Elastic Scattering

Vasily Arzhanov
Reactor Physics, KTH
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 2
Elastic Scattering
• Moderation by Elastic Scattering
• Inelastic Scattering
• Lab and CoM Reference Systems
• Scattering from Stationary Nuclei
• Change of Variables
• Isotropic Scattering in CoM Frame
• Post Collision Energy Distribution
• Average Logarithmic Energy Loss
• Neutron Scattering from Molecules
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 3
Chain Reaction
ν
β
γ
β
ν
n
235
92
U
2 MeV n ∼
0.1 eV n ∼
235
92
U
238
92
U
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 4
Why to Slow Down (Moderate)?
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Energy (eV)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
σ

(
b
a
r
n
s
)
235
U
capture
fission
139 94 1
56 3
23
235 1 236 *
92 0 9
6 7
92 1
6 0
2
2
Ba Kr
U (18%) 2.
U U
4 1
)
0
3 (82% n
n
T yr γ


+
+ +
+







HT2008 Elastic Scattering 5
Principles of a Nuclear Reactor
1
2
N
N
k ≡
ν
n
/
f
i
s
s
i
o
n
N
1
N
2
Leakage
Fast fission
Resonance abs.
Non-fuel abs.
Leakage
Non-fissile abs.
Fission
S
l
o
w
i
n
g

d
o
w
n
E
n
e
r
g
y

E
2 MeV
1 eV
200 MeV/fission
ν ≈ 2.5
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 6
Breeding
23.5min 2.3day 238 1 239 239 239
92 0 92 93 94
U n U Np Pu + → ⎯⎯⎯→ ⎯⎯⎯→
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 7
Plutonium Cross-Sections
World’s Pu
stockpiles.
Mixed oxide
fuels (MOX)
Many neutrons are absorbed here
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 8
Breeding
23.3min 27.4day 232 1 233 233 233
90 0 90 91 92
Th n Th Pa U + → ⎯⎯⎯→ ⎯⎯⎯→
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 9
Neutron Energy Spectrum
• Importance of neutron energy spectrum
• Neutron energy spectrum is determined by
– Nuclear reactions
– Geometry and size of the reactor
• Nuclear reactions
– Fission
– Absorption (somewhat secondary)
– Scattering (elastic, inelastic)
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 10
Fission Energy Spectrum
3
1.036
0.1 10MeV
2
( ) ; 1.29MeV
( ) 0.453 sinh 2.29
E
kT
E
E
E
N E e T
T
N E e E
π


≤ ≤
= =
= × ×
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 11
Inelastic Scattering
A
X
A+1
X
*
n
γ
n
θ
Li, Be
2-3 MeV
238
U
40 KeV
1 MeV
50 KeV
Ground
(1) Light (2) Heavy
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 12
General Conclusion on In. Sc.
• Inelastic scattering cross section is
relatively small for light nuclei.
• Heavy nuclei cannot serve as good
moderators in thermal reactors.
• Inelastic scattering may be significant:
– Heterogeneous reactors
– Highly enriched fuel
– Fast reactors
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 13
Laboratory and CoM Systems
A
X
n
v
0
V
0
v
1
V
1
ψ; cos(ψ) ≡ μ
M
θ;  cos(θ) ≡ η
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
Laboratory CoM
Neutron Nucleus Neutron Nucleus
Before
v
0
E
0
V
0
w
0
W
0
After
v
1
E
1
V
1
w
1
W
1
Deflection angle ψ; cos(ψ) ≡ μ θ;  cos(θ) ≡ η
Mass(
A
X) ≈ A·m
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 14
Motion in Lab System
( )
0 0 1 1
2 2
0 0 1 1
0 0
2 2 2 2
m M m M
mv MV mv MV
m M m M
+ = +
+ = +
+ ≡ +
2 2
v V v V
c v V
M
m
v
0
V
0
v
1
V
1
ψ
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 15
Velocities in CoM Systems
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
M
m M
m
m M
M
m M
m
m M
≡ − = −
+
≡ − = −
+
≡ − = −
+
≡ − = −
+
w v c v V
W V c V v
w v c v V
W V c V v
M
θ
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 16
Motion in CoM Systems
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0
;
2 2 2 2
m M m M
M M
m m
m M m M
w w
W W
+ = + =
= − = −
+ = +
≡ = ≡
≡ = ≡
w W w W
w W w W
w V w V
w w
W W
M
θ
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 17
Stationary Nuclei
2
2
9
neutron: 1eV 14000m s
2
3
Be : ( 300K) 1000m s
2 2
mv
E v
MV
E kT T V
= = ⇒ ≈
= = = ⇒ ≈
0
0 V = Assumption:
The assumption is poor for energy ≤ 0.02 eV
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 18
Useful Relationships
0
m
m M
=
+
c v
M
m
v
0
ψ
c
CoM
w
0
w
1
c
θ
v
1
c
( ) ( )
η θ
θ
η
η
μ
η
μ
μ
ψ
= +
= + +
+ +
= ≈
+
+
=
+ +
⎡ ⎤
= + − −

≡ ≡ =

⎣ ⎦
v w c cw
A A M
E E A
A m
E E
A A
E E
1 1
2 2 2
1 0 0
2
1 0
2
1
2
1 0
0 1
0
2 cos
1 2
;
( 1)
cos
1 A
1 A 2A
1
; ;
1 1
2
cos w w
v w c
in Lab:
E is always given the Lab-system!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 19
Energy Loss
0 0
E E E α ≤ ≤
2
2
0 0 0
2
1 2 cos 1
( 1) 1
θ + + −
⎛ ⎞
= ⇒ ≤ ≤
⎜ ⎟
+ +
⎝ ⎠
A A A
E E E E E
A A
2
1
1
A
A
α

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
θ = 0° θ = 180°
E
0
E
0
E α E
E α
After
collision
E
0
E
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 20
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
)
)
dv
n E n v
dE
dE
n v n
n E dE n v
E
dv
dv =
=
=
3 3
2
neutron neutron
cm ×J cm ×cm
) )
s
2
(
2
( n E
mv
E
n
v m
v
E
⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎣ ⎦
= =
E
v
E+dE v+dv
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
dE mvdv
dE
n v n E mvn E mE n E
dv
dv
n E n v n v
dE mv
=
= = = ⋅
= =
Change of Variables
( ) n E dE
( ) n v dv
E
n
e
r
g
y
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 21
E αE
0
E
0
??
( )
0
p E E ←
Post Collision Energy Distribution
( ) p η
Final goal:
Frequency function = probability density distribution of scattering
angles in CoM system. It depends on: (1) E
0
, (2) struck nucleus.
Its form is determined from: (1) experiment, (2) theoretical model.
CoM
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 22
Frequency Function
( ) p d η η =
(1) Probability that a neutron is scattered in CoM into
angle whose cosine lies in [η, η + dη]
(2) Fraction of all scattering collisions which result in
angles whose cosine lie in [η, η + dη]
1
1
(1) ( ) 0
(2) ( ) 1
p
p d
η
η η


=

HT2008 Elastic Scattering 23
General Approach
0
( ) ( )
n n
n
p a P η η

=
=

Series expansion:
Legendre polynomials:
( )
2
0 1 2
1
( ) 1; ( ) ; ( ) 3 1
2
P P P η η η η η = = = −
1
,
1
2
( ) ( )
2 1
n m n m
P P d
n
η η η δ

=
+

Orthogonality:
1
1
2 1
( ) ( )
2
n n
n
a p P d η η η

+
=

Coefficients:
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 24
Simplest Model
0 0 1 1 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) p a P a P a a η η η η = + + = + + … …
0
( ) p a η =
General form:
We postulate:
Isotropic
scattering in CoM
1
0
1
1
( ) 1 ( )
2
p d a p η η η

= ⇒ = =

1 2
0 a a = = = …
Simplest form:
Immediate
consequence:
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 25
Isotropic Scattering in CoM
θ ⋅ r d
θ
θ sin r
w
0
Experiments: elastic scattering is isotropic in CoM.
Number of neutrons emerging through any unit area
on the surface is independent of the position.
( ) ( )
θ θ
π θ θ
π
θ
η θ θ
θ
= =
= =
=
=
⎯⎯→
ring
sphere
A
p d
A
r rd
r
d
p p
2
( )
2 sin
4
1
s
1
(
in
) sin
2
2
( ) ?
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 26
Isotropic Frequency Function
( )
θ θ
η η θ θ
η η θ θ θ η
η θ
=
= −
= − =

=
1
( ) sin
2
( ) ( )
1 1 1
( ) si
co
n c s
2
s
o
2 2
p
p d p d
p d d d d
1
( )
2
p η =
η = cosθ
θ
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 27
Non-Isotropic Frequency
Function
( ) 1 2 1
( )
0 1
1
a
p
a
η η
η
η
+ ≤

=

>


Mathematically, next step is
Physically, it corresponds
to p-scattering
z
θ
z
a = 0 a = 0.5
a = -1 a = 1
n
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 28
Frequency Function in Energy
( )
0
( ) p E E p E ← ≡
( ) p E dE =
Probability that an incident neutron with kinetic energy E
0
will
have energy in dE about E after scattering collision
Fraction of all scattering collisions which result in final kinetic
energies between E and E + dE
( )
2
0 0
2 2
0
2
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 ( 1)
( 1
( 1) 1
( )
4
) 2
1
d
p E dE p d p E p
dE
A A d A
A
p E
E E
A d
A E
AE
E
E
α
η
η η η
η η

= ⇒ =




+ + +

= ⇒
+
= =


=
+

in Lab system!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 29
E αE
0
E
0
0
1
(1 ) E α −
0
( ) ( ) p E p E E = ←
Post Collision
Energy Distribution
1
{ }
Pr E ε <
0
E
E Δ
0 0 0
1 1
;
2 2
E E E E
α α + −
= Δ =
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 30
( )
0
0
0
2
0
ln ( )
1
1
ln 1 ln 1 ln
1 2 1
( )
o
o
E
E
E
E
E
p E dE
E
A
E A
E A A
p E dE
α
α
α
ξ α
α


≡ = = + = +
− +


2
for 10
2 3
ξ >
+
A
A
Average Logarithmic
Energy Loss
Nucleus Light
A = 1
Heavy
A >> 1
0 1
1 0
2
1
1
α

⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
A
A
1 ln
1
α
ξ α
α
= +

Does not depend
on energy!!!
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 31
Plots of α and ξ
α
ξ
α
ξ
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 32
( )
2
1
1
1 ln
2 1
A
A
A A
ξ


= +
+
2
2
3
A
ξ
+

Approximate Formula
Mass number, A
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 33
Average Cosine in CoM
η η η η η η
− −
= = =
∫ ∫
1 1
1 1
1
( ) 0
2
p d d
M
m
w
0
w
1
W
0
W
1
η θ ≡ cos
θ = ° 90
θ
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 34
Average Cosine in Lab
μ μ μ μ

=

1
1
( ) p d
μ ψ ≡ cos
η
μ μ η η μ η
μ
= ⇒ = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d
p d p d p p
d
η
μ
η
+
=
+ +
2
1 A
1 A 2A
μ μ μ μ μ η η η
− −
= =
∫ ∫
1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) p d p d
μ =
2
3A
( )
( )
ψ
ψ
≈ °
≈ °
1
238
H 48
U 89.8
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 35
Material A [°]
1
H 1 0 0.667 48.2
2
D 2 0.111 0.333 70.5
4
He 4 0.360 0.167 80.4
6
Li 6 0.510 0.095 83.6
9
Be 9 0.640 0.074 85.8
10
B 10 0.669 0.061 86.2
12
C 12 0.716 0.056 86.8
238
U 238 0.938 0.003 89.8
H
2
O * * 0.037 87.9
D
2
O * * 0.033 88.1
Average Cosine in Lab-System
1
H
2
D
4
He
238
U H
2
O
12
C
10
B
6
Li
ψ
α μ ψ
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 36
Elastic Scattering from Molecules
Fast neutron
Slow (thermal) neutron
Feels only H
Feels whole
molecule
0 τ ∼

coll
k chem
E E
0 τ ≠

coll
k chem
E E
2
(H O) 2 (H) (O) σ σ σ = +
s s s
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 37
Elastic Scattering in Water
E [eV]
0.01 0.1 1 10
50
100
150
200
Chemical binding is
important unimportant
2 (H) (O) σ σ +
s s
[barn] σ
s
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 38
Scattering from Molecules
In case of very slow neutrons, Blatt and Weisskopf have shown:
( )
σ
H
s
F
Scattering cross section of Hydrogen in Free (atomic) state
( )
σ
H
s
B
Scattering cross section of Hydrogen in bound state
( ) ( )
2
4
1
σ σ
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
H H
m
s s
B F
m
A
A
m(H) = 1
m(H
2
O) = A
m
( ) ( )
2
2
1
1
σ σ
⎛ ⎞
+
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
+
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠
A A
m
s s
B F
m
A A
A A
m(O) = A
m(UO
2
) = A
m
U
O O
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 39
Scattering of Hydrogen in Water
Energy [eV]
( )
σ
H
s
B
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 40
1
H Elastic Cross Section
1 MeV 1 eV
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 41
4
He Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 42
9
Be Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 43
16
O Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 44
23
Na Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 45
238
U Elastic Cross Section
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 46
Summary on Elastic Scattering
• Elastic scattering cross-sections for light elements are
more or less independent of neutron energy up to 1 MeV.
• For intermediate and heavy elements, the elastic cross-
section is constant at low energy and exhibit some
variation at higher energy.
• We are usually more interested in light elements as far as
elastic scattering is concerned; so a good approximation
is, σ
s
= const, for all elements of interest.
• Nearly all elements have scattering cross-sections in the
range 2 to 20 barns.
• The important exception is water and heavy water.
HT2008 Elastic Scattering 47
The END