You are on page 1of 8

'pa^rasuoc

q
+r ?tsq? /lroqs
pu' rua?sds
sF{? roJ,,(8raua
ue alndtuo3
T
- va
zt P
o
nzP
o? secnpar
,uorldurnss'
IruJaq?osr uB qlr,n\
,?eq?
uor?n?c'
cr?tsuneudouraql
Jo lapo.'
Surrds-sse*
n
".r*tsxe
[[rA\
arvr g raldqc
q
.,
'rla,n\
Frlual0d srql
Jo
srrrro?
fi runppuad
aql
Jo
suor?oru
alqrssod
oq1 ssncsro
'rua1s"ts
sFI? roJ
llo/lr Inr?ua10d aq1
?otd
,6
ualqord
uro4 d8.re
-ua
a{? Sursn
'z
urelqor4
*ori uorlenba
,un1np,r"o
oq? roprsuoc
ure8y
.g
?l ?tsql ..rtoqs
pu .''a?s,ts
srql roy da.raue
ue alnduroc
uoql
filrrrr:"ilj r{1lA\ sa{e.'
por aqt al'ue
aq? q p
JI
.uor?crrJ
porou'r
aABq o./$, oroq.&r
, 0: ( B) ur " a&
0zP
-uou
aq? o1 Burprocrts
a?Bllrrso
ilr^r
(runppuad
e) por
orrlr"?t#:rffiT
a
sltl?
Jo
dcuanbar;
eq? pug
,uorlcrr;
Burrou8l
.re?e.*
oq? q
"^",
ffiriT;
e?e''rcso
il',{ ?r
pas'olar
sr
1r
JI
'pre.rvr.dn
1i
seqsnd
ro?',.v\
paeeldsrp
aq1
3o 1q8ra.,rr aq? o+
lenbo
ocroJ
A.rirogrn,
e
(pessardap
dllq8rrs
sr araqd,
",{+
JI
're?B/$'
30 100d
e ur paSrauqns
JItsq
s?rs g ,r,rpnr
30
araqds
^\o[oq
v
.r
g.g
uol+ca[
sasrf,raxo
6.q
I
ror pu* drqsuo r1e
rar
s ft
r?
Bu r.roldxe
*,
"
r"l;]:r"l1, l1"r;,1,#5,:,iff
ll;
-aql't\r 'rsauquou
sr acu?rcedec
pu uor?tsruroJop
aq? uaanolaq
drqs
-uotllar
arIJ
'pBoI
_o? pelcotqns
uaqa
ruroJap
so1e1d
pu* sau'rq..,a..,
^\oq
Jo
a8palmoul
uodn saqa'ol,r",
arnssard
err.rlrcedeD
B
Jo
u8rsap
aqJ
.
?ctsxo'suorlenlr'^:j:'!:u;'ffi
fl [-;i",I,
jfr
':"'ff
ff ]';;::?lrff
luasard sr acusuosar
Jo
uououroueqd
aql ,,(i1eruoa'
Jo +ca'o aqt pus Surqclerls
puts
Burpuaq
o? acu+srsar
sornrdec
uorlenbe
a1e1d
aq;
.sdurn
-dorcrtu
pu' sa^lAorcrur
se qcns sacr^op
IoJ Jo
sluauodtuo,
"*
sa+[d
o
TLL
sarnJcruls
co?sDlg
6ur,ppo14J
L72
\ l 5 .
Modeli,ng MEMS and NEMS
Again consider the isothermal thermopneumatic
actuator from
p
4. using the energy from Problem 4, plot the potential
well for
system. Discuss the possible
motions of the pendulum
in terms of
potential
well.
6. Again consider the equation of motion for a pendulum
from
problem
Rewrite this as a first-order system. Find ail critical points
of this
in the phase plane. Linearize near each critical point and determine
local behavior of solutions.
7. Again consider the equation of thermopneumatic
actuation from
lem 4. Rewrite this as a first-order system. Find all critical points
this system in the phase plane. Linearize near each critical point
a
determine the local behavior of solutions.
Plot the frequency-response
diagram for the forced mass-spring
for various values of
?.
How does the resonant frequency .ha.rge
f
How does the magnitude of the response depend on
1?
H;
the width of the peak depend on
7?
Discuss your answer in terrns
the
Q
for the system.
9. Compute an effective spring constant for an elastic microbeam of
1500pm, width 5pm, and height 10prm.
you
may assume a
y
modulus of 150GPa.
Compute the natural frequency of the beam system from problem
g
modeling it as a mass-spring and using your effective spring consta
Assume the beam has density 2300kg/m3
using the effective spring constant from
problem
9 and assuming
density of 2300kg
l^t,
consider a mass-spring system where the mr
is a ball 10pm in diameter. If the
e
is 250,,000, what is the
constant a?
IJsing the modified nonlinear version of Hooke,s law, write down
governing
equation for an undamped mass-spring oscillator. scale
equation and interpret the dimensionless constants that arise.
an energy and sketch the potential
well for this system.
Secti on 5.4
13. constd,u:,r,r"ud{-:pt"j."formations
of an erastic string with load p(c)
(y
-
t1z1@
+ L/2). Find the shape of the deflecteJ string using
Green's function representation
of the solution.
''
14. Consider an elastic string with initial deformation sin(rr) that is
leased from rest. solve for the motion of the string at all times f )
Plot your solution for various times.
8.
10.
11.
L2.
'eu/3{OOg6
.,{gsuep
pue
'e4pggT
snlnpoul s,Sunon
,rurlg
: fl, r{lplm
,rur/gg9T
:
7
q18ua1
qll^\ uorlcos-ssorc arenbs
Jo
ruoq e;o dcuanba4
1ern1tsu lsa/!\ol
eql puld
'oorJ
pua
raqlo aq? puts pauurd pue ouo qlyr
7
q13ua1
Jo
tuaq
Jo
sarcuanba.r;
Irn?u
aql puTd
'peuurd
pua raq?o aql puts padruelc pua auo r{?T/!\
?
qfual
Jo
rrraq ts
Jo
sarcuanber;
Iernltsu
eql puld
.aarJ
pue raqlo aql pu
peduelc pua auo qll/\{
7
q$ua1Jo rutsaq e
Jo
sarcuanber;
Itsrn}eu
oq? puTJl
.IIItsaq
aql Jo uol l coEap aql r oJ a^I oS
. 7
> q> D
>
0
r {?T/ ! \
Q:
r pLr ED: n
slurod a{t
le
pelldde arv
d
q?8uar1s
Jo
spol pelr]uacuoc o.ry\1 esoddng
'spua
qloq
1e
papoddns dldunrs sr
?q1
7
qfuel
Jo
luaq raprsuoc
' zz
'07,
' I 7,
)q eq?
Jo
uorlcauop oql roJ a^los
.paxu
sr pua q-?Unq aq1 asoddng
.parldde
st
,n
:
(,*)d pol urroJrunuou
esoddng
' [z' o]
)
,r
uor8ar aq? Surddncco rutsaq pero^olr]utsc raprsuoC
.6I
.pouurd
sr pua auo puts aarJ sr pua auo 3u(unsse lutsoq aql
Jo
uorlcouep aqt puT,il
'pauurd
sr pua auo pu poxu sr pua ouo Sururnssts ureq oql
Jo
uorlcauap
aq? puld
'paxg
arts spua q?oq Sununsse tuaq ar{1Jo uor?couap aql put,f
'd- 'epnlru8eur
Jo
pol
?u+suor
01 pe?cafqns ureaq Drlwle u raprsuoc
.gI
g.g uor?co
'poxu
plaq ar aurquaur oq?
Jo
sa3pa aq? arunssv
.d
apnlruBeru
Jo
ptsol uroJrun o1 palcafqns auerquau arenbs
Jo
uor?cau
-ap
a1ts-dpeals aql pug 01 uorsuedxa uorlcunJueSra
Jo
poqlolll aq+ osn
.lI
eJolaured
ssaluorsuaurp
rnod uo puedop {ar{r op /v\oH
'urelsds
sHl roJ uor?rqr^
3o
sarcuanbar;
Irn?u
aq+ puld
'rolourBrd
rFIt
Jo
uorllordralur
lecrsdqd
o^rc
.uoll
-rpuoc
drepunoq rnod ur Sursrre ralerrr?rd ssaluorsuaurp s pu5 ppoqs
no^
'lxa?
eql uT eldurexa oql sts dem aues oql q uralqord srq? ezruols
-uaurpuoN 'I -
r
1
pexg q
?q?
7
qfual;o Burrls ts qcns reprsuoC
' (, +' o)' ! 9-rt
:
(, t , 0), nE
''
,frQ
saurocaq uorlrpuoc drepunoq elerrdordde eq1
,pua
Ual
sll
?
ry lutslsuoc
Surrds;o Surrds o? peqcl? sr 8urr1s crlstsla u
JI
.gI'
'soIIIrl
snorrA roJ uorlnlos rnof,
10ld
'0
< ?
solrlrl
IIe 1
8urr1s
aql
Jo
uorlolu oql roJ o^los
'lsar
ruo4 pastsolar sT
?r{1
(*
_
t),
uor?sru
-roJap
ITlluT
q?T/!t
[1
'g]
uor8er aql Surddncco 8urr1s cr?slo u raprsuoe
.gI
ELI sarn??ruJs ru?solg 6utppo74
'[1]
rltnprng-olpod pug surlrehl fq uanrE srgoord ? qcns
,
'ts-r
sraldeqJ
.rI
poruears pu? :racu*,
.ljl#Stll
'[tJ
nEnplnC-orpod
pue suru"I4l
.[1]
sourleg
.[t
reldeq3
.1]
>1cr,rnpeq3
'[t]
ztory pu? uurnlurrg
'[1]
Eue6 pu" ue^\og
slrJNaulrdiru
qsrca.rss
'$
suorluloJ
IIB
ralo
lO
-
.{l
sazrurrurul
l"ql
u
uorlelor
"
pllc :rualqord
l"uorlsrr"n
turmolloJ eql uo pes"q eq u"c
uorlrsodruocep
relod eqt
Jo
,Joord
ar"urelle u"
i"qirrroEEns (si)
rtnrrr er{r
'U
#
|
suorlelor
II"
roJ
( st )
l O
-
. { l
>
l u
-
sl
leql esues agt uI
d
ol uoll"lor
lsesolJ aql sr
u l3r{l A\oqs
.+ul_I
3
d
Jo
uolltsodruocap
relod aqr ol EurpuodserJoo
uorl"loJ eql aq
u la.I
.L
.lro
ol turpuodsar
-JOC
A
pm
n Jo
sJolceluaEre eql
"(lanrlcadser
.eru
!
puu
!e
ereq/h
l"tll A\or{S (q)
l"ql /roqs (e)
' *ul T
3
d Jo
suorlrsodruocep
relod
Uel
pue
tqEr: eql elouep
UA
. r o @! I : u
' ! a 8 l t r 3 : . f
suorlelueserder
eql
lnupe
U
puu.{
'(cro 'zo 'rco)
unrpeds eru?s eql eABq
A
pu"
n
' I ( D: S
yr ,(1uo pu"
JI A\
rosuel /r\a{s
selntutuoc
S
rosuet (culourul,(s fpressaceu
1ou)
"
l"ql rrrorls
.S
(rr)
,(rala qlrm
L I s3JNaUAdAU CAICA-riIS
52
,
III. rrunuATrcs
ExERclsss
1. Establish properties (i) and (ii) of homogeneous deformations.
2. A homogeneous deformation of the form
x r : P r * T P z ,
x 2 :
P2 ,
x l :
Pl
is called a pure shear. For this deformation compute:
(a) the matrices of F, C, and B;
(b) the list I
"
of principal invariants of C (or B);
(c) the principal stretches.
3. Compute C, B, and -f
"for
an extension of amount I in the direction e.
4- show that a deformation is isochoric if and only if det c
:
r.
5. Show that
C
-
I * Vu * Vur + VurVu.
6. Show that a deformation is rigid if and only if
g
c
: (3, 3, l).
7' Show that the
"' ":::;":;::";:;given
bv
rz(c)
:
)'?1?, + 1313 + 1? 1?,
h(c)
:
A?A313
with,l, the principal stretches.
8. A deformation of the form
xr
:
ft(pr,
pz),
x2
:
fz(Pt, Pz),
. x 3 : P t
is called a plane strain. Show that for such a deformation the principal
stretch ,lr (in the pr direction) is unity. Show further that the deformation
is isochoric if and only if the other two principal
stretches, ,1" and lp,
satisfy
7 o :
9,
r0
1 l
I
; .
A8
t
s8 III. rrNsMATrcs
6. Consider the deformation defined in cylindrical coordinates
P r : R c o s @,
P z : R s i n @,
P t - 2 ,
X l : r c O s 0 ,
: r s i l l 0 ,
by
r : R , 0 : @ * a Z , z : 2 .
A deformation of this type is called a pure torsion;it describes a situation
in which a cylinder with generators parallel to the Z-axis is twisted
uniformly along its length with cross sections remaining parallel and
plane. The constant a represents the angle of twist per unit length. Show
that the corresponding displacement is given by
ur(p)
:
p, (cos p -
l )
-
pz si n
B,
uz(p): pr(cos p -
l ) * p, si n
p,
fr
:
dPt,
ar(P)
:
0'
Show further that both Vu and u approach zero as d + 0, and that, in
fact.
ur ( p) -
- apz p3+o( a) ,
uz( p) : dpr pt + o( a)
tlS d
--+
0.
8. MOTIONS
Let 0 be a body. A motion of 98 is a class C3 function
x : 0 x R - - + 6
with x(., r), for each fixed r, a deformation of a (Fig.
6). Thus a motion is a
smooth one-parameter family of deformations, the time r being the parameter.
We refer tor
x
:
x(p, /)
as the place occupied by the material point p at time r, and write
g,
:
x(0,, t)
I
We careful l y di sti ngui sh between the moti on x and i ts val ues x, and between the reference
map p and mat er i al poi nt s p.
x2
x3
(10)
I
t 6f
.0:
Ap
qO ru
J
+
Vp
(u)sO
t6e
o
X I
J
lsql
qcns
I
rosuel
leuoEoqilo
u? slsrxe eJoql
.sr
l?ql
luorlelor elqslrns
"
ol secroJ {pog pu? ecsJJns eql Eurpefqns {q qsrrc^ ol ap"tu eq u?c
{poq ? uo
ruoruoru
l"lol
aql e.'rr uenrE e
rv :wa"toal| s,Dafts De e^oJd
g arn8;g
'(g 'EIg,;
sec"J g x g or{l 01
l?rurou
u
s?r,l r{crq^\ pu?
'7g
x g x g suorsuerup s"q qcFl,t\
.x
1e
parsluac sr qcg/r\
uorEar rupEuelcal eql s!
e6
oJeH
'/
eurl
rc
e6
uorEar eql sardncco
l"ql
6
yed
aql ol
I(g)
Euu(1dde fq (x.u-)s- :
(x"u)s
teqt,(lperrp e^ord
'suorpeJrp
pu? sasserls
lednuud
Eurpuodseiloc aql alnduoS-r"eqs ernd
"
eq
J
p.I
.uotsuel
arnd u sr
I l"qt
/(orls
'seqsrus^
6
ol r"lncrpuedrad eueld fue uo esroJ ec"JJns eql eFq1l\
'6
ol rslncrpuedrad s
/6
eveld uarrl8 3 uo ecJoJ ecqJns EurpuodseJJoc
erll
leql asoddng
'etull
puu eceld relncrged ?
l?
ssarls eql eq
I le.I
I"{luerosrp
,(reurp.ro r"eurruou
Jo
ue1s,{s
"
,or;lJifti"li:"Jf::;
"ur
pue
J
ueq^Uscrueqceu {poq pIEIJ
Jo
suorl"nba crseq aql elnlq'suoc
p{ffi)w :
r
fq peluaurelddns
suorl"leJ eser,lJ
' z, or a( r
[
- z
D
+
c. ar
f
:
t *
' earco(Ef
,- If)
+
zqDrf
:
r*
' E@z' co(z[
- tD
+
rql t - rut
e^rrecl
'{(l),a}
ol eArt"lor (r).u pue (l)to
Jo
slueuo ;#::Ti;:r:::,
(t)tu pue (l)!ca
1e1
'reqlrnc '(J'l
esrcrexg
lc)
(p ol e rrelar;
"rgru,
Jo
slueuoul Eurpuodsarroc eql elouop
rr
ta1pu? srlJeurJo srs?q pdrcurrd
e alouep
{(l)ta} re'I
'to
filcolen relnEue
{l[a
uorlou prEu n'irpir.ro3
'uels,(s
ecroJ sqt r(q peuilrrJelep t\anbrun sr ssaJls fqcne3 egl
l"rlr
,l\ogs
LOl nruNirKon Jo ircNv-rvs
.ssaurs -a3uod .tl
.L
'9
+
I
'n
'
(sr) ' 0:
( zz5
+
t t S) V
r"qr ^roqs
-',(rr)
qrr,r\
ruarsrsuoc
6
uorrii,:til
}rt
P,fffil}!:? .0r
rsrxe ereqr
r"r, ^\oq
s.6",
ro,loJji:liJfrJ:rTH?";i:p]l1q
.6
'zu
ul uor8ar papauuo)
tQdwls
uado u? sr
u
sasbrexa
Eurureruer
eql Joc
@D
. r r , zzg
a
zz, r r g
:
zr , zr g, Z
uoponba
tryWpdwoc
lqt segstl?s (.J ueq,r)
X
reql ,trorls (q)
cdr
' cl e ' "f,:
t' "n
ueg^r
r
:
dog ,((,,r)sreEelu*ur
roolniTtfirtlnrT;ll"rd;;
' ( ' S
+
I I S) n
:
( , ' , g
+
t t g) V:
S
' 0
- t g
:
t ZZ: r f l
ellqAr
'O
:
r'a'rl!c
z
(gt)
'(rrfl
+
rrg)c"gy
+
c"gfl(,
:
cos
,(o,Cn
+
C,"nE: Crl
l"ql pu'
'(zd 'rd)
Jo
suorlcunJ
ar"
s
pu"
fl lsrrl aorrs (e)
aqr
r"qr erunss? puu
.a'u1s
B rrcns ,.0?;3t:Hff";tllfi1'r':;flX1
"(' d' rd)zn
*
re1z4, rd)t r:
(d)n
tuJoJ eql s'r{ n
r
ulorls auold p
al'.o 3 q
[s
.g .n]
elsls crls"ls uv
.g
(.s,tog
se{ols Eurqrrcsap
ZSlaEed
uo suoll?nbe
arlt
JJ)
'0
:
n AI(I
' 0 : z A - n v d
pue sl*ur1 go seEueqcreru
,(gpnr o1 relnEel"I;,:?$t::iffi
reuuuru B ur peqoeordde
q
[S.X
.n]
aluls
lilu[ eql
l"qr
gul_n.rV
(O
sSrrvrsorsvla
uvirNrl
.zE
f1
f,rr
Jo
l"l
,(pr
esel
(ctd
. 0 - Z S ' : I S
Pu"
r
I[" JO
ot t r
vp4
J"uoJl,
Jo [ s'
Er7
t