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Lesson 10
ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض
Using pronouns - ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض- as م ءادتب
Pronouns (ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض – singular
ْ
ي
ِ
م
َ
ض) are words used as a substitute for
a noun like he, she, his, her, their, them, I, It, etc.
We’ve learnt that ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض are مسا – nouns so we need to know the
four properties of ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض and they are:
1. (بارعا) – the case, رج, بصن , عفر.
2. (سنج) – the gender, masculine and feminine.
3. (ددع) – the number, singular, dual and plural.
4. (مسق) – the type, definite and indefinite.
We know that ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض are ةفرعم definite. Let us look at the chart
below to learn the other three. We are going to learn the ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض in
عفر case for now, the other two cases of ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض we will learn later.
عفر / ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض
عج نثم دحاو

ْ
م
ُ
ه ا
َ
ُ
ه
َ
و
ُ
ه ر
ّ
كذم ب
ِ
ئا
َ
غ
3
rd
person

ن
ُ
ه ا
َ
ُ
ه
َ
ى
ِ
ه ثنؤم

ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا ا
َ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
َ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا ر
ّ
كذم ب
َ
طا
َُ
م
2
nd
person

ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا ا
َ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
ِ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا ثنؤم

ُ
ن
ْ
َ ن ا
َ
ن
َ
ا
ر
ّ
كذم م
ّ
ل
َ
ك
َ
ت
ُ
م
1
st
person
ثنؤم

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The third person (ب
ِ
ئا
َ
غ) is the person or thing that is being spoken
about, e.g. (
َ
و
ُ
ه – he, it).
The second person (ب
َ
طا
َُ
م) is the one who is being addressed, e.g.
(
َ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا - you).
The first person (م
ّ
ل
َ
ك
َ
ت
ُ
م) is the one who is speaking, e.g. (ا
َ
ن
َ
ا - I).
Now we have learnt the ر
ِ
ئا
َ
م
َ
ض in عفر case let’s use them as ءادتبم.
Examples:
He is a Muslim
َ
و
ُ
ه

م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م
They (two) are Muslims
ِ
نا
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م ا
َ
ُ
ه
They (all) are Muslims
ْ
م
ُ
ه
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م

She is a Muslim
َ
ى
ِ
ه

ة
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م
They (two f) are Muslims
ِ
نا
َ
ت
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م ا
َ
ُ
ه
They (all f) are Muslims

تا
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م

ن
ُ
ه

You are a Muslim
َ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا

م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م
You (two) are Muslims
ِ
نا
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م ا
َ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
You (all) are Muslims
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م

You (f) is a Muslim
ِ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا

ة
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م
You (two f) are Muslims
ِ
نا
َ
ت
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م ا
َ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
You (all f) are Muslims

تا
َ
م
ِ
ل
ْ
س
ُ
م

ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا


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He is pious
َ
و
ُ
ه

ح
ِ
لا
َ
ص
They (two) are pious ا
َ
ُ
ه
ِ
نا
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص
They (all) are pious
ْ
م
ُ
ه
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
ِ
لا
َ
ص

She is pious
َ
ى
ِ
ه

ة
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص
They (two f) are pious ا
َ
ُ
ه
ِ
نا
َ
ت
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص
They (all f) are pious

ن
ُ
ه

تا
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص

I am a worshipper

د
ِ
با
َ
ع ا
َ
ن
َ
ا
You (all) are worshippers
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
د
ِ
با
َ
ع
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
We (all ) are worshippers
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
د
ِ
با
َ
ع
ُ
ن
ْ
َ ن
You (all) are wrong doers
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
م
ِ
لا
َ
ظ
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
You (all) are witness
ُ
ءا
َ
د
َ
ه
ُ
ش
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
You (all) are intoxicated ى
َ
را
َ
ك
ُ
س
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
You (all) are ignorant
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
ل
ِ
ها
َ
ج
You (all) are grateful
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
ر
ِ
كا
َ
ش
ْ
م
ُ
ت
ْ
ن
َ
ا
We are reformers
ُ
ن
ْ
َ ن
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
ح
ِ
ل
ْ
ص
ُ
م
we are joking
ِ
ز
ْ
ه
َ
ت
ْ
س
ُ
م
ُ
ن
ْ
َ ن
َ
ن
ْ
و
ُ
ئ
We are helpers

را
َ
ص
ْ
ن
َ
ا
ُ
ن
ْ
َ ن