International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !

"#
PUMA 560 TRAJECTORY CONTROL USING NSGA-
II TECHNIQUE WITH REAL VALUED OPERATORS
$a%i%a &'N(A)'*
"
, Samira C$+,*A-,I

"
.epartment of Computer Science, ,ni/ersit0 of Science and )echnolog0 of +ran1
Mohammed &oudiaf1 (,S)+1M&) +ran, Algeria

.epartment of Computer Science, ,ni/ersit0 of Science and )echnolog0 of +ran1
Mohammed &oudiaf1 (,S)+1M&) +ran, Algeria
ABSTRACT
In the industry, Multi-objectives problems are a big defy and they are also hard to be conquered by
conventional methods. For this reason, heuristic algorithms become an executable choice when facing this
ind of problems. !he main objective of this wor is to investigate the use of the "on-dominated #orting
$enetic %lgorithm II &"#$%-II' technique using the real valued recombination and the real valued
mutation in the tuning of the computed torque controller gains of a ()M%*+, arm manipulator. !he
"#$%-II algorithm with real valued operators searches for the controller gains so that the six Integral of
the %bsolute -rrors &I%-' in joint space are minimi.ed. !he implemented model under M%!/%0 allows an
optimi.ation of the (roportional-1erivative computed torque controller parameters while the cost functions
and time are simultaneously minimi.ed.. Moreover, experimental results also show that the real valued
recombination and the real valued mutation operators can improve the performance of "#$%-II effectively.
KEYWORDS DEFY
(1 2omputed !orque 2ontrol, Intelligent 2ontrol, ()M%*+, arm manipulator, Multi-objective
3ptimi.ation, "#$%-II algorithm, real valued recombination.
1. INTRODUCTION
Multi1+%2ecti/e +ptimi3ation (M++) has %een used for a long time in control engineering. )he
main target in designing controller is to impro/e the s0stem4s performance %0 o%taining a good
tra2ector0 5ith minimum error 678 698.
)he computed tor:ue controller proposed first in 6"!8 is a ro%ust nonlinear controller named the
computed1tor:ue method in 6"", "8. )his techni:ue is ;no5n to perform 5ell 5hen the ro%ot arm
parameters are ;no5n fairl0 accuratel0. <ortunatel0, the d0namic formulation of the =,MA 97!
manipulator is 5ell ;no5n.
In 6">8, 5e ha/e used NS?A1II algorithm introduced in 6"#8 to determine the =. computed
tor:ue controller parameters for the =,MA97! s0stem using the S&@ crosso/er and pol0nomial
mutation. )he results ha/e sho5n good performance.
In this paper, 5e change the recom%ination operators t0pe of the original NS?A1II algorithm
(5hich are the S&@ crosso/er and the pol0nomial mutation) to sho5 5hether it decrease the
.+I A "!."#B"!Ci2scmc.!"#.33! "3
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
:ualit0 of the approach or not. In this research, 5e de/elop an artificial intelligence (AI)
automatic computed tor:ue gains tuning scheme using NS?A1II ('litist Non1dominated Sorting
?enetic Algorithm II) algorithm 5ith real /alued recom%ination and real /alued mutation, 5hich
can automaticall0 ad2ust the gains parameters during plant operation in a routine 5a0.
)his paper is organi3ed as follo5sA
In section , a general description of the multi1o%2ecti/e e/olutionar0 optimi3ation is presented.
Simulation loop of the =uma97! s0stem is presented in section 3. )he section # presents the
NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real /alued operators used to tune the =. gains of the computed tor:ue
controller. )he simulation results of the SIM,DINE model and the NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real
/alued operators are sho5n in section 9. <inall0, 5e present our conclusions in section 7.
2. MULTI-OBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY OPTIMIZATION
In multi1o%2ecti/e optimi3ation (M++) pro%lems in 5hich the designer see;s to optimi3e
simultaneousl0 se/eral o%2ecti/e functions 5hich are usuall0 in conflict 5ith each other. Such
pro%lems ha/en4t usuall0 a single optimal solution. )he =areto dominance relation is the method
most commonl0 adopted to compare solutions in multi1o%2ecti/e optimi3ation 5hich, instead of a
single optimal solution, leads to a set of non1dominated solutions called =areto optimal solutions
6>8.
Multi1+%2ecti/e '/olutionar0 Algorithms (M+'A) are suita%le to sol/e multi1o%2ecti/e
optimi3ation pro%lems compared to classical approaches since e/olutionar0 algorithms deal 5ith
a set of feasi%le solutions 5hich allo5s an efficient 5a0 to find an approFimation of the 5hole
=areto optimal solutions in a single simulation run of the algorithm 6>8.
No5ada0s, there are man0 M+'As ha/e %een suggested, such as ?enetic algorithm for multi1
o%2ecti/e optimi3ation (M+?A) proposed %0 <onseca G <leming in ">>3 6"8, the Niched
=areto ?enetic Algorithm (N=?A) presented %0 $orn, Nafpliotis, and ?old%erg in ">># 68, the
Non1dominated Sorting ?enetic Algorithm (NS?A) introduced %0 Srini/as G .e% in ">>9 6"B8.
)hese M+'AS adopt the selection mechanisms %ased on =areto ran;ing and fitness sharing to
preser/e di/ersit0 of the population.
After the algorithms mentioned a%o/e, M+'AS %ased on the elitism strateg0 5ere presented,
such as the NS?A1II algorithm introduced %0 .e%, =ratap, Agar5al, G Me0ari/an in !! 6"#8.
NS?A1II algorithm uses non1dominated sorting method, elitism strateg0 and a cro5ded
comparison operator for maintaining di/ersit0 in the population. )he Impro/ed NS?A1II &ased
on a No/el *an;ing Scheme presented %0 *io ?. D. .4Sou3a, E. Chandra Se;aran, and A.
Eandasam0 in 638. In 6#8, the authors Dong HAN?, )ong1guang HAN? and Iuan D,+
presented a 5ind tur%ine %lade optimi3ation method 5hich is a no/el multi1o%2ecti/e
optimi3ation algorithm that emplo0ed the controlled elitism strateg0 and the d0namic cro5ding
distance in the NS?A1II algorithm to impro/e the lateral di/ersit0 and the uniform di/ersit0 of
non1dominated solutions.
!. SIMULATION LOOP O" THE PUMA560 ARM MANIPULATOR

International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
)o simulate the %eha/ior of our s0stem 5e need se/eral %loc;s li;e the tra2ector0 generator
%loc; and the controller %loc; as illustrates the <igure." gi/en in 6B8 5here ,
are respecti/el0 the desired 2oint positions /ector calculated %0 the tra2ector0 generator, the
generali3ed 2oint force /ector, accelerations /ector, /elocities /ector and position /ector.
<igure." )he simulation loop
!.1. D#$%&'( M)*+, )- ./+ PUMA560 A0& M%$'12,%.)0
)he ,NIMA)I+N =,MA 97! is a =C controlled, ro%otic arm that has siF re/olute 2oints (or siF
aFes as sho5n in <igure.), and each 2oint is controlled %0 a .C ser/o motor and defined %0 its
angle 68 6#8.
igure ..1$ notation for a siF1degrees1of1fr<eedom of the =,MA 97! arm manipulator 678
)he d0namic model of the =uma 97! s0stem gi/en in 6#8 is descri%ed in e:uation (") asA
Hhere
3
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
!.2 T0%3+(.)0# 4+$+0%.)0
Man0 5a0s to generate a tra2ector0 %oth in 2oint space and Cartesian space as descri%ed in 638, 6J8
and 6B8. In our 5or;5 5e choose the fifth order pol0nomial gi/en in 6B8 %0 the e:uation (3) to
generate motion in the 2oint space.
!.! T/+ ()&12.+* .)062+ ()$.0),,+0
Computed tor:ue controller is %ased on feed%ac; lineari3ation as illustrates figure.3, and
computes the re:uired arm tor:ues using the nonlinear feed%ac; control la5 698.
He de/elop this control s0stem in the configuration space, under the assumption that the motion
is completel0 specified, the 2oint positions and /elocities are measura%le and that the
measurements are not affected 5ith noise.
&0 using the d0namic e:uation of the arm gi/en in 6B, 38, the computed tor:ue controller is
descri%ed in e:uation (7) asA
#
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
<igure.3 A model1%ased manipulator1control s0stem 638
<igure.# AuFiliar0 controller internal structure
!.5 T/+ SIMULIN7 *'%40%&8
<igure .9 SIM,DINE diagram of the simulation loop of the =uma 97! arm manipulator
9
International Journal of Soft Computing, Mathematics and Control (IJSCMC), Vol. 3, No. 3, August !"#
<igure .7 SIM,DINE diagram of the computed tor:ue control
7
9. TUNING PROCEDURE
9.1 NSGA-II %,4)0'./& :'./ 0+%, ;%,2+* )1+0%.)08
Non1dominated Sorting ?enetic Algorithm II (NS?A1II) is the hea/il0 re/ised /ersion of the
Non1dominated Sorting ?enetic Algorithm (NS?A) 5hich has %een generall0 critici3ed for its
computational compleFit0, needs elitism operator and re:uires to choose a priori a /alue of the
sharing function. )he NS?A1II algorithm adopts a more efficient ran;ing procedure. Also, it
estimates the cro5ding distance of the solutions %0 computing the a/erage distance of t5o points
on either side of this solution along each of the o%2ecti/es of the pro%lem. In this section a %rief
description of the NS?A1II techni:ue 5ith real /alued operators is gi/en, follo5ed %0 its
application to tune the computed tor:ue controller gains of the =uma97! arm manipulator.
9.1.1 G+$+0%, D+8(0'1.')$ )- NSGA-II A,4)0'./& :'./ R+%, V%,2+* O1+0%.)08
4.1.1.1 Initiali3ation of the population %0 creating N indi/iduals 5here NK!.
4.1.1.2 '/aluate the m fitness /alues of each indi/idual in the population.
4.1.1.3<orm and num%er the fronts %ased in =areto dominance relation. )he first front is
the non1dominant set in the current population, the indi/iduals in the second front are
dominated %0 the indi/iduals in the first front and the fronts go so on.
4.1.1.4Assign ran; /alue to each indi/idual %ased on front in 5hich the0 %elong to. Indi/iduals in
first front are gi/en a ran; /alue of " and indi/iduals in second are assigned ran; /alue as and so
on.
4.1.1.6.Selection of the parents %0 using %inar0 tournament selection for reproductionA .uring
selection, the NS?A1II uses a cro5ded 1comparison operator that supports solutions 5ith
minimum ran; and in case of solutions that ha/e the same ran;, the solutions 5ith the greatest
cro5ding distance is chosen.
4.1.1.7. ?eneration of the offspringsA )he selected parents generate offsprings using *eal Valued
*ecom%ination and *eal Valued Mutation. )he real /alued recom%ination techni:ue is applied for
the recom%ination of indi/iduals 5ith real /alued /aria%les 6!8.
4.1.1.8. Appl0 the step #.".". to ne5 offsprings then stepsA #.".".3, #.".".# and #.".".9 to all
indi/iduals (selected parents and ne5 offsprings).
4.1.1.9. &ased in non1domination relation and cro5ding distance, sort the 5hole population
formed of the old population and current offspring and select onl0 the N %est indi/iduals, 5here N
is the population si3e.
4.1.1.10. &ac; to #.".".7 until a con/ergence criterion is met. More details on the algorithm
are found in 6"#8.
9.2. NSGAII :'./ R+%, V%,2+* O1+0%.)08 -)0 PD ()&12.+* .)062+ ()$.0),,+0 .2$'$4 )-
12&%560
)he implementation of the NS?AII 5ith real /alued operators is presented as follo5A
3. Sort the current population %ased on the non1domination sort and cro5ding distance.
4. Selection of parents %0 tournament selection %ased in cro5ded 1comparison operator.
5. Appl0 the real /alued operators (crosso/er and mutation) find in 6!8 to generate
offsprings.
6. Appl0 step to e/aluate ne5 indi/iduals then step 3 to sort all indi/iduals (parents and
offsprings).
7. Selection of the N %est indi/iduals %ased in cro5ded 1comparison operator to form neFt
population.
8. *eturn to # until a predefined num%er of generations.
NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real /alued operators is emplo0ed to tune =. computed tor:ue
parameters ( ) of control s0stem using the model in e:uation (). )his tuning is %ased in
minimi3ing simultaneousl0 siF position errors.
=arameters used for simulation of NS?A1II 5ith real /alued operators are Crosso/er
pro%a%ilit0L!.>, Mutation pro%a%ilit0L"C"
)he generation num%er and the population si3e are defined %0 the user.
5. SIMULATION RESULTS
5.1 R+82,. )- SIMULIN7
)he simulation 5as implemented in MA)DA&CSIM,DINE en/ironment. )he =. /alues gi/en
in ta%le.", found empiricall0 in 6"78 are used to simulate the puma97! model in the SIM,DINE
en/ironment.
)a%le." =. gains
Joint " 3 # 9 7
J!!.! ""!! #!!.! #!.! 3!.! #!.!
!.! !.! !.! 9.! 9.! 9.!
)he s0stem is simulated in " second and the sampling time is !.!"s
<igure.> .esired and model 2oint angles :"
<igure."! .esired and model 2oint angles :
<igure."" .esired and model 2oint angles :3
<igure." .esired and model 2oint angles :#
<igure."3 .esired and model 2oint angles :9
<igure."# .esired and model 2oint angles :7
<igure."9 .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p"
<igure."7 .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p
<igure."J .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p3
<igure."B .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p#
<igure."> .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p9
<igure.! .esired and model 2oint /elocit0 :p7
5.2 R+82,.8 )- NSGA-II A,4)0'./& :'./ 0+%, ;%,2+* )1+0%.)08 28'$4 -)0 PD C)&12.+*
T)062+ T2$'$4
In the eFperiments, the MA)DA& *!"a en/ironment has %een used for implementing and
running the NS?AII algorithm 5ith real /alued operators.
As a test, the NS?AII algorithm 5ith real /alued operators has %een configured as follo5sA
=opulation si3eA , ?enerationsA 3. *esults o%tained areA *esults are sho5n in <igure." to
<igure.3 5ith an elapsed time !.33#" s.
<igure." .esired and current 2oint angles :"
<igure. .esired and current 2oint angles :
<igure.3 .esired and current 2oint angles :3
<igure.# .esired and current 2oint angles :#
<igure.9 .esired and current 2oint angles :9
<igure.7 .esired and current 2oint angles :7
<igure.J.esired and current 2oint /elocities :p"
<igure.B .esired and current 2oint /elocities :p
<igure.> .esired and current 2oint /elocities :p3
<igure.3! .esired and current 2oint /elocities :p#
<igure.3" .esired and current 2oint /elocities :p9
<igure.3 .esired and current 2oint /elocities :p7
<igure33. )he IA' (fitness /alues) of the 2oint positions
It can %e seen in <igure." to <igure.3 that the current 2oint angles cur/es resulting from NS?A1II
algorithm 5ith real /alued con/erge to the desired 2oint angles cur/es. Also, it can %e seen that the
current 2oint /elocities cur/es resulting from NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real /alued operators
con/erge to the desired 2oint /elocities cur/es.
It can %e o%ser/ed in figure.> to figure.! that the results of SIM,DINE model simulations 5here
the gains are tuned empiricall0 are /er0 good.
NS?A1II 5ith real /alued operators has pro/ed its effecti/eness to regulate the =.1computed
tor:ue controller gains of the =uma97! s0stem.
)he <igure.3# sho5s the a%solute error of the 2oint angles o%tained %0 minimi3ing the IA' errors
sho5n in <igure.33
<igure.3# )he a%solute error of the 2oint positions
6. CONCLUSION
)his 5or; is focused on the application of the NS?A1II algorithm using real /alued operators to
automaticall0 tune the =.1computed tor:ue controller parameters of the =,MA97! arm
manipulator. )he approach 5as simulated on Matla% en/ironment to search for the %est
com%ination of =. gains so that the Integral of the a%solute errors /ector in 2oint space is
minimi3ed. It can %e concluded from the results that NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real /alued operators
is sho5ing good performance. As compared to NS?A1II algorithm 5ith S&@ crosso/er and
pol0nomial mutation, it can %e concluded that the NS?A1II algorithm 5ith real /alued crosso/er
and real /alued mutation is one of the recent and efficient optimi3ation tools.
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A2./)08
H%<'<% B+$=%.+0 5as %orn in Algeria and recei/ed her engineer degree in computer science from ,ni/ersit0
of Science and )echnolog0 of +ran ,S)+1M&, Algeria in !!>. She is 5or;ing to5ard the Magister degree
in computer science at ,ni/ersit0 of Science and )echnolog0 of +ran ,S)+1M&, Algeria. . $er current area
of research includes optimi3ation and Artificial intelligence.
SAMIRA CHOURAQUI recei/ed the =h... degree in Computer Science from the ,ni/ersit0 of Science
and )echnolog0 of +ran1Mohammed &oudiaf +ran, Algeria in !!>. She is a mem%er of the Da%orator0 of
modeling and simulation of the industrial s0stems. $er current research interests include Artificial
Intelligence, +ptimi3ation, <u330 Control and Neural Net5or;s.