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Lesson 2

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا – Noun

There are four properties of a

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا (noun). You need to know
these four properties of a

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا in order to use a

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا in a sentence.
So every

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا has four properties.
1.

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا – case, the role of a noun in the sentence.
2.

س
ْ
ن
ِ
ج – gender, masculine and feminine.
3.

د
َ
د
َ
ع – number, single, dual and plural.
4.

م
ْ
س
ِ
ق – type, definite and indefinite.

Note: All the terms of grammar when pronounced there
should be a (
ْ
ْ) Sukoon on the last letter.
Examples:

م
ْ
س
ِ
ا =
ْ
م
ْ
س
ِ
ا – ism

ل
ْ
ع
ِ
ف =
ْ
ل
ْ
ع
ِ
ف – fi’l

ف
ْ
ر
َ
ح =
ْ
ف
ْ
ر
َ
ح – harf

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا =
ْ
با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا – i’raab

س
ْ
ن
ِ
ج=
ْ
س
ْ
ن
ِ
ج – jins (pronounced “s” not “z”)

د
َ
د
َ
ع=
ْ
د
َ
د
َ
ع – adad

م
ْ
س
ِ
ق=
ْ
م
ْ
س
ِ
ق – qism



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1.

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا – the case of a noun (declension)

The change of a

ة
َ
ك
َ
ر
َ
ح (vowel) of the last letter is called

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا
(I’raab) - declension.
All مسا (nouns) has three grammatical cases (

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا).
1.

ع
ْ
ف
َ
ر (Raf’) - the nominative case (the doer or subject case)
There are many grammatical reasons why a noun will be in
عفر case. One reason is the doer (

ل
ِ
عا
َ
ف) of the verb is in عفر case.
2.

ب
ْ
ص
َ
ن (Nasb) - the objective case (the object or detail case)
There are many grammatical reasons why a noun will be in
بصن case. One reason is the object ( ل
ْ
و
ُ
ع
ْ
ف
َ
م) of the verb is in
بصن case.
3.

ر
َ
ج (Jarr) - the possessive case (the after “of” case)
There are only two grammatical reasons why a noun will be
in رج case. One reason is the Mudaf Ilaihi (
ِ
ه
ْ
ي
َ
ل
ِ
ا

فا
َ
ض
ُ
م after
“of” ) meaning the possessor (book of Zaid) Zaid is called
Mudaf Ilaihi so it’s in رج case.
(We will learn Mudaf Ilaihi in more details later on)
If a مسا has Dammatain (

ْ) it is in عفر case.
If a مسا has Fathatain (

ْ) it is in بصن case.
If a مسا has Kasratain (

ْ) it is in رج case.

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In other words:
If a مسا is in عفر case Dammatain (

ْ) will be read on it.
If a مسا is in بصن case Fathatain (

ْ) will be read on it.
If a مسا is in رج case Kasratain (

ْ) will be read on it.
Example 1:
Zaid hit Hamid = ا

د
ِ
ما
َ
ح

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز
َ
ب
َ
ر
َ
ض
Zaid is the (subject) doer in this sentence. He did the action of
hitting, so in this sentence Zaid is in عفر case. Dammatain (

ْ) will
be read on it.

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز
And Hamid is object in this sentence, so Hamid is in بصن case.
Fathatain (

ْ) will be read on it. ا
ً
د
ِ
ما
َ
ح
Example 2:
Book of Zaid (Zaid’s book) =

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز
ُ
با
َ
ت
ِ
ك
Here Zaid is after “of” so Zaid is in رج case. Kasratain (

ْ) will be
read on it.

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز

Note: The meaning of مسا in all three cases is the same.

Note: The مسا in it’s default form is عفر case the Dammatain (

ْ)
will be read.



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The Signs of

با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا (Declension of Different Nouns)
About 98% ممسا (nouns) are called

ب
َ
رم
ْ
ع
ُ
م (Mu’rab) meaning its

ةم
َ
ك
َ
ر
َ
ح
(vowel) of the last letter changes.
Out of 98% , ممسا about 85% ممسا changes in all three cases. They
are called

ف
ِ
ر
َ
ص
ْ
ن
ُ
م (Munsarif)
About 85% nouns (فرصنم) will be in one of the three cases and
they will end in نيونت (Tanween).
Examples:
Possessive
Case
Objective
Case
Nominative
Case
Meaning Noun
رج بصن عفر ىنعم مسا

ل
ُ
ج
َ
ر

ل
ُ
ج
َ
ر

ل
ُ
ج
َ
ر man

ل
ُ
ج
َ
ر

ك
ِ
ل
َ
م ا

ك
ِ
ل
َ
م

ك
ِ
ل
َ
م king

ك
ِ
ل
َ
م

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز ا

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز Zaid

د
ْ
ي
َ
ز

د
ّ
م
َ
ُ
م ا

د
ّ
م
َ
ُ
م

د
ّ
م
َ
ُ
م Muhammad

د
ّ
م
َ
ُ
م

د
ِ
ج
ْ
س
َ
م ا

د
ِ
ج
ْ
س
َ
م

د
ِ
ج
ْ
س
َ
م mosque

د
ِ
ج
ْ
س
َ
م

ت
ْ
ي
َ
مب ا

ت
ْ
ي
َ
مب

ت
ْ
ي
َ
مب house

ت
ْ
ي
َ
مب

را
َ
د ا

را
َ
د

را
َ
د house

را
َ
د

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك ا

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك book

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك

م
َ
ل
َ
مق ا

م
َ
ل
َ
مق

م
َ
ل
َ
مق pen

م
َ
ل
َ
مق
خ
َ
ا ا

خ
َ
ا

خ
َ
ا brother

خ
َ
ا

ت
ْ
خ
ُ
ا ا

ت
ْ
خ
ُ
ا

ت
ْ
خ
ُ
ا sister

ت
ْ
خ
ُ
ا