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Planning is a process of developing strategies to accomplish the goals. Planning in organizations provides a logical framework approach to the goal. It helps to improve the performance of the company. Planning, learning and development is becoming increasingly important in all organizations to become successful in the present competitive world. There are various planning models like strategic planning, Issue based planning, alignment planning, scenario planning, organic planning etc.., People have to continue learning to develop their skills along with the changing world. Learning theories like behaviorism, cognitive, constructivism, design-based and humanism theories will help in understanding the importance of the L&D in the organization. The concept of identifying and analyzing the importance of training and learning is necessary at different levels. The various theories and models have a functional involvement for L&D research and practice. However, all the models present only a partial imminent in actual workplace. Learning and development is concerned with how the individuals can gain the knowledge and skills which will assist them to execute the performance well in his future career. Planning is very important and has to be done properly to attain a goal of the organization.Development occurs as a result of the learning,coaching,mentoring,training,planning etc..The motivation of learning and development may differ in individuals depending on their goals.Through Learning people should change from what they were and should be able to produce a proper output. Learning and Development
Learning is a system that aquaints people with the material and technology needed.It helps them to use the material in an approved manner.To perform the assigned task,all the employees need to apply the unique technology governing their tasks.
Development is a trajectory of an individual or an organization which takes place as a result of learning and may be through experience or suppoerted by training,education and other work place based activities.
Management development planning term refers to the activities involved in enhancing leaders', managers' and supervisor's abilities to plan, organize, lead and control the organization and its members. Consequently, many view the term "management development" to include executive development (developing executives), supervisors). leadership development (developing leaders), managerial development (developing managers) and supervisorial development (developing
Management development is an effort that enhances the learner's ability to manage organizations. Managing includes activities of planning, organizing, leading and coordinating resources. A critical skill for anyone is the ability to manage their own learning
The main purpose of learning and development as a process is to help collective improvement through the joint and expert stimulation and facilitation of learning and knowledge that support business goals,develop individual potential and build on diversity.
Leaning and development provides a wide range of activities to improve the capacity of the individual. L&D can be designed to deliver specific skills in a short time to meet an immediate need or can be designed to attain broader requirements over a longer period.
Theories surrounding Learning There are various theories surrounding the learning and development which include • • • •
Behaviourism theories Cogtnitivism theories Humanism thories Social and situational theories etc.., The key concepts(main purpose and view point) of these theories can be compared in a tabular column for better understanding of the importance of the learning theories in the development of an organization or an individual
✔ There are different roles for all the theories in the individual development.
Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Tolman, Skinner
Koffka, Kohler, Maslow, Lewin, Piaget, Rogers Ausubel, Hull, Bruner, Gagne
Bandura, and Salomon
the Change behavior
in Inner process
mental A personal act Interaction to fulfill potential of an contexts. individual.
the study in social Movement from the periphery to the centre of a community practice of
(including insight, information processing, memory, perception
of Stimuli external environment
in Internal cognitive structuring
cognitive needs association between people and environment.
in Produce Behavioral change desired direction
Develop capacity better
Become and actualized,
self- Complete participation communities practice utilization resources in of and of
in skills to learn independent.
Educator's or Arranges
environment to content response
of development of establish whole communities of person practice in which conversation and contribution can occur.
extract desired learning activity the
The needs analysis model of McGehee and Thayer suggested that the research should be done at different levels
a) Individual level analysis:- Analysing the performance of an individual
b) Job level:-Identifying the amount of knowledge and skill required for a specific job c) Organizational level:-Analyzing the requirement of training in the organization.
Planning consists of some essential and significant aspects to be considered, which include goals, strategies, resources, objectives, tasks etc., Goals: Goals are the important aspects that should be accomplished in total by the organization. Goals are mission of an organization. Strategies and achievements: To achieve the goals in the organization strategies should be planned and followed. Strategies are the processes in the system. Objectives:
Objectives are specific targets that must be accomplished to achieve the goal in total. To achieve the goals, objectives are the milestones, which should be implementing the strategies. Tasks: In organizations people are usually assigned with various tasks to implement the plans. If the scope of the plan is small then the responsibilities and activities are essentially the same. Resources: Resources in an organization include people, material, technologies, money etc.., which are required to implement the strategies to accomplish the goals. Costs of these resources are estimated in the form of budget.
There is no one perfect
planning model for each organization. All the own environment and model of
organization ends with developing their developing their own planning process.
planning, often by selecting a model and modifying it as they go along in The models like strategic planning, Issue based planning, alignment planning, scenario planning, organic planning etc.., which organizations might select process.
provide a range of alternatives from planning
and start to develop their own
An organization might choose to integrate different planning models, e.g., work force planning model in an organisation is used in developing and retaining the staff. Using a scenario model to creatively identify strategic issues and goals, and then an issues-based model to carefully strategize to address the issues and reach the goals.
Planning determines the future of the organization. The focus of strategic planning is mainly on the entire organization, while the focus of the business plan is usually on a service, product or program.
The planning is developed depending on the nature of the leadership, size, capability of planners etc.., in the organization. Development of the planning greatly helps to clarify the organization's plans and make sure that key leaders are all "in the same play". The process of planning is more important than the strategic plan document.
1. Basic strategic model
Basic strategic model of planning is a very fundamental process is normally followed by organizations that are enormously small, busy, and have not done much planning before. Planning is usually conceded out by top-level administration. This basic strategic planning process includes:
a. Identifying the function of the organization (mission statement) - This
describes the organization its basic purpose. The statement should explain what are the client needs are and what are the services expected by them. The toplevel management should develop and agree on the mission statement. The statements will change over the years.
b. Selecting the goals the organization must achieve - Goals are about what the
organization need to accomplish to meet the purpose.
c. Identify specific strategies that must be implemented to reach the goal - By
closely examining the environments of the organization or by conducting PEST and SWOT analysis specific strategies should be implemented to accomplish the goals
d. Implement the action plans for each strategy - These are the definite actions
that each department must undertake to make sure that the implementation of each strategy is done properly. Objectives should be clear, to the extent that public can assess if the objectives have been met. The top management should ideally develop detailed committees that each has a work plan.
e. Monitoring the plan - Planners frequently reflect on the level to which the goals
are being reached and whether the action plans are being implemented correctly. The most significant indicator of accomplishment of the organization is the positive feedback from the customers. Monitoring requires existing and appropriate data. When the plans are not being implemented according to targeted time, corrective actions must be implemented to reach the target.
1. Issue based Model
Organizations that start with the “basic” planning evolve to using this wider ranging and more efficient type of planning. Issue-Based (or Goal-Based) Planning The organizations may not perform all the following activities every year. 1. External and internal measurement to identify “SWOT” and “PESTEL”.
2. Calculated analysis to classify and prioritize major issues and goals. 3. Design most important programs to address issues and goals. 4. Design and update idea, mission and principles. Some organizations may do follow this step first in planning. 5. Establish action plans for implementing the plans. 6. Document the analysis, issues, goals and action plans of the organization. 7. Develop the yearly Operating Plan record. 8. Develop and approve financial plan for year one. 10. Monitor, estimate and update Strategic Plan document
3. Alignment Model
The main principle of this model is to make sure that there is a strong alignment between the organization’s mission and its resources to efficiently function the organization. This model is useful for organizations that require altering strategies and finding out the problem during the function of a plan. An organization plans to choose this model if it’s facing a large amount of issues. 4. Workforce planning model Effective workforce plan is an important tool to identify appropriate.
An organization that does not plan its future is not likely to have one -Ronald Gunn, Management consultant, strategic futures consulting group.
Effective workforce plan is an essential tool to identify suitable staffing levels and validate budget allocations so that organizations can accomplish their objectives.
Workforce planning is a efficient process for identifying the human capital necessary to meet the organization goals and developing the strategies to meet their requirements.
To accomplish my mission, I must have talented people in the right jobs with the right skills at the right time and in the right way. -Janice Lachance, Director, U.S office of personnel Management
Workforce planning model
Summary of work force Planning Model a. Set Strategic direction
This step involves linking between the workforces planning process with the organization strategic plan. The main purposes of workforce planning are to ensure that an organization has the required workers to support their mission and strategic plan. the objectives of its strategic plan Those responsible for workforce planning should identify the organization’s mission and
b. Analyze workforce, Identify skill gaps and conduct workforce analysis Analysis of workforce data is the main element in the workforce planning process. Workforce analysis usually considers information such as occupations, skills and experience, retirement eligibility, diversity, turnover rates, and trend data. c. Develop and implement action plans Implementation brings your workforce plan to life. You may need a separate action plan to address the implementation of each strategy in the workforce plan. The workforce plan should be implemented in connection with the requirements of the organization’s strategic plan. If the strategic plan changes due to unanticipated customer, leadership, or legislative changes, adjustments to workforce plan strategies may be necessary.
d. Monitor, Evaluate, and Revise
The evaluation and adjustments are very important in workforce planning and are keys to continuous improvement. Although a workforce plan should cover five years, it should be reviewed annually. If an Organization does not regularly review its workforce planning efforts, it runs the risk of failing to respond to unexpected changes.
GENERAL STEPS IN PLANNING PROCESS
Human resources concerns
Identify the mission of Identifying the mission and managers should publicize the organization and support the end result: a philosophy to guide decision-makers.
Scan the environment
Analyse the situation
SWOT and PESTEL analysis is usually done to analyse the current situation of the organization.
Determine long term Results of the SWOT and PESTEL analysis will help in goals setting the goals that are concerned with the mission.
Establish the strategies Strategies are developed to attain the goals of the
organization 6 Identify objectives interim The amount of work to be done in the short term to reach the long term goal should be considered. Human resources staff should assure that a full complement of properly trained staff are available
Assign time lines and Objectives will not be accomplished unless persons are responsibilities held responsible to address them. Often the tasks must be accomplished in addition to other responsibilities. If they are not properly managed, it can create difficulties and stress and delay achievement of objectives.
Communicate the plan
employees as it should progress in attaining The managers’ help with communication of activities and their support is important. 9 Monitoring and taking actions the plan Monitoring requires existing and appropriate data. When correct the plans are not being implemented according to targeted time corrective actions are essential. The role of managers in this step depends on the accomplishment of target that required corrective action. 10 Acknowledgement of a Responsibility cannot be delegated, but achievement is successful plan not possible without the efficient performance of one’s subordinates. The managers should be responsible if plans are not accomplished and plans can only be flourishing because of the assistance and help of the staff members who are involved in the work. Acknowledgements like compensation, increase in the salary (bonus) are examples of execution of celebrations. 11 Continuing the plan- The planning process should be part of a progressing ning process plan. If a five year planning prospect is used. Every year planners should move forward to additional year into the
planning prospect, so that there are constantly long term goals.
Example of Planning learning and development in APS(Australian Public Service)
Efficient and effective achievement of government outcomes by Australian Public Service (APS) agencies depends on the capabilities of their people. Capability building, which is central to organizational performance, requires a systematic management approach to learning and development as an integral part of workforce planning.
Key drivers of learning and development in the APS
The expectations for more reactive and available government services have led to different ways of delivering services by the APS. This system required novel skills, altered work practices and changed cultures. The demand for core public service skills remains same. The focus in learning and development has shifted as a result, with more emphasis on producing a flexible and adaptable workforce underpinned by a re-emphasis on sound administrative and financial skills.
Shifting attitudes of today's workforce towards learning and development also require a changed response by organization, reinforcing the need to provide continual learning and development in order to attract and retain staff and to be an employer of choice.
The changing size, nature, career intentions and patterns of new entrants and increased lateral engagement of older people, require a more structured approach to learning and development. The APS also faces increased competition for new entrants into the labor market and pressures on the retention of skilled employees.
An increased emphasis by the Government and Parliament on performance improvement and accountability for the effectiveness of learning and development outcomes and expenditure, in a more devolved environment, requires rigorous analysis and reporting on learning and development.
Key enabling features in managing learning and development Everyone has a responsibility in managing learning and development to achieve outcomes efficiently and effectively. Learning and development are critical processes for enhancing productivity and organizational performance. Research shows high-performing organizations in Australia and overseas share certain features in relation to learning and development as follows: • They align and integrate their learning and development initiatives with corporate and business planning by reviewing existing activities and initiating new learning programs to support corporate plans. • • The corporate culture supports these initiatives and addresses cultural barriers to learning. They focus on the business application of training rather than the type of training, and they consider appropriate learning options - de-emphasizing classroom training and allowing staff time to process what they have learned on the job consistent with adult learning principles. • They evaluate learning and development formally, systematically and rigorously.
Approaches to people management in the APS The principles in this guide are regardless of the framework adopted by organizations. Whatever broad framework is adopted, effective learning and development requires a systematic and structured approach driven from the top if it is to be successful.
Evaluation of the impact people development has on the organization
“The most common reason for evaluation is to determine te effectiveness so future programs can be improved”says Donald.L.Kirkpatrick in supervisory Training and development.L&D efforts are normally evaluated can be divided into three major categories:
• • •
Contribution to organizational goals, Achievement of learning objectives and Perceptions of the learners and their managers
Most organizations carry out evaluation at the reaction level,but few attempts to assess changes in behaviour of criteria of organizational effectiveness(Ralphs and Stephan,1986;Saari et al..,1988;Training in Britain,1989). (Performance = Ability × Motivation ×Opportunity). People development will have a lot of impact on the organization performance. Competitive success through people involves fundamentally altering the way we think about the workforce and the employment association. Success can be achieved by working with people, not by replacing them or limiting the scope of their activities. Firms that take this different perspective are often able to sucessfully outsmart and outperform the rivals.
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