# 1

Common-Emitter Amplifiers
2
Objectives
• Describe A
V
, A
I
, A
P
associated with the three
amplifier configurations.
• Describe the input/output voltage and current
phase relationships.
• Calculate the ac emitter resistance of a transistor.
• Discuss two roles of the capacitors in the circuits.
• Derive the ac equivalent circuit for a given
amplifier.
• Explain how the voltage gain drift due to
temperature occurs.
• Discuss the relationship between the load
resistance and voltage gain of a CE amplifier.
3
Objectives (Cont.)
• Calculate Z
in(base)
and Z
in
for a CE amplifier
• Discuss the effects of swamping on the ac
characteristics of a CE amplifier
• List and describe the four ac h-parameters
4
Common-emitter input-output phase
relationship.
R
C
R
B
Q
1
A
i
= 100
15 µA
10 µA
5 µA
V
B
I
B
1.5 mA
1 mA
500 µA
V
C
I
C
8 V
6 V
4 V
+V
CC
CE transistor characteristics, dc load line, and
sinusoidal variation in base current, collector current,
and collector–emitter voltage
5
6
AC Emitter Resistance
where r’
e
= ac emitter resistance
I
E
= the dc emitter current, found as V
E
/ R
E
for
example.
25mV
e
E
r
I
'
=
7
Example
( )
2
1 2
2.2kΩ
10V 1.8V
12.2kΩ
B CC
R
V V
R R
~ = =
+
0.7V
1.1mA
1kΩ
E B
E
E
V V
I
R
÷
= = =
25mV 25mV
22.7Ω
1.1mA
e
E
r
I
'
= = =
+10 V
h
FE
= 300
R
E
1kO
R
C
4kO
R
1
10kO
R
2
2.2kO
R
L
15kO
8
Graphical determination of ac
emitter resistance.
BE
e
E
V
r
I
A
'
=
A
I
E
V
BE
AV
BE
AV
BE
Q
2
AI
E
AI
E
Q
1
9
The determination of ac beta.
I
B
I
C
Q
AI
B
AI
C
C c
ac
B b
I i
I i
|
A
= =
A
h
FE
= dc beta
h
fe
= ac beta
10
AC Model of A BJT
npn pnp
B
C
E
B
C
E
b
c
e
i
b
i
c
= |
ac
i
b
r'
e
11
Roles of Capacitors in Amplifiers
1. A coupling capacitor passes an ac
signal from one amplifier to another,
while providing dc isolation between the
two.
2. A bypass capacitor is used to “short
circuit” an ac signal to ground while not
affecting the dc operation of the circuit.
1
2
C
X
fC t
=
The higher the freq.,
the lower the capacitor impedance.
12
Coupling capacitors in a
multistage amplifier.
V
CC
C
C1
C
C2
C
C3
13
AC coupling.
GND
C
C1
C
C2
C
C3
14
DC isolation.
V
CC
C
C1
C
C2
C
C3
15
Capacitive vs. direct coupling.
V
CC
C
C
V
CC
16
Bypass capacitors.
For AC analysis For DC analysis
V
CC
C
B
V
CC
C
B
GND
C
B
17
Typical common-emitter amplifier
signals.
V
CC
0V
1.8V
5.6V
1.1V
DC
1.1V
DC
1.8V
0V
5.6V
18
Deriving the CE ac-equivalent
circuit.
R
E
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
E
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
S
= 0 O
(ideally)
V
CC
R
E
R
C
R
1
R
2
(a) (b) (c)
19
Example
V
CC
Q
1
R
E
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
L
C
C1
C
C2
C
B
20
Example Cont.
GND
Q
1
R
E
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
L
21
Example Cont.
Q
1
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
L
Q
1
R
1
||R
2
R
C
||R
L
(c)
(d)
22
Voltage Gain of CE
out
in
c C C
v
e e e
v i r r
A
v i r r
= = ÷ ~ ÷
' '
Q
1
R
1
||R
2
R
C
||R
L
i
b
i
c
= |i
b
r'
e
v
in
v
out
Q
1
R
1
||R
2
R
C
||R
L
in e e
v i r
'
=
( )
( )
L C C C c
L C c out
R R r where r i
R R i v
||
||
= ÷ =
÷ =
23
Example (1)
+20 V
h
FE
= 200
R
E
2.2kO
R
C
12kO
R
1
150kO
R
2
20kO
R
L
50kO
Transform the base circuit to its
Thevenin equivalent.
2.353V 0.7V
( 1) 17.65kΩ 201 2.2kΩ
3.595μA
th BE
B
th FE E
V V
I
R h R
÷ ÷
= =
+ + + ×
=
24
Example (2)
+20 V
h
FE
= 200
R
E
2.2kO
R
C
12kO
R
1
150kO
R
2
20kO
R
L
50kO
( )
200 3.595μA 718.9μA
1 201 3.595μA 722.5μA
C FE B
E FE B
I h I
I h I
= = × =
= + = × =
( )
20V 718.9μA 12kΩ 722.5μA 2.2kΩ
9.784V active
CE CC C C E E
V V I R I R = ÷ ÷
= ÷ × ÷ ×
=
9.677kΩ
279.7
34.6Ω
C
v
e
r
A
r
~ ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
25
Example (1)
Transform the base circuit to its
Thevenin equivalent.
2.070V 0.7V
( 1) 3.727kΩ 31 1.2kΩ
33.49μA
th BE
B
th FE E
V V
I
R h R
÷ ÷
= =
+ + + ×
=
+10 V
h
FE
= 30
h
fe
= 200
R
E
1.2kO
R
C
1.5kO
R
1
18kO
R
2
4.7kO
R
L
5kO
26
Example (2)
( )
30 33.49μA 1.005mA
1 31 33.49μA 1.038mA
C FE B
E FE B
I h I
I h I
= = × =
= + = × =
( )
10V 1.005mA 1.5kΩ 1.038mA 1.2kΩ
7.247V active
CE CC C C E E
V V I R I R = ÷ ÷
= ÷ × ÷ ×
=
1.154kΩ
47.91
24.08Ω
C
v
e
r
A
r
~ ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
+10 V
h
FE
= 30
h
fe
= 200
R
E
1.2kO
R
C
1.5kO
R
1
18kO
R
2
4.7kO
R
L
5kO
27
CE Current Gain
A
i
is always less than h
fe
due to two factors:
1.The input ac current is divided between
the transistor and the biasing network.
2.The output collector current is divided
between the collector resistor and the
out
in
i
i
A
i
=
28
Power Gain
p i v
A AA =
Example The amplifier shown in Fig. has values of
A
v
= 45.3 and A
i
= 20. Determine the power gain
(A
p
) of the amplifier and the output power when
P
in
= 80 µW.
20 45.3 906
p i v
A AA = = × =
out in
906 80μW 72.48mW
p
P A P = = × =
29
The lower the load resistance is, the lower the voltage gain.
R
C
3kO
R
L
6kO
R
1
||R
2
r'
e
=25O
R
C
3kO
R
L
12kO
R
1
||R
2
r'
e
=25O
30
Example
The load in previous Fig. is open. Calculate
the open-load voltage gain of the circuit.
3kΩ
C C
r R = =
3kΩ
120 (max. gain)
25Ω
C
v
e
r
A
r
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
31
Calculating Amplifier
Input Impedance
Z
in(base)
Z
in
R
1
R
2
Biasing circuit
V
CC
( )
IN(base)
DC: 1
FE E
FE E
R h R
h R
= +
~
( )
in(base)
AC: 1
fe e
fe e
Z h r
h r
'
= +
'
~
32
Example
in(base)
200 24Ω 4.8kΩ
fe e
Z h r
'
~
= × =
+10 V
h
FE
= 30
h
fe
= 200
R
E
1.2kO
R
C
1.5kO
R
1
18kO
R
2
4.7kO
R
L
5kO
Z
in(base)
Z
in
Q
1
R
2
4.7kO
R
1
18kO
R
C
1.5kO
R
L
5kO
r'
e
= 24O
h
fe
= 200
Z
in(base)
Z
in
33
Calculating the Value of A
i
out
in
i
i
A
i
=
c
fe
b
i
h
i
=
( )
in in in in(base)
in(base)
in
in in
1
b
b fe e
b
v i Z i Z
i h r
i Z
i
Z Z
= =
'
+
= =
in
in(base)
C
i fe
L
Z r
A h
Z R
= ÷
Q
1
R
C
R
1
R
2
R
L
i
c
i
b
Z
in(base)
i
out
v
out
i
in
v
in
Z
in
34
Example
Calculate the value of A
i
for the circuit shown below
in(base)
200 24Ω 4.8kΩ
fe e
Z h r
'
~ = × =
in
in(base)
2.1kΩ 1.15kΩ
200
4.8kΩ 5kΩ
20.2
C
i fe
L
Z r
A h
Z R
= ÷
×
= ÷ ×
×
= ÷
Q
1
R
2
4.7kO
R
1
18kO
R
C
1.5kO
R
L
5kO
r'
e
= 24O
h
fe
= 200
Z
in(base)
Z
in
35
Multistage Amp.
Gain Calculations
1 2 3 vT v v v
A A A A =
1 2 3 iT i i i
A A A A =
pT vT iT
A A A =
Procedure:
1. Do dc analysis
2. Find r’
e
for each stage

3. Find r
C
for each stage

4. Using r’
e
and r
C
to find A
v

for each stage
Input impedance of next stage is the load of current stage.
(Z
in
of next stage is R
L
of current stage)
36
Example (1)
( )
( )
1 201 17.4 3.497kΩ
in base fe e
Z h r
'
= + = × =
Determine A
v
of the 1
st

stage. Assume that r’
e

for the 1
st
stage is 19.8 O
and r’
e
for the 2
nd
stage is
found to be 17.4 O. For
the 2
nd
stage, h
fe
is 200.
The input impedance of the 2
nd
stage:
+15V
C
C1
C
C2
C
C3
R
1
22kO
R
2
3.3kO
R
4
1kO
C
B1
R
8
1kO
C
B2
R
3
5kO
R
5
15kO
R
6
2.5kO
R
7
5kO
R
L
10kO
Q
1
Q
2
h
FE
= 150
h
fe
= 200
37
Example (2)
+15V
C
C1
C
C2
C
C3
R
1
22kO
R
2
3.3kO
R
4
1kO
C
B1
R
8
1kO
C
B2
R
3
5kO
R
5
22kO
R
6
3.3kO
R
7
5kO
R
L
10kO
Q
1
Q
2
h
FE
= 150
h
fe
= 200
Finally, A
v
for the 1
st
stage is found as
1.05kΩ
53.03
19.8Ω
C
v
e
r
A
r
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
38
Example (1)
Determine the value of A
vT
for the amplifier in
previous Figure.
r
C
for the 2
nd
stage can be found as
3.33kΩ
191.38
17.4Ω
C
v
e
r
A
r
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
A
v
for the 2
nd
stage is found as
( )( )
3
1 2
53.03 191.38 10.15 10
vT v v
A A A = = ÷ ÷ = ×
39
The swamped CE amplifier and its ac
equivalent ckt.
Swamped amplifier is an
amplifier that uses a partially
bypassed emitter resistance to
increase ac emitter resistance.
Also referred to as a gain-
stabilized amplifier.
R
C
r
E
R
E
C
B
R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
R
L
+V
CC
Q
1
r
E
Q
1
r
C
R
1
//R
2
40
A
v
of Swamped Amp.
C
v
e E
r
A
r r
~ ÷
'
+
r
E
Q
1
r
C
R
1
//R
2
r
C
R
1
//R
2
r
E
r'
e
i
b
i
c
= |
ac
i
b
Q
1
v
in
v
out
( )
out c C
v
in e e E
v i r
A
v i r r
÷
= =
'
+
41
Example (1)
R
C
1.5kO
r
E
300O
R
E
910O
C
B
R
1
18kO
R
2
4.7kO
R
L
10kO
+10V
h
FE
= 200
h
fe
= 150
( )( )
( )( )
( )
1
2.070V 0.7V
3.727kΩ 201 1210Ω
5.550μA
200 5.550μA
1.110mA
1 201 5.550μA
1.116mA
th BE
B
th FE E E
C FE B
E FE B
V V
I
R h r R
I h I
I h I
÷
=
+ + +
÷
=
+
=
= = ×
=
= + = ×
=
42
Example (2)
R
C
1.5kO
r
E
300O
R
E
910O
C
B
R
1
18kO
R
2
4.7kO
R
L
10kO
+10V
h
FE
= 200
h
fe
= 150
( )
( )
10V 1.110mA 1.5kΩ 1.116mA 1210Ω
6.985V (active)
CE CC C C E E E
V V I R I r R = ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ × ÷ ×
=
25mV 25mV
22.41Ω
1.116mA
e
E
r
I
'
= = =
1.304kΩ
4.046
22.41Ω 300Ω
C
v
e E
r
A
r r
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
+ +
43
Example
Determine the change in gain for the amplifier when r’
e

doubles in value.
1.304kΩ
3.782
44.82Ω 300Ω
C
v
e E
r
A
r r
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
'
+ +
4.046 3.782 0.2639
v
A A = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Swamping improves the gain stability of a CE
amplifier when r
E
>> r’
e
.
44
The Effect of Swamping on Z
in
( )
in(base)
1
fe e
fe e
Z h r
h r
'
= +
'
~
( )
( )
( )
in(base)
1
fe e E
fe e E
Z h r r
h r r
'
= + +
'
~ +
b
c
e
Z
in(base)
r'
e
b
c
e
Z
in(base)
r'
e
r
E
45
Gain stabilization.
A
v
-r
C
/ r’
e
-r
C
/ (r’
e
+r
E
)
Z
in(base)
h
fe
r’
e
h
fe
(r’
e
+r
E
)
Higher values of A
v
than
the swamped amplifier.
Relatively stable A
v
.
Much smaller distortion.
Relatively unstable values
of A
v
.
Lower A
v
than the
standard amplifier.
R
E
R
E
r
E
46
The Hybrid Equivalent Model
Hybrid model is derived from two-port system.
V
1
I
1
2
2'
I
2
V
2
1
1'
Two-Port
System
47
Six Circuit-Parameter Models
for Two-Port Systems
Independent
Variables
Dependent
Variables
Circuit Parameters
I
1
, I
2
V
1
, V
2
Impedance Z
V
1
, V
2
I
1
, I
2
V
1
, I
2
I
1
, V
2
Inverse Hybrid g
I
1
, V
2
V
1
, I
2
Hybrid h
V
2
, I
2
V
1
, I
1
Transmission T
V
1
, I
1
V
2
, I
2
Inverse Transmission
T’
48
Equations for Hybrid Model
1 11 1 12 2
2 21 1 22 2
V h I h V
I h I h V
= +
= +
Let V
1
= V
i
, I
1
= I
i
, V
2
= V
o
, and I
2
= I
o
.
Then
11 12
21 22
i i o
o i o
V h I h V
I h I h V
= +
= +
49
Equivalent Circuit for
Hybrid Model
h
i
h
r
V
o
h
o
h
f
I
i
V
i
I
i
2
2'
I
o
V
o
1
1'
11 12
21 22
i i o i i r o
o i o f i o o
V h I h V h I h V
I h I h V h I h V
= + = +
= + = +
50
h-Parameters
h
11
= h
i
= Input Resistance
h
12
= h
r
= Reverse Transfer Voltage Ratio
h
21
= h
f
= Forward Transfer Current Ratio
h
22
= h
o
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
i i
o i i o
o o
o i i o
V V
h h
V I I V
I I
h h
V I I V
= =
= =
= =
= =
51
h-Parameters for CE Amp.
• h
ie
= the base input impedance
• h
fe
= the base-to-collector current gain
• h
oe
• h
re
= the reverse voltage feedback ratio
be ie b re ce
c fe b oe ce
v h i h v
i h i h v
= +
= +
52
Hybrid Model for
CE Configuration
h
ie
h
re
v
ce
h
oe
h
fe
i
b
v
be
i
b
c
i
c
v
ce
b
e
i
e
e
c
b
i
e
i
c
i
b
in
(output shorted)
(output shorted)
ie
b
c
fe
b
v
h
i
i
h
i
=
=
(input open)
(input open)
c
oe
ce
be
re
ce
i
h
v
v
h
v
=
=
May be
neglected.
53
h-parameters of 2N3904
54
Hybrid Model without h
re
and h
oe

fe ac
h | =
( )
in(base)
1
ie fe e fe e
h h r h r Z
' '
= + ~ =
in C
i fe
ie L
Z r
A h
h R
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
fe C
v
ie
h r
A
h
= ÷
e
i
e
r'
e
|
ac
i
b
i
b
i
c
b
c
h
ie
h
fe
i
b
b c
i
b
i
c
i
e
e
i
e
(|
ac
+1)r'
e
|
ac
i
b
i
b
i
c
b
c
55
Determining h-Parameter Values
Use geometric means if given max. and min.
values.
(min) (max) ie ie ie
h h h = ×
(min) (max) fe fe fe
h h h = ×
Give examples Later
56
Summary
• AC concepts
• Roles of capacitors in amplifiers
• Common-emitter ac equivalent
circuit
• Amplifier gain
• Gain and impedance calculations
• Swamped amplifiers
• h-parameters