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Lesson 12

ص
ِ
قا
َ
ن بكرم
Murakkab Naaqis - phrase

We have learnt that

م ر ب
ّ
ك is of two types:
1.

ما
َ
ت بكرم -Murakkab Taam- complete (sentence).
2.

ص
ِ
قا
َ
ن بكرم -Murakkab Naaqis- incomplete (phrase).
In this lesson we are going to learn

ص
ِ
قا
َ
ن بكرم.
صقان بكرم - phrase is a combination of ةملك from which no
information is understood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g.
a good man; a man’s book.

صقان بكرم - phrase is of several types. To understand Quran we
just need to learn four بكرمs and they are:

ِ
فا
َ
ض
ِ
ا بكرم
possessive phrase
3

ى
ِ
ف
ْ
ي
ِ
ص
ْ
و
َ
ت بكرم
descriptive phrase
1

ى
ّ
را
َ
ج بكرم
genitive phrase
4

ى
ِ
را
َ
ش
ِ
ا بكرم
demonstrative phrase
2













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بكرم

ى
ِ
ف
ْ
ي
ِ
ص
ْ
و
َ
ت (descriptive phrase)
The descriptive phrase is a combination of two nouns wherein
the second noun describes the first. In such cases the second
noun will be an adjective. e.g. (

ح
ِ
لا
َ
ص

ل

ج
َ
ر) – a pious man.
The first part of ىفيصوت بكرم is called فوصوم (Mawsoof) while the
second part is called the فص ة (Sifat). In the above example, the
word (

ل

ج
َ
ر) is فوصوم and the word (

ح
ِ
لا
َ
ص) is فص ة .
فص ة will be in full agreement with فوصوم in terms of:
م
ْ
س
ِ
ق : definite (ةفرعم) and indefinite (ةركن).
If the فوصوم is a definite noun then the فص ة will also be definite.
Similarly if the فوصوم is an indefinite noun then the فص ة will also
be indefinite.
س
ْ
ن
ِ
ج : masculine and feminine.
If the فوصوم is masculine then the فص ة will also be masculine and
vice versa.
ددع : singular, dual and plural.
If the فوصوم is singular then the فص ة will also be singular. Similarly
is the case for dual and plural.
با
َ
ر
ْ
ع
ِ
ا :
If the فوصوم is in عفر, بصن or رج case, the فص ة will also be in the عفر,
بصن or رج case respectively.


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In ىفيصوت بكرم construction if the فوصوم is plural non-human
ْ
ي
َ
غ
ل
ِ
قا
َ
ع - noun then the فص ة will be singular feminine but plural
feminine can also come.
When you want to make ىفيصوت بكرم from English to Arabic, first
find out whether the ىفيصوت بكرم construction is definite (ةفرعم) or
indefinite (ةركن).
If the phrase starts with “a”, “an”, “few” or “some” the phrase is
ةركن.
“a pious man” is ىفيصوت بكرم indefinite (ةركن) construction.
“an ugly man” is ىفيصوت بكرم indefinite (ةركن) construction.
“some pious men” is ىفيصوت بكرم indefinite (ةركن) construction.
“few tall men” is ىفيصوت بكرم indefinite (ةركن) construction.

If the phrase starts with “the” the phrase is ةفرعم.
“the pious man” is ىفيصوت بكرم definite (ةفرعم) construction.
“the ugly man” is ىفيصوت بكرم definite (ةفرعم) construction.
“the tall men” is ىفيصوت بكرم definite (ةفرعم) construction.
In English the ( فص ة ) comes first and then (فوصوم) e.g. a pious man.
To make “a pious man” ىفيصوت بكرم in Arabic follow the steps
below;
1. Remove the “a” or “the”.
2. Start from the right, write down the Arabic nouns like this;

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a pious man

ح
ِ
لا
َ
ص

ل

ج
َ
ر
Note: All the صقان بكرم (phrase) construct in عفر case (the default
case of the Ism).
Examples:
ةركن
ثنؤم ركذم

ة
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص

ت
ْ
ن
ِ
ب
a pious girl

ح
ِ
لا
َ
ص

د
َ
ل
َ
و
a pious boy
دحاو

ِ
نا
َ
ت
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص
ِ
نا
َ
ت
ْ
ن
ِ
ب
two pious girls

ِ
نا
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص
ِ
نا
َ
د
َ
ل
َ
و
two pious boys
نثم

تا
َ
ِ
لا
َ
ص

تا
َ
ن
َ
ب
Few pious girls

َ
ن
ْ
و

ِ
لا
َ
ص

د
َ
ل
ْ
و
َ
ا
Few pious boys
عج

Examples:
ةفرعم
ثنؤم ركذم

ة
َ
ِ
لا
ّ
صلا

ت
ْ
ن
ِ
بْل
َ
ا
the pious girl

ح
ِ
لا
ّ
صلا

د
َ
ل
َ
وْل
َ
ا
the pious boy
دحاو

ِ
نا
َ
ت
َ
ِ
لا
ّ
صلا
ِ
نا
َ
ت
ْ
ن
ِ
بْل
َ
ا
the two pious girls

ِ
نا
َ
ِ
لا
ّ
صلا
ِ
نا
َ
د
َ
ل
َ
وْل
َ
ا
the two pious boys
نثم

تا
َ
ِ
لا
ّ
صلا

تا
َ
ن
َ
بْل
َ
ا
َ
ن
ْ
و

ِ
لا
ّ
صلا

د
َ
ل
ْ
و
َ
ْ
ل
َ
ا عج

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the pious girls the pious boys
Examples:
ل
ِ
قا
َ
ع
ْ
ي
َ
غ عج ر
ّ
سكم - plural non-human

ة
َ
ر
ّ
ه
َ
ط

م

ف

ح

ص
pure books

ّ
ر
َ
ف
َ
ت
ّ
م

با
َ
و
ْ
ب
َ
ا

ة
َ
ق
different doors

تا
َ
د
ْ
و

د
ْ
ع
َ
م

ما
ّ
ي
َ
ا
fixed days

ة
َ
د
ْ
و

د
ْ
ع
َ
م

ما
ّ
ي
َ
ا
fixed days

تا
َ
ر
َ
ق
َ
ب

نا
َ
ِ
س
fat cows

تا
َ
م
ْ
و

ل
ْ
ع
َ
م

ر

ه
ْ
ش
َ
ا
known months


Examples from the Qur’an:

The clear book [
ْ
ي
ِ
ب

مْلا

با
َ
ت
ِ
كْل
َ
ا 1221 ] 1
A clear book [
ْ
ي
ِ
ب

م

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك 5215 ] 2
A noble book [

ْ
ي
ِ
ر
َ
ك

با
َ
ت
ِ
ك 22222 ] 3
A clear recitation [
ْ
ي
ِ
ب

م

نآ
ْ
ر

ق 1521 ] 4
A glorious recitation [

د
ْ
ي
ِ
َ
م

نآ
ْ
ر

ق 15221 ] 5
The glorious recitation [

د
ْ
ي
ِ
ج
َ
مْلا

نآ
ْ
ر

قْل
َ
ا 5:21 ] 6
A noble recitation [

ْ
ي
ِ
ر
َ
ك

نآ
ْ
ر

ق 57222 ] 7
The mighty recitation

نآ
ْ
ر

قْل
َ
ا [

م
ْ
ي
ِ
ظ
َ
عْلا 15212 ] 8
An ample mercy [

ة
َ
ع
ِ
سا
َ
و

ة
َ
ْ
ح
َ
ر 721:2 ] 9
Another sign [ ى
َ
ر
ْ
خ

ا

ة
َ
يآ 2:222 ] 10
Another god

ر
َ
خآ

ه
ٰ
ل
ِ
ا [ 15227 ] 11
The last day [

ر
ِ
خ
ْ
لا

م
ْ
و
َ
يْل
َ
ا 22127 ] 12

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A great day

م
ْ
و
َ
ي [

ر
ْ
ي
ِ
ب
َ
ك 1123 ] 13
A severe punishment [

د
ْ
ي
ِ
د
َ
ش

با
َ
ذ
َ
ع 32: ] 14
The severe punishment [

د
ْ
ي
ِ
دّ شلا

با
َ
ذ
َ
عْل
َ
ا 1:212 ] 15
A mighty day [

م
ْ
ي
ِ
ظ
َ
ع

م
ْ
و
َ
ي 7215 ] 16
A great reward [

م
ْ
ي
ِ
ظ
َ
ع

ر
ْ
ج
َ
ا 32122 ] 17
A noble reward [

ْ
ي
ِ
ر
َ
ك

ر
ْ
ج
َ
ا 52211 ] 18
A mighty punishment. [

م
ْ
ي
ِ
ظ
َ
ع

با
َ
ذ
َ
ع 222 ] 19
A great reward [

ر
ْ
ي
ِ
ب
َ
ك

ر
ْ
ج
َ
ا 11211 ] 20
A faithful messenger

س
َ
ر
ْ
و [
ْ
ي
ِ
م
َ
ا ل 2721:2 ] 21
A noble messenger

س
َ
ر و

ْ
ي
ِ
ر
َ
ك ل [ 1:212 ] 22
The secure town [
ْ
ي
ِ
م
َ
ْ
لا

د
َ
ل
َ
بْل
َ
ا 2523 ] 23
A clear messenger [
ْ
ي
ِ
ب

م ل
ْ
و

س
َ
ر :3222 ] 24
Clear signs
ٰ
ا
ٰ
ي ٰ ن
ّ
ي
َ
ب
ٍ
ت
ٍ
ت [ 5125 ] 25
A humiliating punishment

با
َ
ذ
َ
ع
ْ
ي
ِ
ه

م [ 5125 ] 26
Abundant fruits
ٍ
ة
َ
ه
ِ
ك
ٰ

َ
ف
ٍ
ة
َ
ي
ِ
ث
َ
ك [ 57232 ] 27
Purified spouses

ة
َ
ر
ّ
ه
َ
ط

م

جا
َ
و
ْ
ز
َ
ا [ 2225 ] 28
Birds in flocks
ْ
ي
َ
ط ا
ً
ر
َ
لي
ِ
با
َ
بَأ [ 1:523 ] 29
Allah, the Eternal ٱ

ه
ّ
لل ٱ

د
َ
م
ّ
صل [ 11222 ] 30
Painful punishment

م
ْ
ي
ِ
ل
َ
ا

با
َ
ذ
َ
ع [ 222: ] 31
Good word

ة
َ
ب
ّ
ي
َ
ط

ة
َ
م
ِ
ل
َ
ك [ 1:22: ] 32
Good tree

ة
َ
ب
ّ
ي
َ
ط

ة
َ
ر
َ
ج
َ
ش [ 1:22: ] 33
Good provision

ن
َ
س
َ
ح

ق
ْ
ز
ِ
ر [ 11211 ] 3:
Clear trial
ْ
ي
ِ
ب

م

ء
َ
ل
َ
ب [ ::233 ] 35