heel of hand#one -reath
• Child: ,ive compressions using heel of hand#one -reath
• Infant: ,ive compressions using t0o fingers#one -reath
Continue this procedure until the victim starts -reathing or !7S arrives.
Chemical %plashes
Chemical splashes on the s/in require immediate attention. ,ollo0 these steps:
3. )o to emergency sho0er or sin/.
B. &emove contaminated clothing.
E. Wash area 0ith 0ater thoroughly for 3D minutes.
C. See/ medical attention.
Chocking
Cho/ing victims cannot spea/, -reath, or cough forcefully. ,ollo0 these steps for
conscious cho/ing victims:
3. As/ the victim if he is cho/ing. If the victim indicates yes, -egin the +eimlich
7aneuver, as outlined -elo0.
B. )et -ehind the victim and ma/e a fist 0ith one hand. )rasp your fist 0ith the
other hand and place your hands slightly a-ove the victim@s navel.
E. )ive quic/, up0ard thrusts -ac/0ards until the o-ject is e1pelled or the victim
loses consciousness.
IMPORTANT:
3or pregnant or o!ese victims, use a chest thrust. Place
your fist on the sternum, and thrust !ac#"ards repeatedly.
,ollo0 these steps for unconscious cho/ing victims:
3. Call !7S.
B. (lace the victim on his -ac/. Open the victim@s air0ay -y placing one hand on the
forehead and one hand under the chin and tilting the head -ac/. Chec/ for any
o-structions in the mouth or throat.
E. Attempt mouth;to;mouth rescue -reathing.
C. If the air0ay remains -loc/ed, place the heel of your hand slightly -elo0 the
victim@s ri-s. )ive si1 to ten a-dominal thrusts.

IMPORTANT:
3or pregnant or o!ese victims, use a chest thrust.
Place your fist on the sternum, and thrust
!ac#"ards repeatedly.
D. S0eep the mouth to remove any dislodged o-jects and attempt mouth;to;mouth
rescue -reathing again.
Continue this procedure until the o-ject is dislodged or the victim starts -reathing.
Eye (n1ury
If ha.ardous liquid, particles, or gas irritate a person@s eye, have the victim flush the eye
0ith 0ater for at least 3D minutes. %se an eye 0ash station, sin/, or 0ater fountain. See/
assistance from a physician, as necessary.
If a foreign o-ject <e.g., glass, pencil lead, etc.= is em-edded in the eye, place a plastic
cup or gau.e over the affected eye. This 0ill /eep the eye from moving and inflicting
further damage. See/ assistance from a physician immediately.
(nsect 'ites
Contact !7S or a physician 0henever someone suffers multiple stings <or suffers
adverse effects from a single sting= from 0asps, -ees, fire ants, or other stinging insects.
,or a single insect sting, remove the stinger -y scraping the s/in. o not use t0ee.ers or
your fingers to remove a stinger. &emoving a stinger in this manner may release more
venom.
(eople 0ho are e1tremely allergic to certain insect -ites should carry appropriate
medication and inform others of their allergy.
Poisoning
Since there are many poisons that react differently to various treatments, this section only
covers the most -asic first aid. If you suspect a victim has -een poisoned through
ingestion, inhalation, or s/in e1posure, try to determine 0hat the poisoning agent is.
Contact !7S or the (oison Control Center for specific first aid instructions.
%eizures
o not try to restrain sei.ure victims. &emove any o-jects that could harm the victim,
and 0ait for the sei.ure to end. Contact !7S if this is the victim@s first sei.ure, the
sei.ure is e1ceedingly violent, or lasts for a long time.
NOTE:
Do not place anything in a seizure victim=s mouth.
%hock
Shoc/ commonly accompanies severe injury or emotional upset. Symptoms of shoc/
include the follo0ing:
• Cold, clammy s/in
• (ale s/in tone
• Shallo0 -reathing
• Chills
,ollo0 these steps to assist shoc/ victims:
3. Call !7S.
B. Jeep the victim lying do0n.
E. 7aintain an open air0ay. If the victim vomits, turn the head side0ays and the
chin do0n0ard.
C. !levate the victim@s legs.
D. Jeep the victim 0arm.
A. &eassure the victim.
%nake 'ites
7ost sna/e -ites are not fatal. If a sna/e -ite occurs, follo0 these steps:
3. +ave the victim move as little as possi-le.
B. Apply a constricting -andage <not a tourniquet= -et0een the 0ound and the heart.
E. If possi-le, call !7S. In rural locations, transport the victim to the nearest
hospital immediately. If necessary and possi-le, carry the victim to transportation.
o not let the victim 0al/.
C. If you cannot o-tain medical attention:
• o not ma/e any incisions or suc/ out the poison.
• o not cool the -itten area.
• !very fifteen minutes, loosen the constricting -andage for a fe0
seconds and then reapply it.
%pill Response
Shops, la-s, and areas 0ith ha.ardous chemicals should have spill clean;up supplies on
hand. Call 433 and#or the Safety Office to report potential ha.ards from oil spills, fuel
spills, chemical spills and other spills.
See the Chemical Safety chapter for more information on chemical spill response
procedures. See the 2iological Safety chapter for more information pertaining to spills of
-iological materials.
eather Emergencies
Weather emergencies concerns for the Stephenville area primarily include high 0inds,
flash flooding, lightning, tornadoes and free.ing precipitation. In accordance 0ith
%niversity procedure, in the event that 0eather or other conditions are such that normal
campus operations could -e impeded, the (resident and C!O is responsi-le for
determining 0hether classes 0ill -e canceled and %niversity offices 0ill -e closed.
Should this occur at night, such information 0ill -e provided to the local -roadcast media
-y the (residents office, normally no later than A:CD a.m. The follo0ing sections provide
general guidelines for handling various 0eather emergencies.
Hea"y Rain$High inds
+eavy rain and high 0inds provide dangerous driving conditions. 7otorists should -e
a0are of local 0eather conditions and avoid roads that tend to flood in heavy rain.
IMPORTANT:
Do not drive in flooded areas or attempt to cross moving
"ater in an automo!ile. ;oving "ater can easily capsize a
car or truc# and dro"n the victim. (void cree#s, rivers,
ditches, and flooded roads during heavy rains. >eep
children from playing in these areas during inclement
"eather.
+igh 0inds can topple trees, outdoor equipment, and electrical lines. Avoid do0ned
po0er lines and notify the utility company of po0er outages. If an electrical line falls
across your car, do not move the car or try to get out. Stay 0here you are until help
arrives.
&ightning
9ightning is nature@s 0orst destroyer. A typical lightning -olt contains several hundred
million volts at E6,666 or more amperes.
• 9ightning need not stri/e a person directly to -e dangerous.
• 9ightning can crash do0n from virtually clear s/y.
• Stay a0ay from open doors or 0indo0s during an electrical storm.
• Avoid using the telephone or television set and /eep clear of all metal o-jects
such as pipes and electrical appliances during a storm.
• o not go outside.
If you find yourself caught in a storm a0ay from a protected -uilding:
• Avoid tree lines.
• Stay a0ay from unprotected storm shelters.
• Stay a0ay from flag poles, to0ers, and metal fences.
• o not 0ade, s0im, or go -oating in a thunderstorm.
• A closed automo-ile provides a protective metal shell.
• If caught in the open, stay lo0.
6ornadoes
Tornadoes produce violent 0inds that can damage homes, vehicles, people, and 0ildlife.
The primary dangers associated 0ith tornadoes are high 0inds and flying de-ris. Severe
thunderstorms and hail commonly precede a tornado. A dar/ funnel cloud or roaring
noise <li/e a train= is evidence of an actual tornado.
TO&"AO WATC+ ; <Conditions conducive to the formation of tornadoes=:
A. 2e sure all persons /no0 actions to ta/e if the situation changes to a tornado
0arning or a tornado funnel is sighted.
2. 2e sure that no physical restrictions e1ist that 0ould prevent free movement to
the nearest safe area. <9oc/ed doors, -loc/ed aisles, etc.= If in a frame or sheet
metal -uilding and conditions permit, move to a -ric/ or stone -uilding for added
protection.
C. epartmental personnel should monitor the radio or 0atch the s/y#0eather for
0orsening conditions.

TO&"AO WA&"I") ; <Tornado sighted in area: City !mergency Siren Will
Sound.=: See/ shelter immediately. 7ove to -asement or first floor of multistory
-uildings, or to the shelter areas in each -uilding. 2ecause of possi-le po0er
failures, it 0ould -e 0ise to avoid using an elevator. &emain clear of glass areas.
Inner hall0ays are normally safe. If una-le to move to a -uilding shelter, move to
the lo0est or most depressed ground area availa-le. &emain sheltered until radio
stations announce that severe 0eather conditions no longer e1ist.
inter eather
!ven though e1treme 0inter 0eather is uncommon in this area, people must still ta/e
special precautions to ensure safety. Wear appropriate clothing for local 0eather
conditions and /eep your vehicle in good 0or/ing order. If the roads -ecome slic/ 0ith
ice or sno0 use e1treme caution or avoid driving.
• Slippery streets increase stopping distance. rive slo0ly in 0inter 0eather.
• Choose shoes that provide the -est footing for the 0eather.
• Clear 0al/0ays and steps of sno0 and ice.
• %se handrails 0here availa-le.
• Clean sno0 and ice from all vehicle 0indo0s.
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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
Personal Protecti"e E3uipment #e8ned
(ersonal (rotective !quipment <((!= includes all clothing and 0or/ accessories designed
to protect employees from 0or/place ha.ards. (rotective equipment should not replace
engineering, administrative, or procedural controls for safety ;;; it should -e used in
conjunction 0ith these controls. !mployees must 0ear protective equipment as required
and 0hen instructed -y a supervisor.
IMPORTANT:
(l"ays remove protective clothing !efore leaving the "or#
area. Do not "ear PP. in pu!lic elevators, classrooms,
restrooms, !rea#rooms, etc.
Arm and Hand Protection
Arms and hands are vulnera-le to cuts, -urns, -ruises, electrical shoc/, chemical spills,
and amputation. The follo0ing forms of hand protection are availa-le for employees:
• isposa-le e1am gloves
• &u--er gloves
• "itrile gloves
• "eoprene gloves
• 9eather gloves
• "onas-estos heat;resistant gloves
• 7etal;mesh gloves for meat cutters
• Cotton gloves
Al0ays 0ear the appropriate hand and arm protection. ou-le your hand protection -y
0earing multiple gloves 0hen necessary <e.g., t0o pairs of disposa-le gloves for 0or/
involving -iological ha.ards=. ,or arm protection, 0ear a long;sleeved shirt, a la-oratory
coat, chemical;resistant sleeves, or gauntlet;length gloves.
,ollo0 these guidelines to ensure arm and hand safety:
• Inspect and test ne0 gloves for defects.
• Al0ays 0ash your hands -efore and after using gloves. Wash chemical;protective
gloves 0ith soap and 0ater -efore removing them.
• o not 0ear gloves near moving machineryK the gloves may -ecome caught.
• o not 0ear gloves 0ith metal parts near electrical equipment.
IMPORTANT:
&loves are easily contaminated. (void touching surfaces
such as telephones, door #no!s, etc. "hen "earing gloves.
'ody Protection
+a.ards that threaten the torso tend to threaten the entire -ody. A variety of protective
clothing, including la-oratory coats, long pants, ru--er aprons, coveralls, and disposa-le
-ody suits are availa-le for specific 0or/ conditions.
• &u--er, neoprene, and plastic clothing protect employees from most acids and
chemical splashes.
• 9a-oratory coats, coveralls, and disposa-le -ody suits protect employees and
everyday clothing from contamination.
• Welding aprons provide protection from spar/s.
9aunder reusa-le protective clothing separate from other clothing.
Ear and Hearing Protection
If you 0or/ in a high noise area, 0ear hearing protection. 7ost hearing protection
devices have an assigned rating that indicates the amount of protection provided.
epending on your level of e1posure, you may choose from the follo0ing devices:
• isposa-le earplugs
• &eusa-le earplugs
• +ead-and plugs
• Sealed earmuffs
!arplugs may -e -etter in hot, humid, or confined 0or/ areas. They may also -e -etter
for those 0ho 0ear other ((!, such as safety glasses or hats. !armuffs, on the other hand,
may -e -etter for employees 0ho move in and out of noisy areas, -ecause the muffs are
easier to remove. 2efore resorting to hearing protection, attempt to control noise levels
through engineering or operational changes.
To avoid contamination, follo0 these guidelines 0hen using earplugs:
• Wash your hands -efore inserting earplugs.
• &eplace disposa-le earplugs after each use.
• Clean reusa-le earplugs after each use.
&efer to the +earing Conservation (rogram in the )eneral Safety chapter or contact the
Safety Office for more information.
Eye and +ace Protection
!mployees must 0ear protection if ha.ards e1ist that could cause eye or face injury. !ye
and face protection should -e used in conjunction 0ith equipment guards, engineering
controls, and safe practices.
NOTE:
Safety glasses are re,uired in la!oratories.
Al0ays 0ear adequate eye and face protection 0hen performing tas/s such as grinding,
-uffing, 0elding, chipping, cutting, or pouring chemicals. Safety glasses 0ith side shields
provide protection against impact and splashes, -ut safety goggles provide protection
against impact, splashes, and ha.ardous atmospheres.
IMPORTANT:
Do not "ear contact lenses in the la!oratory or other areas
"here hazardous atmospheres may !e present. ontact
lenses do not provide eye protection and may reduce the
effectiveness of an emergency eye"ash.
• If you 0ear prescription glasses, 0ear goggles or other safety protection over the
glasses.
• Safety glasses 0ith side shields provide primary protection to eyes and are four
times as resistant as prescription glasses to impact injuries.
• )oggles protect against impacts, spar/s, chemical splashes, dust, and irritating
mist. Wear full goggles, not just safety glasses, 0hen 0or/ing 0ith chemicals.
• !yecup 0elding goggles 0ith filter lenses give protection from glare and spar/s.
• A 0elding helmet protects from flash-urn due to 0elding, soldering, or -ra.ing,
-ut does not provide primary eye protectionK safety glasses or goggles should -e
0orn 0ith the helmet.
• A face shield is designed to protect the face from some splashes or projectiles, -ut
does not eliminate e1posure to vapors. A face shield should -e 0orn 0ith goggles
or safety glasses.
• Sunglasses are useful to prevent eyestrain from glare and to minimi.e ultraviolet
light e1posure.
Eye ash %tations
0ye wash stations provide emergency eye treatment for people
exposed to ha3ardous materials 1here are three common types of eye
wash stations:
 Eye ash 'o!ls5
1hese stations are *NS9 approved and are usually attached to
emergency showers 1hey provide a continuous water :ow and are
recommended for laboratories and other locations with ha3ardous
materials

 #rench Hoses at %inks5
1hese stations provide a continuous water :ow, but they are easily
contaminated with sediment, and they do not allow the free use of
both handsB the use of both hands may be necessary !rench hoses are
not *NS9 approved, and they are not preferred for laboratory usage 9f
you have a drench hose in your work area, :ush the hose regularly to
remove any sediment

 Plastic Eye ash 'ottles5
1hese stations do not provide a continuous water :ow, and they do not
allow free use of both hands 1hey are not approved in laboratories or
other ha3ardous areas 8lastic eye wash bottles are ideal, however, for
portable eye wash needs and short-term operations where continuous
:owing water is not immediately available 9f you have a plastic eye
wash bottle in your work area, make sure it is #lled with sterile water
or changed weekly
IMPORTANT:
If the eyes are e$posed to ha,ardous materials
or irritatin! elements, immediately -ush the
eyes with water for at least ./ minutes.
Contact a physician, if necessary.
+oot Protection
To protect feet and legs from falling o-jects, moving machinery, sharp o-jects, hot
materials, chemicals, or slippery surfaces, employees should 0ear closed;toed shoes,
-oots, footguards, leggings, or safety shoes as appropriate. Safety shoes are designed to
protect people from the most common causes of foot injuries;;;impact, compression, and
puncture. Special foot protection is also availa-le for protection against static electricity,
spar/s, live electricity, corrosive materials, and slipping.
NOTE:
3oot protection is particularly important in la!oratory,
agricultural, and construction "or#.
IMPORTANT:
Do not "ear sandals or open)toed shoes in la!oratories,
shops, or other potentially hazardous areas.
Head Protection
Accidents that cause head injuries are difficult to anticipate or control. If ha.ards e1ist
that could cause head injury, employees should try to eliminate the ha.ards, -ut they
should also 0ear head protection.
Safety hats protect the head from impact, penetration, and electrical shoc/. +ead
protection is necessary if you 0or/ 0here there is a ris/ of injury from moving, falling, or
flying o-jects or if you 0or/ near high;voltage equipment.
+ard hats should -e 0ater resistant, flame resistant, and adjusta-le. Wear one of the
follo0ing hard hats as appropriate for your 0or/ situation:
• Class A ; )eneral service, limited voltage protection
• Class 2 ; %tility service, high;voltage protectionClass C ; Special service, no
voltage protection
(ollow these guidelines for head safety:
• @heck the shell and suspension of your headwear for damage
before each use 6ook for cracks, dents, gouges, chalky
appearance, and torn or broken suspension threads !iscard
damaged hats or replace broken parts with replacements from
the original manufacturer
• !iscard any hat that has been struck or dropped from a great
height, even if there is no apparent damage
• !o not wear a hard hat backwards, unless this is necessary to
accommodate other protective e,uipment .eg, welders face
shield/
• !o not paint the plastic shell of a hard hat or alter it in any way
Respiratory Protection Program
1arleton State $niversity uses engineering, administrative, and
procedural controls to protect people from dangerous atmospheres,
including harmful mists, smoke, vapors, and oxygen-de#cient
atmospheres 'hen these controls cannot provide ade,uate protection
against harmful atmospheres, respiratory protection is necessary
1he Safety O+ce can provide training and #t testing for personnel who
need respiratory protection * copy of the "espiratory 8rotective
8rogram is available from the Safety O+ce
9seage Re3uirements
8eople who use respiratory protection must be physically capable of
using and wearing the e,uipment 9n some cases, a physician must
determine if an employee is healthy enough to use a respirator 9n
addition, all people re,uired to wear respirators must be formally
trained and instructed in proper e,uipment usage 1his training should
include instruction on common respiratory ha3ards and symptoms of
exposure
6ypes o* Respirators
It is important to select the right respirator for the jo-. There are many types of respirators
and each type protects against different ha.ards. &espirators are classified according to
these factors:
• Air source: supplied air or am-ient air
• (ressure: positive or negative
• 7as/ configuration
The follo0ing lists information on various respirators:
• Supply Air &espirators:

• Self;Contained 2reathing Apparatus <SC2As= use supplied air from a
cylinder carried -y the user.
• Airline respirators require a compressor or cylinder<s= and an airline hose
to the user.
• Supply air respirators are necessary in o1ygen deficient atmospheres.
• When using a supply air respirator, have a -ac/;up person 0ith a SC2A
standing near-y.
• Air;(urifying &espirators:

• Air purifying respirators use am-ient air and cannot -e used in o1ygen
deficient atmospheres, I9+ atmospheres, or areas 0here the identity or
concentration of a contaminant is un/no0n.
• Am-ient air is purified -y a chemical cartridge, canister, or particulate
filter.

 %sers must select the proper cartridge#canister#filter.
 Cartridges and canisters must -e replaced if the user notices an
odor, taste, or throat irritation. Wet, damaged, and grossly
contaminated cartridges#canisters must also -e replaced.
• (o0ered air;purifying respirators use filtered am-ient air in a positive;
pressure continuous flo0 mode.
• isposa-le or single;use respirators are made of cloth or paper and are
primarily used for nuisance dusts.
• All filters <+!(A, dust pads, and disposa-le respirators= must -e replaced
if any of the follo0ing conditions occur:

 2reathing -ecomes difficult.
 ,ilter or dust respirator -ecomes damaged, visi-ly dirty, 0et, or
contaminated on the inside.
• 7as/ Types:

• ,ullface mas/ covers the face from the hairline to -elo0 the chin. This
type of mas/ provides eye protection.
• +alf;face mas/ covers the face from a-ove the nose to -elo0 the chin.
The follo0ing ta-le highlights various respirators and their a-ility to protect against
different ha.ards:
RE%P(RA6.R 6:PE 8"O10@19ON NO 8"O10@19ON
,ilter &espirator
<+!(A cartridge=
 ust
 ,umes
 Smo/e
 7ist
 7icroorganisms
 As-estos
 Chemical vapors or gases
 O1ygen deficiency
Chemical Cartridge#Canister
&espirators
 Certain gases and vapors
up to a particular
concentration
 O1ygen deficiency
 (articulate matter
Air Supply &espirator epending on type:
 (articulates
 Chemical vapors and gases
 O1ygen deficiency

NOTE:
Only use respirators that are
approved !y -0OS?*;S?(
or the Department of
0nterior)'ureau of ;ines.
%electing a Respirator
'hen selecting a respirator, consider the following factors:
• 1ype of ha3ards
• 9dentity and concentration of the contaminant
• 1ime constraints
• *ctivity of the person wearing the respirator
• !egree of protection provided by each type of respirator
(ollow these guidelines for selecting the correct respirator:
• $se a H08* #ltered respirator:

• 9f the contaminant is a biological ha3ard
• $se a supply air respirator:

• 9f the identity andAor concentration of the contaminant is
not known
• 9f an oxygen de#cient atmosphere is known or suspected
• 9f an 9!6H condition exists
• $se a S@%* instead of an airline respirator:

• 9f an airline respirator could be damaged by work or
conditions within the area
IMPORTANT:
0espirators are a"ailale in di1erent si,es.
'lways ft test a respirator to select the correct
si,e.
9sing Respirators %a*ely
,ollo0 these guidelines to ensure safe respirator usage:
• 7a/e sure you have the correct respirator for the jo-.
• Inspect respirators -efore each use.
• Shave facial hair and put in dentures <if applica-le= to ensure a good seal 0ith the
facemas/.
• If you are 0or/ing in a dangerous area, have another person present.
• &emem-er that contaminants can harm the -ody as 0ell as the respiratory tractK
0ear protective clothing as appropriate.
• &eturn to fresh air and remove the respirator in the follo0ing conditions:

• 'ou feel nauseous, di..y, or ill.
• 'ou have difficulty -reathing.
• The canister, cartridge, or filter needs to -e replaced.
• (roperly clean and store all reusa-le respirators.
In addition to the guidelines a-ove, follo0 these instructions for respirator usage:
• o not use a respirator unless you have -een formally trained and have fit tested
the respirator you plan on using.
• o not mista/enly use a filter respirator for protection against gases or vapors.
• "ever remove a respirator in a contaminated atmosphere.
• o not tal/ unnecessarily or che0 gum 0hile 0earing a respirator.
• o not 0ear contact lenses 0hile 0earing a respirator.
• o not allo0 your hair or eyeglass frames to interfere 0ith the face mas/ seal.
%ho!ers
0mergency safety showers provide emergency treatment for people
exposed to harmful materials 9f a person is contaminated with harmful
chemicals, the emergency shower provides an instant deluge to
protect the person from further exposure 1arleton State $niversity
uses *NS9 standards for shower locations, travel distance, testing, and
function
• 0mergency showers must be located to ensure accessibility
within >< seconds
• 1ravel distance between a shower and potential ha3ards may not
exceed ><< feet
IMPORTANT:
Emer!ency showers are for emer!encies only.
If a chemical spill occurs in"ol"in! personal
e$posure, pull the cord and remo"e a1ected
clothin! immediately. Stay in the shower for at
least ./ minutes.
1he Safety O+ce tests emergency showers annually
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LABORATORY SAFETY
-eneral %a*ety -uidelines
2ecause la-oratories involve numerous chemicals, procedures, and operations, they
require e1tensive safety precautions. 9a-oratory safety involves chemical safety, fire
safety, electrical safety, and other safety issues. ,ollo0 the guidelines in this chapter for
general la-oratory safety, -ut refer to other chapters in this manual for specific
information.
This section discusses the follo0ing:
• Common la-oratory ha.ards
• Controlling la-oratory ris/s
• Safe la-oratory practices
• !quipment safety
Common &a0oratory Hazards
!1amples of common ha.ards include the follo0ing:
 Chemical ha.ards:
To1ins, corrosives, flamma-les, and reactives
 2iological ha.ards:
7icro-es, animals, plants, and genetically modified agents
 &adiation ha.ards:
Ioni.ing and nonioni.ing radiation
 (hysical ha.ards:
+eating devices, noise, projectiles, fire, cold, etc.
 !lectrical ha.ards:
,ire and shoc/
 7echanical ha.ards:
7oving machinery
 Air-orne ha.ardous materials:
>apors, dust, etc.
 !rgonomic factors:
Standing, repetitive motion
Controlling &a0oratory Risks
Administrative and engineering controls can help minimi.e la-oratory ris/s. +o0ever,
safety conscious 0or/ers using good la-oratory practices are the most important
component of la-oratory safety. The follo0ing factors are important for safe la-oratory
operations:
• Adequate facilities:

• (roper ventilation
• "onslip surfaces
• +and 0ashing facilities
• Availa-le and appropriate safety equipment:

• (ersonal protective equipment
• 9a-oratory equipment
• Safety devices on la-oratory equipment, machines, devices, and
instruments
• Appropriate emergency equipment:

• ,ire e1tinguishers
• !mergency sho0ers
• !ye 0ash stations
• Appropriate procedures:

• )ood house/eeping
• (ersonal hygiene <e.g., 0ashing hands=
• Jno0ledgea-le 0or/ers:

• !1perienced
• Trained
All la-oratory doors should -e la-eled 0ith emergency contact information. If an incident
occurs during off;hours, respondents need to /no0 the names and telephone num-ers of
the people responsi-le for la-oratory operations. Jeep this information current and
accurate. !mergency contact la-els are availa-le from the Safety Office.
(roperly trained and e1perienced 0or/ers have the greatest a-ility to control la-oratory
ris/s. 2y using good la-oratory practices, 0or/ers can minimi.e ha.ards, e1posure,
contamination, and 0or/place accidents.
%a*e &a0oratory Practices
To ensure la-oratory safety, follo0 safe la-oratory practices, including the follo0ing:
• Jno0 a-out the chemicals and ha.ards associated 0ith your la-oratory.
• Jno0 0hat to do in different emergency situations.
• Jno0 ho0 to read and interpret 7SS.
• Wear personal protective equipment, as appropriate.
• ,ollo0 safe practices for 0or/ing 0ith chemicals. <&efer to the Chemical safety
chapter for more information.=
• Ice from a la-oratory ice machine should not -e used for human consumption.
• edicate micro0ave ovens and other heating devices e1clusively for food or for
la-oratory operations. !nsure that ovens are clearly la-eled to indicate their
function.
• o not 0ear contact lenses around chemicals, fumes, dust particles, or other
ha.ardous materials.
• (rotect unattended operations from utility failures and other potential pro-lems
that could lead to overheating or other ha.ardous events.
• Avoid 0or/ing alone in a la-oratory.
• Avoid producing aerosols.
• %se e1treme care 0hen 0or/ing 0ith needles, -lades, and glass.
• o not eat, drin/, or use to-acco products in the la-oratory.
• o not mouth pipet.
• Clean contaminated equipment and spills immediately. Avoid contaminating
equipment 0ith mercury. Clean mercury spills immediately. <Chronic e1posure to
mercury can result from a fe0 drops left uncleaned.=
• o not allo0 children in the la-oratory. <It is a violation of state la0 for a child to
-e unattended in a place that presents a ris/ of harm.=
• Jeep la-oratory doors closed.
• econtaminate all affected equipment.
• Avoid using dry ice in enclosed areas. <ry ice can produce elevated car-on
dio1ide levels.=
• ry ice mi1ed 0ith isopropanol or ethanol may cause frost -ite.
• +all0ays, corridors, and e1it 0ays must -e /ept clear. o not locate <even
temporarily= la-oratory equipment or supplies in these areas.
IMPORTANT:
-ever underestimate the hazards associated "ith a
la!oratory. 0f you are unsure a!out "hat you are doing, get
assistance. Do not use unfamiliar chemicals, e,uipment, or
procedures alone.
E3uipment %a*ety
There are four fundamental elements of equipment safety: <3= use the correct equipment,
<B= /no0 ho0 to operate the equipment, <E= inspect the equipment, and <C= use the
equipment properly.
%se equipment for its intended purpose only. o not modify or adapt equipment 0ithout
guidance from the equipment manufacturer or the Safety Office. o not defeat, remove,
or override equipment safety devices.
Wor/ing in a la-oratory requires various types of equipment. To ensure equipment safety,
you must -e familiar 0ith the follo0ing:
• !quipment operation
• Applica-le safeguards
• 7aintenance requirements
Al0ays inspect equipment -efore using it. !nsure that the equipment meets the follo0ing
requirements:
• Controls and safeguards are adequate and functional.
• 9ocation is safe <and 0ell;ventilated, if necessary=.
• !quipment 0or/s properly.
IMPORTANT:
Disconnect any e,uipment that is unsafe or does not "or#
properly, and remove it from service. -otify other users of
the pro!lem.
&efer to other sections in this manual for specific information on operating la-oratory
equipment, such as fume hoods, heating devices, vacuums, etc.
Aerosol Production
The term *aerosol* refers to the physical state of liquid or solid particles suspended in the
air. Aerosols containing infectious agents and ha.ardous materials can pose a serious ris/
-ecause:
• Small aerosol particles can readily penetrate and remain deep in the respiratory
tract, if inhaled.
• Aerosols may remain suspended in the air for long periods of time.
• Aerosol particles can easily contaminate equipment, ventilation systems, and
human s/in.
The follo0ing equipment may produce aerosols:
• Centrifuge
• 2lender
• Sha/er
• 7agnetic stirrer
• Sonicator
• (ipet
• >orte1 mi1er
• Syringe and needle
• >acuum;sealed ampoule
• )rinder, mortar, and pestle
• Test tu-es and culture tu-es
• +eated inoculating loop
• Separator funnel
,ollo0 these guidelines to eliminate or reduce the ha.ards associated 0ith aerosols:
• Conduct procedures that may produce aerosols in a -iological safety ca-inet or a
chemical fume hood.
• Jeep tu-es stoppered 0hen vorte1ing or centrifuging.
• Allo0 aerosols to settle for one to five minutes -efore opening a centrifuge,
-lender, or tu-e.
• (lace a cloth soa/ed 0ith disinfectant over the 0or/ surface to /ill any
-ioha.ardous agents.
• Slo0ly reconstitute or dilute the contents of an ampoule.
• When com-ining liquids, discharge the secondary material do0n the side of the
container or as close
CHEMICAL SAFETY
-eneral %a*ety -uidelines
Almost everyone 0or/s 0ith or around chemicals and chemical products every day.
7any of these materials have properties that ma/e them ha.ardous: they can create
physical <fire, e1plosion= and#or health ha.ards <to1icity, chemical -urns=. +o0ever, there
are many 0ays to 0or/ 0ith chemicals 0hich can -oth reduce the pro-a-ility of an
accident to a negligi-le level and reduce the consequences to minimum levels should an
accident occur. &is/ minimi.ation depends on safe practices, appropriate engineering
controls for chemical containment, the proper use of personal protective equipment, the
use of the least quantity of material necessary, and su-stitution of a less ha.ardous
chemical for the more ha.ardous one. 2efore -eginning an operation, as/ *What 0ould
happen if...P* The ans0er to this question requires an understanding of the ha.ards
associated 0ith the chemicals, equipment and procedures involved. The ha.ardous
properties of the material and intended use 0ill dictate the precautions to -e ta/en.
Another important distinction is the difference -et0een ha.ard and ris/. The t0o terms
are sometimes used as synonyms. In fact, ha.ard is a much more comple1 concept
-ecause it includes conditions of use. The ha.ard presented -y a chemical has t0o
components: <3= its inherent capacity to do harm -y virtue of its to1icity, flamma-ility,
e1plosiveness, corrosiveness, etc.K and <B= the ease 0ith 0hich the chemical can come
into contact 0ith a person or other o-ject of concern. The t0o components together
determine ris/ <the li/elihood or pro-a-ility that a chemical 0ill cause harm=. Thus, an
e1tremely to1ic chemical such as strychnine cannot cause poisoning if it is in a sealed
container and does not contact the handler. In contrast, a chemical that is not highly to1ic
can -e lethal if a large amount is ingested.
Chemical safety is inherently lin/ed to other safety issues including la-oratory
procedures, personal protective equipment, electrical safety, fire safety, and ha.ardous
0aste disposal. &efer to other chapters in this manual for more information on these
topics.
3nowledge 4 Common Sense 4 Caution 5 Chemical Saety
"ot all chemicals are considered as ha.ardous. !1amples of nonha.ardous chemicals
include -uffers, sugars, starches, agar, and naturally occurring amino acids.
The follo0ing sections provide general guidelines for chemical safety.
Chemical Saety Guidelines
Al0ays follo0 these guidelines 0hen 0or/ing 0ith chemicals:
• Assume that any unfamiliar chemical is ha.ardous.
• Jno0 all the ha.ards of the chemicals 0ith 0hich you 0or/. ,or e1ample,
perchloric acid is a corrosive, an o1idi.er, and a reactive. 2en.ene is an irritant
that is also flamma-le, to1ic, and carcinogenic.
• Consider any mi1ture to -e at least as ha.ardous as its most ha.ardous
component.
• "ever use any su-stance that is not properly la-eled.
• ,ollo0 all chemical safety instructions precisely.
• 7inimi.e your e1posure to any chemical, regardless of its ha.ard rating.
• %se personal protective equipment, as appropriate.
• %se common sense at all times.
The five prudent practices of chemical safety sum up these safety guidelines:
3. Treat all chemicals as if they 0ere ha.ardous.
B. 7inimi.e your e1posure to any chemical.
E. Avoid repeated e1posure to any chemical.
C. "ever underestimate the potential ha.ard of any chemical or com-ination of
chemicals.
D. Assume that a mi1ture or reaction product is more ha.ardous than any component
or reactant.
Material Saety Data Sheets
2efore using any chemical, read the container la-el and the appropriate 7aterial Safety
ata Sheets <7SSs=. Container la-els and 7SSs are good sources of information for
chemical safety. They provide the follo0ing information:
• +a.ardous ingredients
• !1posure limits
• (hysical and chemical characteristics, including the follo0ing:
; 2oiling point
; >apor pressure
• (hysical ha.ards, including the follo0ing:
; ,lamma-ility
; !1plosives
; &eactivity
• +ealth ha.ards, including chemicals that are:
; To1ic
; Carcinogens
; Irritants
• ,irst;aid procedures
• (roper lea/, spill, and disposal techniques
• (roper storage and handling procedures
• Other special provisions
Sae Handling Guidelines
!mployees should treat all chemicals and equipment 0ith caution and respect.
When 0or/ing 0ith chemicals, remem-er to do the follo0ing:
• &emove and use only the amount of chemicals needed for the immediate jo- at
hand.
• (roperly seal, la-el, and store chemicals in appropriate containers. Jeep the
containers clearly mar/ed and in a 0ell;ventilated area.
• Chec/ stored chemicals for deterioration and -ro/en containers.
• 9earn ho0 to dispose of chemicals safely and legally. ,ollo0 Tarleton State
%niversity 0aste disposal requirements.
• Clean up spills and lea/s immediately.
• Jno0 0hat to do in an emergency.
9i/e0ise, 0hen 0or/ing 0ith chemicals, remem-er the follo0ing:
• o not store chemicals near heat or sunlight or near su-stances 0hich might
initiate a dangerous reaction.
• o not transport unprotected chemicals -et0een the 0or/ area and other areas.
%se a tray, rac/, cart or ru--er carrier. Al0ays use a secondary container 0hen
transporting ha.ardous or highly odorous chemicals on an elevator.
• o not pour ha.ardous chemicals do0n the sin/.
• o not put fello0 0or/ers or yourself in danger.
Hygiene and Chemical %a*ety
&ood personal hygiene will help minimi3e exposure to ha3ardous
chemicals
'hen working with chemicals, follow these guidelines:
• 'ash hands fre,uently and before leaving the laboratory *lso,
wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying
makeup
• "emove contaminated clothing immediately !o not use the
clothing again until it has been properly decontaminated
• (ollow any special precautions for the chemicals in use
9n addition follow these special precautions:
• !o not eat, drink, smoke, or apply makeup around chemicals
• !o not wear contact lenses near chemicals, especially corrosives
or volatile solvents
• !o not keep food or food containers anywhere near chemicals
• !o not use laboratory e,uipment to serve or store food or drinks
• !o not sni5 or taste chemicals
Ha%ard Communication "rogram
Tarleton State %niversity has a 0ritten program <Tarleton State %niversity +a.ard
Communication (rogram= that complies 0ith OS+A standards and the Te1as +a.ard
Communication Act for ha.ardous chemicals. This program is availa-le from the Safety
Office. It requires the follo0ing:
• !mployee training <including recognition of signs of e1posure=
• 9a-eling procedures
• 7SSs for chemicals at each 0or/place
• Instructions on ho0 to read and interpret 7SSs
• Chemical inventory reporting procedures
• &ecord/eeping requirements
• !mergency response procedures
&efer to the Tarleton State %niversity +a.ard Communication (rogram and other sections
in this manual for detailed information on these topics.
An integral part of ha.ard communication is ha.ard identification. !veryone 0ho 0or/s
0ith ha.ardous chemicals should /no0 ho0 to read and interpret ha.ard information.
Signs, li/e the ",(A diamond, alert employees to the /no0n ha.ards in a particular
location.
1he following is a detailed explanation of the N(8* ha3ard classi#cation
codes:
HAZARDOUS WASTE
DISPOSAL
Ha%ardous 6aste and +arleton State 1niversity
+a.ardous 0aste disposal is governed -y the !(A and the T"&CC through State and
,ederal regulations. The purpose of environmentally sound disposal methods is to
prevent harm to the 0ater, land, and air.
Tarleton State %niversity complies 0ith ha.ardous 0aste disposal regulations -y means
of the +a.ardous Waste 7anagement (rogram and Tarleton State %niversity *+a.ardous
Waste isposal 7anual*. This program is availa-le from the Safety Office.
Permits and Re3uirements
Tarleton State %niversity is a *Conditionally !1empt Small )enerator* of ha.ardous
0aste. Appropriate permits from T"&CC and the !(A have -een acquired and are on file.
The TA7%S Safety Office 0ill assist any department or System (art in determining its
ha.ardous 0aste disposal needs.
Penalties o* Noncompliance
"oncompliance 0ith any ha.ardous 0aste regulation may result in su-stantial fines and
penalties for the %niversity. In addition, individual generators may -e personally lia-le.
)enerators may -e cited or fined for numerous types of violations. >iolations range from
improperly la-eling a 0aste container to intentionally disposing of ha.ardous 0aste
incorrectly.
Role o* the %a*ety ./ce
The Safety Office administers the +a.ardous Waste 7anagement (rogram at Tarleton
State %niversity. Compliance 0ith this program is very demanding;;;it requires full
cooperation -y all campus entities. The main focus of this program is chemical 0aste
management. The program does not include procedures for the management of
radioactive, infectious, -iological, or nonha.ardous 0aste.
The Safety Office assists in collection, transportation, and storing of ha.ardous 0aste
until it is shipped for final disposal. The Office also maintains permanent records of all
disposed 0aste. Contact the Safety Office for more information on ha.ardous 0aste
disposal.
#e8nitions
Central Accumulation Area
Area<s= designated -y the Safety Office to -e used for the storage of ha.ardous
0astes prior to shipment to permitted disposal facilities.

Disposal
The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, or placing of any solid 0aste
or ha.ardous 0aste <0hether containeri.ed or uncontaineri.ed= into or on any land
or 0ater so that such solid 0aste or any constituent thereof may enter the
environment or -e emitted into the air or discharged into any 0ater, including
ground 0aters.

Generator
Any person, -y site, 0ho produces municipal ha.ardous 0aste or industrial solid
0asteK any person 0ho possesses municipal ha.ardous 0aste or industrial solid
0aste to -e shipped to any other personK or any person 0hose act first causes solid
0aste to -ecome su-ject to regulation.

Ha%ardous 6aste
Any solid 0aste material listed or identified in Title C6 Code of ,ederal
&egulations, (art BA3, Su-part C or or e1hi-iting the characteristics of
ignita-ility, corrosivity, reactivity, or !.(. to1icity also defined in (art BA3. Ta-les
containing the listing and characteristics of ha.ardous 0astes are sho0n at the end
of this chapter.

Mi.ed 6aste
A radioactive 0aste that is also a ha.ardous 0aste.

Satellite Accumulation Area
An area, system, or structure for temporary accumulation of ha.ardous 0aste
prior to transport to the central accumulation area.

Solid 6aste
Any gar-age, refuse, sludge from a 0aste treatment plant, 0ater treatment plant,
or air pollution control facility or other discarded material. Solid 0aste can -e
solid, liquid, semi;solid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial,
municipal, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community
and institutional activities.

6aste
Any useless and valueless material that is to -e discarded.
6ypes o* Hazardous aste
An item is considered 0aste 0hen the o0ner determines that the material is no longer
useful and needs to -e discarded. An item is considered to -e ha.ardous 0aste if it meets
one or more of the follo0ing characteristics:
• A chemical component is listed on one of the Chemical ta-les included at the -ac/
of this chapter.
• 7i1ture contains a listed ha.ardous 0aste and a nonha.ardous 0aste.
• 7aterial meets the definition of one of the follo0ing:

• Ignita-ility <flashpoint SA6°C or supports com-ustion=
• &eactivity <e.g., 0ater reactives, cyanides, e1plosives, unsta-le chemicals=
• Corrosivity <ph SC or T36=
• !( to1icity <e.g., pesticides, heavy metals, poisons=
• 7aterial is not e1cluded from regulations.
Individual departments are responsi-le for properly identifying the ha.ardous 0aste they
generate and for follo0ing %niversity disposal procedures. &efer to the Chemical ta-les
section in this chapter for list of regulated ha.ardous chemicals.
Containers, 6ags, and Collection
8roper containment, tagging, collection and disposal are essential to
the success of the Ha3ardous 'aste 8rogram 1he following sections
discuss these areas
+illing Containers
Ha3ardous waste collection containers must be in good condition, must
not leak, and must be compatible with their ha3ardous contents .eg,
do not use metal containers for corrosive waste or plastic containers
for organic solvents/ *ll containers must have suitable screw caps or
other secure means of closure 'hen large waste containers .greater
than >< gallons total volume/ are warranted, contact the Safety O+ce
for assistance
9f you are reusing a container to accumulate waste, destroy the original
product label 08* regulations re,uire that waste containers be labelled
with the accumulation start date, the identity of the contents, and the
words FHa3ardous 'asteF $se a new label to identify the ha3ardous
waste, do not use the disposal tag for this purpose
IMPORTANT:
%e"er o"erfll ha,ardous waste containers.
E$pansion and e$cess wei!ht can lead to spills,
e$plosion, and e$tensi"e en"ironmental
e$posure.
Ha3ardous waste containers for li,uids are generally rated by volume
capacity *llow extra room in li,uid containers to allow for contents
expansion
• !o not #ll 2ugs and bottles past the shoulder of the container 1he
shoulder of the container is the place where the container slopes
in towards the neck
• (ill closed head cans .? gallons or less/ to leave approximately
two inches of space between the li,uid level and the top of the
container
• (ill closed head drums .6arger than ? gallons/ to leave
approximately four inches of space
+a.ardous 0aste containers for solids are generally rated -y their 0eight capacity and
volume capacity. Ta/e care not to e1ceed the 0eight capacity of a solid container. Weight
is generally not a pro-lem for jars and open head cans <D gallons or less=, -ut it can -e a
pro-lem for open head drums <larger than D gallons=. epending on 0eight requirement,
you may fill containers for solids 0ithin t0o inches of the closure.
IMPORTANT:
>eep all "aste collection containers closed e$cept "hen
adding or removing material.
Completing 6ags
When a container is ready for disposal, complete a 0aste tag <availa-le from the Safety
Office= and attach it to the container. A 0aste disposal tag must -e attached to each 0aste
container -efore disposal.
,ollo0 these guidelines for completing ha.ardous 0aste tags:
• Completely fill out -oth the upper and lo0er sections of the tag. <This information
is essential for record /eeping.=

• The *&!I%!STO&* is the person in charge of the la-.
• %se full chemical names or common names. Chemical formulas or
a--reviations are not accepta-le.
• 9ist all chemical components in the 0aste container, including 0ater.
9ong lists may -e continued on the -ac/ of the tag.
• Indicate the percent concentration of potentially e1plosive materials such
as picric acid and nitro compounds.
• (lace additional ha.ard information in &!7A&JS.
• Attach the tag to a string 0hich encircles the container. &u--er -ands, tape, and
0ire are not accepta-le.
After completing the tag, attach the top part of the tag to the container and mail the
-ottom part of the tag to the Safety Office at 2o1 T;65E6.
Collection and #isposal
After receiving a properly completed 0aste disposal tag, the Safety Office 0ill arrange
for disposal.
Containers 0ith improper caps, lea/s, outside contamination, or improper la-eling 0ill
not -e pic/ed up until these pro-lems have -een corrected.
Improper disposal methods for ha.ardous chemical 0aste include the follo0ing:
• isposal do0n the drain.
• Intentional evaporation in a fume hood.
• isposal in the regular trash.
#isposing o* Empty Containers
What do I do 0ith empty chemical containersP +o0 do I get rid of themP Can they -e
placed in the trash dumpsterP These are questions frequently as/ed -y Tarleton State
%niversity personnel. The ans0er is fairly simple -ut very important.
!(A regulations stipulate that empty containers must meet the follo0ing requirements:
• Containers must not contain free liquid or solid residue.
• Containers must -e triple rinsed.
• (roduct la-els must -e defaced or removed.
• Container lids or caps must -e removed.
(unch holes in the -ottom of metal containers and plastic jugs -efore disposing of them
in the regular trash. It is not necessary to -rea/ empty glass containers.
IMPORTANT:
ontainers that do meet the re,uirements mentioned here
must !e treated as hazardous "aste.
2inimization and %u0stitution
The cost of commercial 0aste disposal continues to rise and the amount of 0aste
generated continues to increase. Tarleton State %niversity cannot control disposal costs,
-ut it can reduce the amount of 0aste generated. The follo0ing sections discuss ho0 to
minimi.e 0aste sources and 0aste products.
aste %ource Reduction 6echni3ues
%se the follo0ing techniques to reduce 0aste sources:
"urchasing and ,nventory Control
 %se computeri.ed trac/ing systems to manage purchasing and control inventory.
 7aintain current inventory records to prevent overstoc/ing and to monitor the
shelf life of remaining chemicals.
 evelop a campus;0ide chemical e1change net0or/ to promote chemical
sharing and avoid redundant purchases.
 "egotiate 0ith suppliers to gain volume discounts, fle1i-le delivery schedules,
and delivery of fe0er small;si.ed containers 0ithout cost penalties.
 (urchase quantities for immediate use only. o not order quantities to o-tain a
special unit cost savings.
 O-tain compressed gases from vendors 0ho accept return of empty or partially
full cylinders.
 Include 0aste generation as a criteria in equipment selection.
 &otate chemical stoc/s to use chemicals -efore their shelf;life e1pires.

Chemical 1sage
 %se la- procedures that assure the integrity of chemical quality.
 &educe spills and 0aste -y pre;0eighing chemicals for undergraduate use.
 &equire proper la-eling of all secondary containers. &eplace all deteriorating
la-els on primary and secondary containers.
 Su-stitute less ha.ardous chemicals 0henever possi-le <e.g., -iodegrada-le
scintillation coc/tails instead of 1ylene or toluene;-ased coc/tails=.
 7inimi.e the use of heavy metals <e.g., silver, chromium, mercury, -arium,
cadmium, and lead=.
 Su-stitute alcohol or electronic thermal monitors for mercury thermometers.
 %se *"o;Chromi1*, detergents, or en.ymatic cleaners to clean la-oratory
glass0are.
 7inimi.e solvent 0aste -y recycling or su-stitution.
aste 2inimization 6echni3ues
,ollo0 these techniques to reduce ha.ardous 0aste:
• !sta-lish a ,aculty Tas/ ,orce to revie0 0aste streams and recommend 0aste
minimi.ation procedures.
• o not mi1 different types of 0aste.

• o not put non;ha.ardous 0aste, such as a mi1ture of 0ater, sodium
-icar-onate, and acetic acid, into a 0aste container of ha.ardous 0aste.
• o not com-ine inorganic heavy metal 0aste 0ith organic solvents 0aste.
• Segregate halogenated 0aste solvents from non;halogenated 0aste
solvents.
• Segregate 0aste streams -y storing them in separate 0aste containers. Store 0aste
containers separate from reagent containers -eing used to avoid accidental
contamination.
• econtaminate empty containers to ma/e them non;ha.ardous.
• "eutrali.e or dilute acids and -ases to ma/e them non;ha.ardous and suita-le for
drain disposal.
• When possi-le, redesign e1perimental protocols so that harmful -yproducts are
deto1ified or reduced.
• &ecycle chemicals via purification.
• 7a/e la- employees accounta-le for 0aste 0hen la-s are decommissioned.
%egregation
Segregated waste is safer and easier to dispose of than nonsegregated
waste )ixed waste, for example, must be handled as both radioactive
waste and ha3ardous waste
0ach employee who generates waste is personally responsible for the
following:
• 0nsuring that ha3ardous wastes are accumulated in safe,
transportable containers
• 0nsuring that ha3ardous wastes are stored properly to prevent
possible exposure
9n addition to the guidelines for waste minimi3ation and substitution,
follow these guidelines for waste segregation:
• Segregate waste into the following groups:

• Halogenated solvents
• Non-halogenated solvents
• *cids
• %ases
• Heavy metals
• 8oisons
• "eactives
• !o not mix non-ha3ardous waste, such as water, with ha3ardous
waste
• !o not combine inorganic heavy metal waste with organic
solvent waste in ha3ardous waste containers
• !ouble-bag dry materials contaminated with chemicals .paper,
rags, towels, gloves, or kim wipes, etc/ in heavy-duty plastic
bags #o not use 0iohazard 0ags; !ispose of these items in
the same manner as ha3ardous waste
• 0ncapsulate sharps .eg, needles, ra3or blades, etc/ then place
them in trash dumpsters
%pecial Concerns
!mployees 0ho generate ha.ardous 0aste must maintain and control their ha.ardous
0aste accumulation areas. Special concerns for ha.ardous 0aste include the follo0ing:
• %nneeded chemicals that are to -e discarded must -e handled and managed as
ha.ardous 0aste.
• epartments 0ill -e charged for un/no0n chemical 0aste analysis to determine
proper disposal method.
• )as cylinders are e1tremely difficult to discard. They should -e returned to the
manufacturer or distri-utor 0henever possi-le. Cylinders that cannot -e returned
should -e tagged as ha.ardous 0aste as soon as possi-le.
• (hotographic chemicals containing silver may not -e placed in the sanitary se0er.
They must -e disposed of as ha.ardous 0aste.
NOTE:
Some developing e,uipment has a filter to capture silver
!efore the photographic effluent enters the drain. Please
notify the Safety Office if you have this type of e,uipment.
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HAZARDOUS WASTE
DISPOSAL
Ha%ardous 6aste and +arleton State 1niversity
+a.ardous 0aste disposal is governed -y the !(A and the T"&CC through State and
,ederal regulations. The purpose of environmentally sound disposal methods is to
prevent harm to the 0ater, land, and air.
Tarleton State %niversity complies 0ith ha.ardous 0aste disposal regulations -y means
of the +a.ardous Waste 7anagement (rogram and Tarleton State %niversity *+a.ardous
Waste isposal 7anual*. This program is availa-le from the Safety Office.
Permits and Re3uirements
Tarleton State %niversity is a *Conditionally !1empt Small )enerator* of ha.ardous
0aste. Appropriate permits from T"&CC and the !(A have -een acquired and are on file.
The TA7%S Safety Office 0ill assist any department or System (art in determining its
ha.ardous 0aste disposal needs.
Penalties o* Noncompliance
"oncompliance 0ith any ha.ardous 0aste regulation may result in su-stantial fines and
penalties for the %niversity. In addition, individual generators may -e personally lia-le.
)enerators may -e cited or fined for numerous types of violations. >iolations range from
improperly la-eling a 0aste container to intentionally disposing of ha.ardous 0aste
incorrectly.
Role o* the %a*ety ./ce
The Safety Office administers the +a.ardous Waste 7anagement (rogram at Tarleton
State %niversity. Compliance 0ith this program is very demanding;;;it requires full
cooperation -y all campus entities. The main focus of this program is chemical 0aste
management. The program does not include procedures for the management of
radioactive, infectious, -iological, or nonha.ardous 0aste.
The Safety Office assists in collection, transportation, and storing of ha.ardous 0aste
until it is shipped for final disposal. The Office also maintains permanent records of all
disposed 0aste. Contact the Safety Office for more information on ha.ardous 0aste
disposal.
#e8nitions
Central Accumulation Area
Area<s= designated -y the Safety Office to -e used for the storage of ha.ardous
0astes prior to shipment to permitted disposal facilities.

Disposal
The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, or placing of any solid 0aste
or ha.ardous 0aste <0hether containeri.ed or uncontaineri.ed= into or on any land
or 0ater so that such solid 0aste or any constituent thereof may enter the
environment or -e emitted into the air or discharged into any 0ater, including
ground 0aters.

Generator
Any person, -y site, 0ho produces municipal ha.ardous 0aste or industrial solid
0asteK any person 0ho possesses municipal ha.ardous 0aste or industrial solid
0aste to -e shipped to any other personK or any person 0hose act first causes solid
0aste to -ecome su-ject to regulation.

Ha%ardous 6aste
Any solid 0aste material listed or identified in Title C6 Code of ,ederal
&egulations, (art BA3, Su-part C or or e1hi-iting the characteristics of
ignita-ility, corrosivity, reactivity, or !.(. to1icity also defined in (art BA3. Ta-les
containing the listing and characteristics of ha.ardous 0astes are sho0n at the end
of this chapter.

Mi.ed 6aste
A radioactive 0aste that is also a ha.ardous 0aste.

Satellite Accumulation Area
An area, system, or structure for temporary accumulation of ha.ardous 0aste
prior to transport to the central accumulation area.

Solid 6aste
Any gar-age, refuse, sludge from a 0aste treatment plant, 0ater treatment plant,
or air pollution control facility or other discarded material. Solid 0aste can -e
solid, liquid, semi;solid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial,
municipal, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community
and institutional activities.

6aste
Any useless and valueless material that is to -e discarded.
6ypes o* Hazardous aste
An item is considered 0aste 0hen the o0ner determines that the material is no longer
useful and needs to -e discarded. An item is considered to -e ha.ardous 0aste if it meets
one or more of the follo0ing characteristics:
• A chemical component is listed on one of the Chemical ta-les included at the -ac/
of this chapter.
• 7i1ture contains a listed ha.ardous 0aste and a nonha.ardous 0aste.
• 7aterial meets the definition of one of the follo0ing:

• Ignita-ility <flashpoint SA6°C or supports com-ustion=
• &eactivity <e.g., 0ater reactives, cyanides, e1plosives, unsta-le chemicals=
• Corrosivity <ph SC or T36=
• !( to1icity <e.g., pesticides, heavy metals, poisons=
• 7aterial is not e1cluded from regulations.
Individual departments are responsi-le for properly identifying the ha.ardous 0aste they
generate and for follo0ing %niversity disposal procedures. &efer to the Chemical ta-les
section in this chapter for list of regulated ha.ardous chemicals.
Containers, 6ags, and Collection
8roper containment, tagging, collection and disposal are essential to
the success of the Ha3ardous 'aste 8rogram 1he following sections
discuss these areas
+illing Containers
Ha3ardous waste collection containers must be in good condition, must
not leak, and must be compatible with their ha3ardous contents .eg,
do not use metal containers for corrosive waste or plastic containers
for organic solvents/ *ll containers must have suitable screw caps or
other secure means of closure 'hen large waste containers .greater
than >< gallons total volume/ are warranted, contact the Safety O+ce
for assistance
9f you are reusing a container to accumulate waste, destroy the original
product label 08* regulations re,uire that waste containers be labelled
with the accumulation start date, the identity of the contents, and the
words FHa3ardous 'asteF $se a new label to identify the ha3ardous
waste, do not use the disposal tag for this purpose
IMPORTANT:
%e"er o"erfll ha,ardous waste containers.
E$pansion and e$cess wei!ht can lead to spills,
e$plosion, and e$tensi"e en"ironmental
e$posure.
Ha3ardous waste containers for li,uids are generally rated by volume
capacity *llow extra room in li,uid containers to allow for contents
expansion
• !o not #ll 2ugs and bottles past the shoulder of the container 1he
shoulder of the container is the place where the container slopes
in towards the neck
• (ill closed head cans .? gallons or less/ to leave approximately
two inches of space between the li,uid level and the top of the
container
• (ill closed head drums .6arger than ? gallons/ to leave
approximately four inches of space
+a.ardous 0aste containers for solids are generally rated -y their 0eight capacity and
volume capacity. Ta/e care not to e1ceed the 0eight capacity of a solid container. Weight
is generally not a pro-lem for jars and open head cans <D gallons or less=, -ut it can -e a
pro-lem for open head drums <larger than D gallons=. epending on 0eight requirement,
you may fill containers for solids 0ithin t0o inches of the closure.
IMPORTANT:
>eep all "aste collection containers closed e$cept "hen
adding or removing material.
Completing 6ags
When a container is ready for disposal, complete a 0aste tag <availa-le from the Safety
Office= and attach it to the container. A 0aste disposal tag must -e attached to each 0aste
container -efore disposal.
,ollo0 these guidelines for completing ha.ardous 0aste tags:
• Completely fill out -oth the upper and lo0er sections of the tag. <This information
is essential for record /eeping.=

• The *&!I%!STO&* is the person in charge of the la-.
• %se full chemical names or common names. Chemical formulas or
a--reviations are not accepta-le.
• 9ist all chemical components in the 0aste container, including 0ater.
9ong lists may -e continued on the -ac/ of the tag.
• Indicate the percent concentration of potentially e1plosive materials such
as picric acid and nitro compounds.
• (lace additional ha.ard information in &!7A&JS.
• Attach the tag to a string 0hich encircles the container. &u--er -ands, tape, and
0ire are not accepta-le.
After completing the tag, attach the top part of the tag to the container and mail the
-ottom part of the tag to the Safety Office at 2o1 T;65E6.
Collection and #isposal
After receiving a properly completed 0aste disposal tag, the Safety Office 0ill arrange
for disposal.
Containers 0ith improper caps, lea/s, outside contamination, or improper la-eling 0ill
not -e pic/ed up until these pro-lems have -een corrected.
Improper disposal methods for ha.ardous chemical 0aste include the follo0ing:
• isposal do0n the drain.
• Intentional evaporation in a fume hood.
• isposal in the regular trash.
#isposing o* Empty Containers
What do I do 0ith empty chemical containersP +o0 do I get rid of themP Can they -e
placed in the trash dumpsterP These are questions frequently as/ed -y Tarleton State
%niversity personnel. The ans0er is fairly simple -ut very important.
!(A regulations stipulate that empty containers must meet the follo0ing requirements:
• Containers must not contain free liquid or solid residue.
• Containers must -e triple rinsed.
• (roduct la-els must -e defaced or removed.
• Container lids or caps must -e removed.
(unch holes in the -ottom of metal containers and plastic jugs -efore disposing of them
in the regular trash. It is not necessary to -rea/ empty glass containers.
IMPORTANT:
ontainers that do meet the re,uirements mentioned here
must !e treated as hazardous "aste.
2inimization and %u0stitution
The cost of commercial 0aste disposal continues to rise and the amount of 0aste
generated continues to increase. Tarleton State %niversity cannot control disposal costs,
-ut it can reduce the amount of 0aste generated. The follo0ing sections discuss ho0 to
minimi.e 0aste sources and 0aste products.
aste %ource Reduction 6echni3ues
%se the follo0ing techniques to reduce 0aste sources:
"urchasing and ,nventory Control
 %se computeri.ed trac/ing systems to manage purchasing and control inventory.
 7aintain current inventory records to prevent overstoc/ing and to monitor the
shelf life of remaining chemicals.
 evelop a campus;0ide chemical e1change net0or/ to promote chemical
sharing and avoid redundant purchases.
 "egotiate 0ith suppliers to gain volume discounts, fle1i-le delivery schedules,
and delivery of fe0er small;si.ed containers 0ithout cost penalties.
 (urchase quantities for immediate use only. o not order quantities to o-tain a
special unit cost savings.
 O-tain compressed gases from vendors 0ho accept return of empty or partially
full cylinders.
 Include 0aste generation as a criteria in equipment selection.
 &otate chemical stoc/s to use chemicals -efore their shelf;life e1pires.

Chemical 1sage
 %se la- procedures that assure the integrity of chemical quality.
 &educe spills and 0aste -y pre;0eighing chemicals for undergraduate use.
 &equire proper la-eling of all secondary containers. &eplace all deteriorating
la-els on primary and secondary containers.
 Su-stitute less ha.ardous chemicals 0henever possi-le <e.g., -iodegrada-le
scintillation coc/tails instead of 1ylene or toluene;-ased coc/tails=.
 7inimi.e the use of heavy metals <e.g., silver, chromium, mercury, -arium,
cadmium, and lead=.
 Su-stitute alcohol or electronic thermal monitors for mercury thermometers.
 %se *"o;Chromi1*, detergents, or en.ymatic cleaners to clean la-oratory
glass0are.
 7inimi.e solvent 0aste -y recycling or su-stitution.
aste 2inimization 6echni3ues
,ollo0 these techniques to reduce ha.ardous 0aste:
• !sta-lish a ,aculty Tas/ ,orce to revie0 0aste streams and recommend 0aste
minimi.ation procedures.
• o not mi1 different types of 0aste.

• o not put non;ha.ardous 0aste, such as a mi1ture of 0ater, sodium
-icar-onate, and acetic acid, into a 0aste container of ha.ardous 0aste.
• o not com-ine inorganic heavy metal 0aste 0ith organic solvents 0aste.
• Segregate halogenated 0aste solvents from non;halogenated 0aste
solvents.
• Segregate 0aste streams -y storing them in separate 0aste containers. Store 0aste
containers separate from reagent containers -eing used to avoid accidental
contamination.
• econtaminate empty containers to ma/e them non;ha.ardous.
• "eutrali.e or dilute acids and -ases to ma/e them non;ha.ardous and suita-le for
drain disposal.
• When possi-le, redesign e1perimental protocols so that harmful -yproducts are
deto1ified or reduced.
• &ecycle chemicals via purification.
• 7a/e la- employees accounta-le for 0aste 0hen la-s are decommissioned.
%egregation
Segregated waste is safer and easier to dispose of than nonsegregated
waste )ixed waste, for example, must be handled as both radioactive
waste and ha3ardous waste
0ach employee who generates waste is personally responsible for the
following:
• 0nsuring that ha3ardous wastes are accumulated in safe,
transportable containers
• 0nsuring that ha3ardous wastes are stored properly to prevent
possible exposure
9n addition to the guidelines for waste minimi3ation and substitution,
follow these guidelines for waste segregation:
• Segregate waste into the following groups:

• Halogenated solvents
• Non-halogenated solvents
• *cids
• %ases
• Heavy metals
• 8oisons
• "eactives
• !o not mix non-ha3ardous waste, such as water, with ha3ardous
waste
• !o not combine inorganic heavy metal waste with organic
solvent waste in ha3ardous waste containers
• !ouble-bag dry materials contaminated with chemicals .paper,
rags, towels, gloves, or kim wipes, etc/ in heavy-duty plastic
bags #o not use 0iohazard 0ags; !ispose of these items in
the same manner as ha3ardous waste
• 0ncapsulate sharps .eg, needles, ra3or blades, etc/ then place
them in trash dumpsters
%pecial Concerns
!mployees 0ho generate ha.ardous 0aste must maintain and control their ha.ardous
0aste accumulation areas. Special concerns for ha.ardous 0aste include the follo0ing:
• %nneeded chemicals that are to -e discarded must -e handled and managed as
ha.ardous 0aste.
• epartments 0ill -e charged for un/no0n chemical 0aste analysis to determine
proper disposal method.
• )as cylinders are e1tremely difficult to discard. They should -e returned to the
manufacturer or distri-utor 0henever possi-le. Cylinders that cannot -e returned
should -e tagged as ha.ardous 0aste as soon as possi-le.
• (hotographic chemicals containing silver may not -e placed in the sanitary se0er.
They must -e disposed of as ha.ardous 0aste.
NOTE:
Some developing e,uipment has a filter to capture silver
!efore the photographic effluent enters the drain. Please
notify the Safety Office if you have this type of e,uipment.
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Safety Manual Home | Policies Home | Tarleton Home

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