BRAKE LOAD TEST ON A 3 PHASE SQUIREL CAGE

INDUCTION MOTORS
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Operating Manual





Introduction: The Induction motor is a three phase AC motor and is the most widely used
machine. Its characteristic features are-
o Simple and rugged construction
o Low cost and minimum maintenance
o High reliability and sufficiently high efficiency
o Needs no extra starting motor and need not be synchronized
An Induction motor has basically two parts – Stator and Rotor
The Stator is made up of a number of stampings with slots to carry three phase windings. It is
wound for a definite number of poles. The windings are geometrically spaced 120 degrees apart.
Two types of rotors are used in Induction motors - Squirrel-cage rotor and Wound rotor.
STATOR CONSTRUCTION:
The stator and the rotor are electrical circuits that perform as
electromagnets. The stator is the stationary electrical part of
the motor. The stator core of a motor is made up of several
hundred thin laminations.
STATOR WINDINGS;
Stator
laminations are
stacked together
forming a hollow
cylinder. Coils of insulated wire are inserted into
slots of the stator core.
Each grouping of coils, together with the steel core it
surrounds, form an electromagnet. Electromagnetism is
the principle behind motor operation. The stator
windings are connected directly to the power source.
ROTOR CONSTRUCTION:
The rotor is the rotating part of the electromagnetic
circuit. The most common type of rotor is the
"squirrel cage" rotor. Other types of rotor
construction will be mentioned later in the course.
The construction of the squirrel cage rotor is
reminiscent of rotating exercise wheels found in
cages of pet rodents
The rotor consists of a stack of steel laminations with evenly spaced conductor bars around the
circumference.
The laminations are stacked together to form a rotor core. Aluminum is die cast in the slots of the rotor
core to form a series of conductors around the perimeter of the rotor. Current flow through the
conductors form the electromagnet. The conductor bars are mechanically and electrically connected
with end rings. The rotor core mounts on a steel shaft to form a rotor assembly.
ENCLOSURE:


The enclosure consists of a frame (or yoke) and two end brackets (or bearing housings). The
stator is mounted inside the frame. The rotor fits inside the stator with a slight air gap separating
it from the stator. There is no direct physical connection between the rotor and the stator. The
enclosure also protects the electrical and operating parts of the motor from harmful effects of the
environment in which the motor operates. Bearings, mounted on the shaft, support the rotor and
allow it to turn. A fan, also mounted on the shaft, is used on the motor shown below for cooling.
Connection daigram


Procedure: To run the motor in 3 phase directly
 Connect the mains supply 3 phase 440V from variac to the electrical control panel in correct
phase R, Y, B to the Electrical panel as indicated in the figure above.
 Connect the varaic to mains 3 phase distribution board in correct sequence R, Y, B.
 Make the connections of motor as indicated in the figure.
 Connections made should be tight in all respect.
 Loose connections may cause some hazardous problems.
 Keep the 3 phase varaic (auto transfomer) to minimum position.
 Switch on the power, motor will run at its speed by rotating the knob of auto transformer
towards maximum.
 Motor run, as you vary voltage speed increases accordingly.
 Note down the reading of voltage current


To perform Load test to derive various performance characteristics.

THEORY:

SQUIRREL CAGE
INDUCTION
MOTOR
A1 B1 C1
3 PH MCB
R Y B
R Y B N
Connect 3 phase
mains supply
V I
SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR 3 PHASE
R
Y
B
R
Y
B
N
INPUT
OUTPUT
3 PHASE MAINS
415V, 50HZ LINE
3 PHASE
dol
STARTER
MOTOR START
BUTTON GREEN
MOTOR STOP
BUTTON RED
It is an A.C. Motor operating on 3 phase balanced supply of standard frequency ( 50hz). Its
stator has a distributed 3 ph. Supply, but rotor has simple cage consisting of two ends rings
connected to a number solid bar ( all of conducting material – cast aluminum / copper ). It is
simple and robust. Its speed variation from no load to full is very small. Compare to its
synchronous speed given by NS=120.f / P ( f= frequency & P = No. of poles). The stator
current produces stator and flux which induces voltage in rotor winding ( cage ) forcing
short circuit current leading to rotor mmf & flux. There is phase lag between the stator mmf
(FS )( flux ) and rotor mmf (FR) ( flux). Interaction between these two mmf ( flux) produces
torque where

Direct load test on 3 ϕ sq. cage Induction Motor (small size) helps verifying its performance.


PROCEDURE:
 Make connection as per circuit diagram. & see the connection diagram of the control panel
already shown above.
 See that you are selecting correct/suitable meter ranges as device capacity.
 Set 3 phase auto transformer knob to zero.
 Connect the motor to the electrical panel in correct sequence.
 keep loose all the brake loading arrangement tightening screws
 Switch on the incoming supply (3phase). Increase input voltage to stator winding of motor by
turning the auto transformer knob clockwise slowly limiting the motor current.
 Switch on the power to the motor by pressing the green button on the DOL starter & see that
motor has started.
 keep input voltage to rated & measure speed & note down the readings of voltmeter ,
ammeter and wattmeter readings
 Stop m/c reducing auto transformer voltage.& switch off.
 Interchange current coil terminals of the wattmeter giving negative reading earlier.
 Now tighten the loading arrangement screw to provide the load on the rotor shaft.
 Apply small amount of voltage by varying the knob of the auto transformer.
 Ensure that current should not rise beyond the rated values of the indicated specification
marked on the motor.
 You can load 120% of the total current in the brake load test , otherwise motor winding
current increases and may damage the induction motors.
 Note down the values of current, voltages and wattmeter record in the observation table.
 Cut off all loads & switch off by red button provided on the DOL starter & disconnect the
mains supply keeping off from the distribution board.
 Measure the speed of motor with tachometer.