1

Constitutive modeling of large-strain
cyclic plasticity
for anisotropic metals
FusahitoYoshida
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering
Hiroshima University, J APAN
1: Basic framework of modeling
2: Models of orthotropic anisotropy
3: Cyclic plasticity – Kinematic hardening model
4: Applications to sheet metal forming and some
topics on material modeling
Lecture 1: Contents
• Introduction:
purpose of constitutive modeling,
• Stress and strain
• Yielding of isotropic solids
• Plastic potential and associated flow rule
• Isotropic/kinematic hardening models
• Isotropic hardening law
2
Material behavior under uniaxial tension
(Tensile strength)
(yield strength)
yield point
s
t
r
e
s
s
strain
necking
Void nucleation
Void growth/coalescence
Fracture
Necking occurs at a nominal stress peak, and it develops rapidly with increasing
strain. The specimen fractures as a consequence of void nucleation, growth and
coalescence.
Ductile fracture
Stress-strain curves of various metals
Experiment
Models
SNCM439
S35C
SUS304
BsBM1
A1100
Upper yield point
Elastic region
Lu ders bands
Lower yield point
3
What material behaviors are our interests
in plasticity modeling?
• Anisotropy (r-value, stress directionality)
• Cyclic plasticity (the Bauschinger effect,
cyclic hardening, ratcheting, …,etc.)
• Damage (evolution of voids, …)
• Rate-dependent behavior (viscoplasticity,
creep)
• Thermo-mechanical coupling
• …. etc.
980TS
590TS
Modeling of Anisotropy and Hardening (σ - ε responses)
including the Bauschinger effect
Earing in cylindrical cup
deep drawing
Springback
Barlat Yld2000-2d
Yoshida-Uemori
4
Predictions of cracking and wrinkle
By PAM-STAMP 2G
(Yoshida-Uemori model)
Stamped panel
FE simulation
By J STAMP
Cracking
Cracking
Sheet thinning
Photo
3D measurement
FE simulation
Deformation of solids
X
Current (t =t) configuration
Reference (t =0) configuration
• F : Deformation gradient
• L : Velocity gradient
• D : Rate of deformation
(stretching) tensor
• W : Spin tensor
• E: Lagrangian strain tensor
( ) ( )
1 1
,
2 2
/
i
ij
j
k
km
m
T T
T
e p
x
d d , F
X
v
d d L
x
-
d dt

= • =


= • =

= + =
= • • ≈
x F X
v L x,
D L L W L L
E F D F D
D = D + D
5
Stress (1)
( ) ( )
1 2 3
[ ]
0, , ,
xx xy xz
ij yx yy yz
zx zy zz
p p
ij ij
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ σ δ σ σ σ σ
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
− = =
σ
Deviatoric stress and its Invariants
Cauchy stress, principal stress
( ) ( )
1 2 3
1 1
3 3
ij ij m ij
m xx yy zz
s σ σ δ
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ
= −
= + + = + +
= hydrostatic stess (or mean stress)
Stress (2)
1 2 3
' ' '
1 2 3
1 1
3 , ,
2 3
1 1
0, ,
2 3
ii m ij ij ij jk ki
ii ij ij ij jk ki
J J J
J s J s s J s s s
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ = = = =
= = = =
Stress invariants
Jaumann rate (objective rate)
, ij
ij im mj im mj
W W W W σ σ σ σ = + = − + & &
ο ο
σ σ − σ σ
6
Initial Yielding of Isotropic Solids
( ) ( ) ( )
' '
1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3
, , , , , f f f J J J f J J σ σ σ = = =
Since the yielding is not affected by the hydrostatic
stress component (i.e., incompressible), initial yielding
of an isotropic solid is expressed by the function (yield
function):
For example,
von Mises
Drucker
( ) ( )
'3 '2 6
2 3 0
27
D ij
f s J J φ ξ σ = = − =
( )
' 2
2
3
2
M ij o
f s J φ σ = = =
Yield locus
Thin-walled tube in axial loads
& internal/outernal pressure
Yield locus is a description of yield criterion in stress space.
Thin-walled tube in axial loads
& torsion
von Mises
von Mises
Tresca
Tresca
Crystal plasticity theory (FCC)
Carbon steel (S25C)
Stainless steel (SUS304)
Brass (BsBM1)
Aluminum alloy (A2017)
7
Physical background:
Plastic deformations in a crystal
{1 1 1}
[1 0 1]
atom ( )
slip plane
grain
grain
boundary
1μm~100μm
A few
Slip occurs most readily in specific directions (slip directions) on
certain crystallographic planes (slip planes) .
Why is the yielding not affected by hydrostatic stress?
Schmid’slaw: Slip of a crystal occurs when the
resolved shear stress reaches its critical value, CRSS.
( )
cos cos
R
τ σ φ λ =
Resolved shear stress
Schmidfactor
Yield criterion for a crystal
( ) R
cr
k τ =
Critical resolved shear stress
(CRSS)
Slip direction
Slip plane
Keywords: Slip system =Slip plane and slip direction
8
Resolved shear stress is not changed by the
hydrostatic stress (pressure):
At the atmosphere
Under hydrostatic
pressure
a b
τ τ =
Plastic potential & associated flow rule
Unloading
Neutral loading
Loading
Initial yield locus F
Subsequent yield locus f
Loading
Unloading
9
0,
0
0
0
ij
ij
f
f

σ
=
>

∂ ⎪
=



<

Loading
Neutral loading
Unloading
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
, 0 or , 0
0
0
or 0
ij k ij k
ij k
ij k
ij k
ij k
f f s
f df
f f
df d d
f f
df d d
σ ξ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
σ ξ
= =
+ =
∂ ∂
∴ = + =
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
= + =
∂ ∂
Consistency condition:
A stress point always
exists on the yield surface
when loading.
Unloading
Neutral loading
Loading
Initial yield locus F
Subsequent yield locus f
10
Drucker’s postulate on stable stress-strain response
( ) ( )
2
e p e p
d d d d d E d d d σ ε σ ε ε ε σ ε = + = +
0, 0
p p
ij ij
d d d d σ ε σ ε ≥ ≥
(a) Stable (b) Unstable (c) Multiaxial stress state
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
* * *
*
* *
0
0 0
e p
p
p p
ij ij ij ij ij ij
d d d
d
d d
σ σ σ
σ
σ
σ σ ε σ σ ε σ σ ε
σ σ ε
σ σ ε σ σ ε
− = − + −
= − ≥
− ≥ ∴ − ≥
∫ ∫ ∫


Stress cycle
11
Principle of maximum plastic work
• Convexity of yield locus
• Normality rule for plastic
strain rate vector
( ) ( )
* *
0 or 0
p p
ij ij ij ij ij ij
d s s d σ σ ε ε − ≥ − ≥
or
p
ij
ij
p
ij
ij
f
d d
f
d d
s
ε λ
σ
ε λ

=


=

Associated flow rule
Yield locus of mild steel
Kuwabara
12
Bauschinger effect
Hardening models
• Isotropic hardening
• Kinematic hardening
• Combined hardening
Workhardening
Isotropic hardening model
( ) [ ]
2 1 1
, ( ) 0
2 3
2
' 0
3
'
ij ij ij o
p
ij ij
ij ij o
o
f s s s
d s d
df s ds H d
d d
H
d d
ε σ ε
ε λ
σ ε
σ σ
ε ε
= − =
=
= − =
= =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0 or 0
ij ij ij ij
F Y F s s Y σ φ σ φ = − = = − =
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
2
( ) 0
or ( ) 0
ij ij o
ij ij o
f
f s s
σ φ σ σ ε
φ σ ε
= − =
= − =
Initial yield
Subsequent yield function
Initial yield locus
Subsequent yield
( )
o
Y R σ ε = +
13
Kinematic hardening model
Subsequent yield function
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
' 2
0
or 0
ij ij ij
ij ij ij
f Y
f s s Y
σ φ σ α
φ α
= − − =
= − − =
( )
'
3
2
p
ij ij ij
d
d s
Y
ε
ε α = −
backstress)
Associated flow rule
Combined hardening model
Subsequent yield function
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
' 2
0
or 0
ij ij ij o
ij ij ij o
f
f s s
σ φ σ α σ
φ α σ
= − − =
= − − =
Associated flow rule
( )
'
3
2
p
ij ij ij
o
d
d s
ε
ε α
σ
= −
Appropriate evolution equations for isotropic hardening
and kinematic hardening is of vital importance.
ij
α
Y
o
σ
ij
σ
O
p
ij

14
Stress-Strain Response of a High Strength
Steel Sheet of 590 MPa Grade
Isotropic hardening (IH) model
Permanent
stress offset
Transient Bauschinger
effect
Early
re-yielding
Hardening law
= description of
• expansion of yield locus
• (isotropic hardening)
• movement of the center
of yield locus (kinematic
hardening: evolution of the
back stress)
ij
α
Y
o
σ
ij
σ
O
p
ij

15
Isotropic Hardening Law by means of
Effective Stress and Effective Plastic Strain
( ) ( ) 0
ij
F Y s Y φ φ = − = − = s
( ) ( )
ij
s σ φ φ = = s
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
ij
f Y R s Y R φ φ = − + = − + = s
For initial yielding:
For the subsequent yielding:
Isotropic hardening stress
Effective stress:
For von Misesmaterial:
'
2
3
3
2
ij ij
J s s σ = =
Effective Plastic Strain Increment dε
p p p
ij ij ij ij
dw d s d d σ ε ε σ ε = = =
2
3
p p
ij ij
d d d ε ε ε =
Work conjugate formulation:
When using von Miseseffective stress:
Effective plastic strain:
d dt ε ε ε = =
∫ ∫
&
16
• Linear hardening
• Ludwik
• Swift
• Voce
Isotropic Hardening Laws
n
Y C σ ε = +
( )
0
n
C σ ε ε = +
For example,
( ) ( ) Y R σ σ ε ε = = +
' Y H σ ε = +
[ ]
1 exp( )
Sat
Y R σ ξε = + − −
Uniaxial tension stress-strain curves
( )
( )
( )
p n
p n
p n
o
C
Y C
C
σ ε
σ ε
σ ε ε
=
= +
= +
Ludwik
Swift
Perfectly plastic solid
Linearly hardening
plastic solid
Non-linearly hardening
plastic solids
Power-law hardening