Constitutive modeling of largestrain
cyclic plasticity
for anisotropic metals
FusahitoYoshida
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering
Hiroshima University, J APAN
1: Basic framework of modeling
2: Models of orthotropic anisotropy
3: Cyclic plasticity – Kinematic hardening model
4: Applications to sheet metal forming and some
topics on material modeling
Lecture 1: Contents
• Introduction:
purpose of constitutive modeling,
• Stress and strain
• Yielding of isotropic solids
• Plastic potential and associated flow rule
• Isotropic/kinematic hardening models
• Isotropic hardening law
2
Material behavior under uniaxial tension
(Tensile strength)
(yield strength)
yield point
s
t
r
e
s
s
strain
necking
Void nucleation
Void growth/coalescence
Fracture
Necking occurs at a nominal stress peak, and it develops rapidly with increasing
strain. The specimen fractures as a consequence of void nucleation, growth and
coalescence.
Ductile fracture
Stressstrain curves of various metals
Experiment
Models
SNCM439
S35C
SUS304
BsBM1
A1100
Upper yield point
Elastic region
Lu ders bands
Lower yield point
3
What material behaviors are our interests
in plasticity modeling?
• Anisotropy (rvalue, stress directionality)
• Cyclic plasticity (the Bauschinger effect,
cyclic hardening, ratcheting, …,etc.)
• Damage (evolution of voids, …)
• Ratedependent behavior (viscoplasticity,
creep)
• Thermomechanical coupling
• …. etc.
980TS
590TS
Modeling of Anisotropy and Hardening (σ  ε responses)
including the Bauschinger effect
Earing in cylindrical cup
deep drawing
Springback
Barlat Yld20002d
YoshidaUemori
4
Predictions of cracking and wrinkle
By PAMSTAMP 2G
(YoshidaUemori model)
Stamped panel
FE simulation
By J STAMP
Cracking
Cracking
Sheet thinning
Photo
3D measurement
FE simulation
Deformation of solids
X
Current (t =t) configuration
Reference (t =0) configuration
• F : Deformation gradient
• L : Velocity gradient
• D : Rate of deformation
(stretching) tensor
• W : Spin tensor
• E: Lagrangian strain tensor
( ) ( )
1 1
,
2 2
/
i
ij
j
k
km
m
T T
T
e p
x
d d , F
X
v
d d L
x

d dt
∂
= • =
∂
∂
= • =
∂
= + =
= • • ≈
x F X
v L x,
D L L W L L
E F D F D
D = D + D
5
Stress (1)
( ) ( )
1 2 3
[ ]
0, , ,
xx xy xz
ij yx yy yz
zx zy zz
p p
ij ij
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ σ δ σ σ σ σ
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
− = =
σ
Deviatoric stress and its Invariants
Cauchy stress, principal stress
( ) ( )
1 2 3
1 1
3 3
ij ij m ij
m xx yy zz
s σ σ δ
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ
= −
= + + = + +
= hydrostatic stess (or mean stress)
Stress (2)
1 2 3
' ' '
1 2 3
1 1
3 , ,
2 3
1 1
0, ,
2 3
ii m ij ij ij jk ki
ii ij ij ij jk ki
J J J
J s J s s J s s s
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ = = = =
= = = =
Stress invariants
Jaumann rate (objective rate)
, ij
ij im mj im mj
W W W W σ σ σ σ = + = − + & &
ο ο
σ σ − σ σ
6
Initial Yielding of Isotropic Solids
( ) ( ) ( )
' '
1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3
, , , , , f f f J J J f J J σ σ σ = = =
Since the yielding is not affected by the hydrostatic
stress component (i.e., incompressible), initial yielding
of an isotropic solid is expressed by the function (yield
function):
For example,
von Mises
Drucker
( ) ( )
'3 '2 6
2 3 0
27
D ij
f s J J φ ξ σ = = − =
( )
' 2
2
3
2
M ij o
f s J φ σ = = =
Yield locus
Thinwalled tube in axial loads
& internal/outernal pressure
Yield locus is a description of yield criterion in stress space.
Thinwalled tube in axial loads
& torsion
von Mises
von Mises
Tresca
Tresca
Crystal plasticity theory (FCC)
Carbon steel (S25C)
Stainless steel (SUS304)
Brass (BsBM1)
Aluminum alloy (A2017)
7
Physical background:
Plastic deformations in a crystal
{1 1 1}
[1 0 1]
atom ( )
slip plane
grain
grain
boundary
1μm～100μm
A few
Slip occurs most readily in specific directions (slip directions) on
certain crystallographic planes (slip planes) .
Why is the yielding not affected by hydrostatic stress?
Schmid’slaw: Slip of a crystal occurs when the
resolved shear stress reaches its critical value, CRSS.
( )
cos cos
R
τ σ φ λ =
Resolved shear stress
Schmidfactor
Yield criterion for a crystal
( ) R
cr
k τ =
Critical resolved shear stress
(CRSS)
Slip direction
Slip plane
Keywords: Slip system =Slip plane and slip direction
8
Resolved shear stress is not changed by the
hydrostatic stress (pressure):
At the atmosphere
Under hydrostatic
pressure
a b
τ τ =
Plastic potential & associated flow rule
Unloading
Neutral loading
Loading
Initial yield locus F
Subsequent yield locus f
Loading
Unloading
9
0,
0
0
0
ij
ij
f
f
dσ
σ
=
>
⎧
∂ ⎪
=
⎨
∂
⎪
<
⎩
Loading
Neutral loading
Unloading
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
, 0 or , 0
0
0
or 0
ij k ij k
ij k
ij k
ij k
ij k
f f s
f df
f f
df d d
f f
df d d
σ ξ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
= =
+ =
∂ ∂
∴ = + =
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
= + =
∂ ∂
Consistency condition:
A stress point always
exists on the yield surface
when loading.
Unloading
Neutral loading
Loading
Initial yield locus F
Subsequent yield locus f
10
Drucker’s postulate on stable stressstrain response
( ) ( )
2
e p e p
d d d d d E d d d σ ε σ ε ε ε σ ε = + = +
0, 0
p p
ij ij
d d d d σ ε σ ε ≥ ≥
(a) Stable (b) Unstable (c) Multiaxial stress state
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
* * *
*
* *
0
0 0
e p
p
p p
ij ij ij ij ij ij
d d d
d
d d
σ σ σ
σ
σ
σ σ ε σ σ ε σ σ ε
σ σ ε
σ σ ε σ σ ε
− = − + −
= − ≥
− ≥ ∴ − ≥
∫ ∫ ∫
∫
∫
Stress cycle
11
Principle of maximum plastic work
• Convexity of yield locus
• Normality rule for plastic
strain rate vector
( ) ( )
* *
0 or 0
p p
ij ij ij ij ij ij
d s s d σ σ ε ε − ≥ − ≥
or
p
ij
ij
p
ij
ij
f
d d
f
d d
s
ε λ
σ
ε λ
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
Associated flow rule
Yield locus of mild steel
Kuwabara
12
Bauschinger effect
Hardening models
• Isotropic hardening
• Kinematic hardening
• Combined hardening
Workhardening
Isotropic hardening model
( ) [ ]
2 1 1
, ( ) 0
2 3
2
' 0
3
'
ij ij ij o
p
ij ij
ij ij o
o
f s s s
d s d
df s ds H d
d d
H
d d
ε σ ε
ε λ
σ ε
σ σ
ε ε
= − =
=
= − =
= =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0 or 0
ij ij ij ij
F Y F s s Y σ φ σ φ = − = = − =
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
2
( ) 0
or ( ) 0
ij ij o
ij ij o
f
f s s
σ φ σ σ ε
φ σ ε
= − =
= − =
Initial yield
Subsequent yield function
Initial yield locus
Subsequent yield
( )
o
Y R σ ε = +
13
Kinematic hardening model
Subsequent yield function
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
' 2
0
or 0
ij ij ij
ij ij ij
f Y
f s s Y
σ φ σ α
φ α
= − − =
= − − =
( )
'
3
2
p
ij ij ij
d
d s
Y
ε
ε α = −
backstress)
Associated flow rule
Combined hardening model
Subsequent yield function
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
' 2
0
or 0
ij ij ij o
ij ij ij o
f
f s s
σ φ σ α σ
φ α σ
= − − =
= − − =
Associated flow rule
( )
'
3
2
p
ij ij ij
o
d
d s
ε
ε α
σ
= −
Appropriate evolution equations for isotropic hardening
and kinematic hardening is of vital importance.
ij
α
Y
o
σ
ij
σ
O
p
ij
dε
14
StressStrain Response of a High Strength
Steel Sheet of 590 MPa Grade
Isotropic hardening (IH) model
Permanent
stress offset
Transient Bauschinger
effect
Early
reyielding
Hardening law
= description of
• expansion of yield locus
• (isotropic hardening)
• movement of the center
of yield locus (kinematic
hardening: evolution of the
back stress)
ij
α
Y
o
σ
ij
σ
O
p
ij
dε
15
Isotropic Hardening Law by means of
Effective Stress and Effective Plastic Strain
( ) ( ) 0
ij
F Y s Y φ φ = − = − = s
( ) ( )
ij
s σ φ φ = = s
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
ij
f Y R s Y R φ φ = − + = − + = s
For initial yielding:
For the subsequent yielding:
Isotropic hardening stress
Effective stress:
For von Misesmaterial:
'
2
3
3
2
ij ij
J s s σ = =
Effective Plastic Strain Increment dε
p p p
ij ij ij ij
dw d s d d σ ε ε σ ε = = =
2
3
p p
ij ij
d d d ε ε ε =
Work conjugate formulation:
When using von Miseseffective stress:
Effective plastic strain:
d dt ε ε ε = =
∫ ∫
&
16
• Linear hardening
• Ludwik
• Swift
• Voce
Isotropic Hardening Laws
n
Y C σ ε = +
( )
0
n
C σ ε ε = +
For example,
( ) ( ) Y R σ σ ε ε = = +
' Y H σ ε = +
[ ]
1 exp( )
Sat
Y R σ ξε = + − −
Uniaxial tension stressstrain curves
( )
( )
( )
p n
p n
p n
o
C
Y C
C
σ ε
σ ε
σ ε ε
=
= +
= +
Ludwik
Swift
Perfectly plastic solid
Linearly hardening
plastic solid
Nonlinearly hardening
plastic solids
Powerlaw hardening