You are on page 1of 44

Unit 1: CELLS: Structure and Function

Life is Cellular
1. What three statements make up the cell theory?
All liin! thin!s are composed of cells. Cells are the "asic units of structure
and function in liin! thin!s. #e$ cells are produced only from e%istin! cells.
&. What are the di'erences "et$een prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
(rokaryotic cells are !enerally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus) prokaryotic cells do not. Eukaryotic cells
!enerally contain do*ens of structures and internal mem"ranes.
+. Compare the processes used to produce a ,E- and an SE-.
A ,E- is produced "y passin! electrons throu!h an e%tremely thin sample. A
SE- is produced "y scannin! a "eam of electrons oer the surface
of an o"/ect.
0. What structures do all cells hae?
A cell mem"rane and 1#A.
2. 3o$ did the inention of the microscope help the deelopment of the cell
,he microscope $as essential in that deelopment "ecause it allo$ed "iolo!ists
to o"sere cells in liin! thin!s.
Constructin! a Chart
-ake a three.column chart comparin! prokaryotes $ith eukaryotes. 4n the 5rst
column6 list the traits found in all cells. 4n the second column6 list the features of
prokaryotes. 4n the third column6 list the features of eukaryotes.
Cell Structure
1. 1escri"e the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum6 7ol!i apparatus6
chloroplast and mitochondrion.
8ou!h E8 makes mem"ranes and secretary proteins. Smooth E8 makes lipids
and helps in deto%i5cation. ,he 7ol!i apparatus modi5es6 sorts6 and packa!es
proteins and other materials from the E8 for stora!e or secretion. Chloroplasts
capture the ener!y of sunli!ht and conert it into chemical ener!y.
-itochondria conert stored chemical ener!y into compounds that the cell can
&. 1escri"e the role of the nucleus in the cell.
4t is the control center of the cell.
+. What are t$o functions of the cytoskeleton?
4t helps the cell maintain its shape and also is inoled in moement.
0. 3o$ is a cell like a factory?
Ans$ers may ary. A typical response $ill compare ri"osomes to factory
machines and the cytoskeleton to a supportin! structure. Students should also
compare other or!anelles to arious parts of a factory.
2. 9ou e%amine an unkno$n cell under the microscope and discoer that the cell
contains chloroplasts. What type of or!anism could you infer that the cell came
Students should infer that the or!anism $ould either "e a plant or some other
or!anism that carries out photosynthesis.
Creatin! Art$ork
Create a $ork of art : such as a paintin! or sculpture : depictin! a cross section of a
plant cell or an animal cell. 4nclude all the di'erent or!anelles descri"ed in this
section that $ould "e found in that type of cell. La"el each or!anelle in your
1. 1escri"e the functions of the cell mem"rane and cell $all.
,he cell mem"rane re!ulates $hat enters and leaes the cell and also proides
protection and support. ,he cell $all proides support and protection for the
&. What happens durin! di'usion?
(articles tend to moe from an area $here they are more concentrated to an
area $here they are less concentrated.
+. 1escri"e ho$ $ater moes durin! osmosis.
;smosis is the di'usion of $ater throu!h a selectiely permea"le mem"rane.
0. What is the "asic structure of a cell mem"rane?
,he "asic structure is a dou"le.layered sheet called a lipid "ilayer6 in $hich
proteins are em"edded.
2. What is the di'erence "et$een pha!ocytosis and pinocytosis?
4n pha!ocytosis6 e%tensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and packa!e it
$ithin a food acuole. 4n pinocytosis6 tiny pockets form alon! the cell
mem"rane6 5ll $ith li<uid and pinch o' to form acuoles $ithin the cell.
=. What is the main $ay that actie transport di'ers from di'usion?
Actie transport re<uires the input of ener!y6 "ut di'usion does not re<uire
additional ener!y.
What is the relationship "et$een actie transport and homeostasis? 7ie one
e%ample of actie transport in an or!anism6 and e%plain ho$ the or!anism uses
ener!y to maintain homeostasis.
Cell 1iersity
1. 4n $hat kinds of or!anisms is cell speciali*ation a characteristic?
-ulticellular or!anisms hae cell speciali*ation.
&. List the leels of "iolo!ical or!ani*ation in multicellular or!anisms from most
simple to most comple%.
4ndiidual cells6 tissues6 or!ans and or!an systems
+. 3o$ are unicellular or!anisms similar to multicellular or!anisms?
>oth unicellular and multicellular or!anisms !ro$6 respond to the enironment6
transform ener!y and reproduce.
0. Usin! $hat you kno$ a"out the $ays muscle moes6 predict $hich or!anelles
$ould "e most common in muscle cells.
-uscle cells hae a lar!e num"er of mitochondria6 "ecause mitochondria
release ener!y from stored food molecules and muscle cells need !reat
amounts of ener!y to do the tasks they do.
Usin! Analo!ies
Use an or!ani*ed area in your life : such as school6 sports6 or e%tracurricular
actiities : to construct an analo!y to e%plain ho$ the leels of or!ani*ation in that
chosen area can "e compared $ith those of liin! or!anism.
Limits to 7ro$th
1. 7ie t$o reasons $hy cells diide.
,he lar!er a cell "ecomes6 the more demands the cell places on its 1#A and
the more trou"le the cell has moin! enou!h nutrients and $astes across the
cell mem"rane.
&. 3o$ is a cell?s 1#A like the "ooks in a li"rary?
,he information that controls a cell?s function is stored in 1#A6 /ust as
information needed "y the pu"lic is stored in the "ooks of a li"rary. A cell?s
1#A6 then6 is a @!eneticA li"rary.
+. As a cell increases in si*e6 $hich increases more rapidly6 its surface area or its
4ts olume
0. Calculate the surface area6 olume6 and ratio of surface area to olume of an
ima!inary cu"ic cell measurin! 0 cm on each side.
,he surface area is B= cm
6 the olume is =0 cm
6 and the ratio of surface area
to olume is
B=C=0 D + : &.
Cellular >asis of Life
Select t$o cell or!anelles and descri"e ho$ their functions mi!ht "e impaired if
the cell $ere to "ecome too lar!e. A reie$ of Chapter E may help you $ith this
Cell 1iison
1. #ame the main eents of the cell cycle.
A cell !ro$s6 prepares for diision6 and diides to form t$o dau!hter cells.
&. 1escri"e $hat happens durin! each of the four phases of mitosis.
Students should descri"e $hat happens durin! prophase6 metaphase6 anaphase
and telophase6 as in Fi!ure 1F.2.
+. 1escri"e $hat happens durin! interphase.
Students should descri"e $hat happens durin! the 7
phase6 S phase and 7

0. What are chromosomes made of?
1#A6 $hich carries the cell?s coded !enetic information and proteins.
2. 3o$ do prokaryotic cells diide?
A prokaryotic cell 5rst replicates its !enetic information "efore cell diision
"e!ins. 4n most prokaryotes6 the rest of the process of cell diision is a simple
matter of separatin! the contents of the cell into t$o parts.
=. 3o$ is cytokinesis in plant cells similar to cytokinesis in animal cells? 3o$ is it
Cytokinesis is the diision of the cytoplasm in "oth types of cells. ,he di'erence is
that in plant cells a cell plate forms mid$ay "et$een the diided nuclei.
Creatie Writin!
Suppose you $ere small enou!h to hitch a ride on a chromosome located in a plant
cell that !oes throu!h mitosis and cytokinesis. 1escri"e $hat you $ould see
happenin! durin! each phase of the process.
8e!ulatin! the Cell Cycle
1. What chemicals re!ulate the cell cycle? 3o$ do they $ork?
Cyclins re!ulate the timin! of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. Cyclin may
cause a mitotic spindle to form and tri!!er cell diision.
&. What happens $hen cells do not respond to the si!nals that normally re!ulate
their !ro$th?
Such cells6 called cancer cells6 diide uncontrolla"ly and form masses of cells
called tumors that can dama!e the surroundin! tissues.
+. 3o$ do cells respond to contact $ith other cells?
#ormal cells respond "y not !ro$in!.
0. Why can cancer "e considered a disease of the cell cycle?
,he cell cycle is the series of eents that cells !o throu!h as they !ro$ and
diide6 and cancer is a disorder in $hich some of the "ody?s cells lose the
a"ility to control !ro$th.
2. Write a hypothesis a"out $hat you think $ould happen if cyclin $ere in/ected
into a cell that $as in mitosis.
A typical hypothesis mi!ht su!!est that cyclin $ould hae no e'ect "ecause the
cell $as already in mitosis.
(ro"lem Solin!
4ma!ine that you are deelopin! a dru! that $ill inhi"it the !ro$th of cancer cells.
Use your kno$led!e of the cell cycle to descri"e ho$ the dru! $ould tar!et and
preent the multiplication of cancer cells. Use the 4nternet to compare your
anticancer dru! $ith those currently in use.
1. 1escri"e the enironmental factors that a'ect your health.
Students should descri"e air and $ater <uality6 poisonous $astes in land5lls
and e%posure to solar radiation.
&. #ame three thin!s you can do to maintain your health.
Any three of the follo$in!: eatin! a healthful diet6 !ettin! enou!h e%ercise and
rest6 a"stainin! from harmful actiities6 and hain! re!ular checkups.
+. List some of the causes of cancer.
Cancers are caused "y defects in the !enes that re!ulate cell !ro$th and
diision. ,hese defects may "e inherited or caused "y iruses6 or they may
result from mutations in 1#A produced "y radiation or chemicals.
0. Why are re!ular medical checkups and self.e%aminations important?
8e!ular medical checkups and self.e%aminations are important for detectin!
pro"lems early so that there is a "etter chance of treatin! them successfully.
2. Should cancer "e considered an infectious disease? E%plain your ans$er.
-ost cases of cancer are not infectious. 3o$eer6 cancer.causin! iruses can
"e passed from person to person.
Cellular >asis of Life
8ecall the cell cycle from Section 1F.&. 4n $hich phase do you think cells $ould "e
most ulnera"le to dama!e from radiation? E%plain your choice. What characteristic
of cancer cells mi!ht make them especially ulnera"le?
Unit &: ,he Chemistry of Life
,he #ature of -atter
1. 1escri"e the structure of an atom.
Atoms hae a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons. Electrons are in
constant motion in the space around the nucleus.
&. Why do all isotopes of an element hae the same chemical properties? 4n $hat
$ay do isotopes of an element di'er?
,hey hae the same num"er of electrons. ,hey di'er in num"er of neutrons.
+. What is a coalent "ond? An ionic "ond?
A coalent "ond forms $hen electrons are shared "et$een atoms. An ionic
"ond forms $hen electrons are transferred.
0. What is a compound? 3o$ are compounds related to molecules?
A compound is a su"stance formed "y the chemical com"ination of t$o or more
elements in de5nite proportions. A molecule is the smallest unit of most
2. 3o$ do an der Waals forces hold molecules to!ether?
When the sharin! of electrons is une<ual6 a molecule has re!ions that are
char!ed. An attraction can occur "et$een oppositely char!ed re!ions of
near"y molecules.
=. 3o$ are ionic "onds and an der Waals forces similar? 3o$ are they di'erent?
4n "oth cases6 particles are held to!ether "y attractions "et$een opposite
char!es6 "ut the attractions are stron!er "et$een the ions than they are
"et$een the molecules.
Writin! an Article
Write an article for your school ne$spaper on forensic science as a career. Assume
that you hae already interie$ed a forensic scientist $ho $orks for a la$
enforcement a!ency. ,he article should "e a"out 2FF $ords lon!. 3int: Consider the
interests of your readers.
,he (roperties of Water
1. Use the structure of a $ater molecule to e%plain $hy it is polar.
,he hydro!en atoms form coalent "onds $ith the o%y!en atom. >ecause of
o%y!en?s !reater attraction for electrons6 there is an une<ual distri"ution of
electrons. ,he o%y!en end of the "ent $ater molecule is ne!atie) the
hydro!en end is positie.
&. Compare acidic and "asic solutions in terms of their 3
ions than ;3
(er olume6 there are more 3
ions than ;3
in an acidic solution and more ;3
ions than 3
ions in a "asic solution.
+. What is the di'erence "et$een a solution and a suspension?
4n a solution6 all components are eenly distri"uted. 4n a suspension6
undissoled particles are suspended in the mi%ture and can settle out oer
0. What does p3 measure?
,he p3 scale measures the concentration of 3
ions in a solution.
2. ,he stron! acid hydro!en Huoride I3FJ can "e dissoled in pure $ater. Will the
p3 of the solution "e !reater or less than E?
,he p3 $ill "e less than E.F.
Creatin! a Concept -ap
1ra$ a concept map on the properties of $ater. 4nclude the follo$in! terms in your
concept map: hydro!en "onds6 polarity6 cohesion6 adhesion6 capillary action6 and
Car"on Compounds
1. #ame four !roups of or!anic compounds found in liin! thin!s.
Car"ohydrates6 lipids6 nucleic acids and proteins
&. 1escri"e at least one function of each !roup of or!anic compounds.
A typical response mi!ht mention that liin! thin!s use car"ohydrates as their
main source of ener!y6 fats can "e used to store ener!y6 nucleic acids transmit
hereditary information and proteins form tissues.
+. What properties of car"on e%plain car"on?s a"ility to form many di'erent
Each car"on atom can form four coalent "onds6 and car"on atoms can "ond
$ith other car"on atoms.
0. E%plain $hy proteins are considered polymers "ut lipids are not.
(roteins are made up of amino acid monomers /oined in lon! chains. Althou!h
fatty acid chains may "e mistaken for monomers6 only three fatty acids can
attach to a !lycerol molecule.
2. Compare the structures and functions of the "iomolecules lipids and starches.
Lipids are made mostly from car"on and hydro!en atoms) starch is a
car"ohydrate made up of car"on6 hydro!en and o%y!en atoms. >oth can "e
used to store ener!y.
Science as a Way of Kno$in!
Use $hat you learned a"out leels of or!ani*ation in Section 1.+ to discuss the leels
of or!ani*ation in macromolecules. >e!in your discussion $ith the smallest
Chemical 8eactionsCEn*ymes
1. What happens to chemical "onds durin! chemical reactions?
>onds are "roken in reactants and ne$ "onds are formed in products.
&. 1escri"e the role of ener!y in chemical reactions.
Some chemical reactions release ener!y6 and other chemical reactions a"sor"
ener!y. Ener!y chan!es determine ho$ easily a chemical reaction $ill occur.
+. What are en*ymes6 and ho$ are they important to liin! thin!s?
En*ymes are "iolo!ical catalysts. Liin! cells use en*ymes to speed up irtually
eery important chemical reaction that takes place in cells.
0. 1escri"e ho$ en*ymes $ork6 includin! the role of the en*"strate
Su"strates6 the reactants of an en*yme.cataly*ed reaction6 attach to the
en*yme at an actie site and form an en*"strate comple%. ;nce the
comple% is formed6 the en*yme helps conert su"strate into product.
2. A chan!e in p3 can chan!e the shape of a protein. 3o$ mi!ht a chan!e in p3
a'ect the function of an en*yme such as he%okinase? 3int: ,hink a"out the
analo!y of the lock and key.
A chan!e in p3 could chan!e the shape of he%okinase. ,his chan!e $ould
diminish or possi"ly eliminate the a"ility of !lucose and A,( to "ind to the
actie site on the en*yme.
-ake a model that demonstrates ho$ an actie site and a su"strate are like a lock
and a key. 7ie a "rief talk in $hich you refer to your model as you e%plain ho$
en*ymes $ork.
Food and #utrition
1. List the si% nutrients needed "y the "ody.
Water6 car"ohydrates6 fats6 proteins6 itamins and minerals
&. What is the importance of $ater in the "ody?
Some "ody tissues6 such as "lood6 are mostly $ater6 and $ater is needed for
many ital "ody processes6 includin! chemical reactions6 elimination of $astes6
and keepin! the "ody cool throu!h eaporation.
+. Why is 5"er an important part of your diet?
Fi"er adds "ulk to the material moin! throu!h the di!estie system6 helpin! it
to process food more e'ectiely.
0. 3o$ are itamins and minerals similar? 3o$ are they di'erent?
>oth itamins and minerals are nutrients that are needed in small amounts for
!ood health6 "ut itamins are or!anic molecules6 $hereas minerals are
2. Which itamins and minerals promote healthy "ones?
Litamins C and 16 calcium6 phosphorus6 and Huorine
1esi!nin! a >rochure
1esi!n and create a "rochure that e%plains ho$ the "ody uses the si% nutrients
necessary for normal function. Use ima!es from ma!a*ines or from the 4nternet to
illustrate your "rochure.
Ener!y and Life
1. What is the ultimate source of ener!y for plants?
,he sun
&. What is A,( and $hat is its role in the cell?
A,( stands for adenosine triphosphate6 $hich is one of the principal chemical
compounds that liin! thin!s use to store ener!y and release it for cell $ork to
"e done.
+. 1escri"e one cellular actiity that uses the ener!y released "y A,(.
A typical ans$er mi!ht mention actie transport6 moements $ithin the cell6
synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids6 or responses to chemical si!nals.
0. 3o$ do autotrophs o"tain ener!y? 3o$ do heterotrophs o"tain ener!y?
Autotrophs o"tain ener!y "y makin! their o$n food. 3eterotrophs o"tain
ener!y from the foods they consume.
2. With respect to ener!y6 ho$ are A,( and !lucose similar? 3o$ are they
Similar: "oth store chemical ener!y for a cell. 1i'erent: A sin!le molecule of
!lucose stores more than BF times the chemical ener!y of an A,( molecule.
4nterdependence in #ature
8ecall that ener!y Ho$s and that nutrients cycle throu!h the "iosphere. 3o$ does
the process of photosynthesis impact the Ho$ of ener!y and the cyclin! of nutrients?
9ou may $ish to refer to Chapter + to help you ans$er this <uestion.
1. What did an 3elmont6 (riestly and 4n!enhous* discoer a"out plants?
Lan 3elmont discoered that $ater $as inoled in increasin! the mass of a
plant. (riestly discoered that a plant produces the su"stance in air re<uired
for "urnin!. 4n!enhous* discoered that li!ht is necessary for plants to
produce o%y!en.
&. 1escri"e the process of photosynthesis6 includin! the reactants and products.
(hotosynthesis uses the ener!y of sunli!ht to conert $ater and car"on dio%ide
into o%y!en and hi!h.ener!y su!ars.
+. Why are li!ht and chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis?
Li!ht proides the ener!y needed to produce hi!h.ener!y su!ars. Chlorophyll
a"sor"s li!ht6 and the ener!y of that a"sor"ed li!ht makes photosynthesis
0. 1escri"e the relationship "et$een chlorophyll and the color of plants.
(lants are !reen "ecause !reen li!ht is reHected "y the chlorophyll in leaes.
2. 3o$ $ell $ould a plant !ro$ under pure yello$ li!ht? E%plain your ans$er.
,he plant $ould not !ro$ $ell "ecause chlorophyll does not a"sor" much li!ht
in the yello$ re!ion of isi"le li!ht.
1escriptie Writin!
Write a summary para!raph descri"in! either an 3elmont?s6 (riestley?s6 or
4n!enhous*?s e%periments $ith plants and li!ht. 3int: Use the 5rst "oldface key
sentence on pa!e &F= to !ie you an idea for the topic sentence.
1. Summari*e the li!ht.dependent reactions.
,he li!ht.dependent reactions produce o%y!en !as and conert A1( and #A1(
into the ener!y carriers A,( and #A1(3.
&. What reactions make up the Calin cycle?
,he Calin cycle uses A,( and #A1(3 from the li!ht.dependent reactions to
produce hi!h.ener!y su!ars.
+. 3o$ is li!ht ener!y conerted into chemical ener!y durin! photosynthesis?
Li!ht ener!y is conerted into chemical ener!y "y the pi!ments in the
0. What is the function of #A1(3?
,he main function of #A1(3 is to carry hi!h.ener!y electrons produced "y
li!ht a"sorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions else$here in the cell.
2. Why are the li!ht.dependent reactions important to the Calin cycle?
,he li!ht.dependent reactions proide the Calin cycle $ith A,( and #A1(3.
,he Calin cycle uses the ener!y in A,( and #A1(3 to produce hi!h.ener!y
-akin! a Flo$chart
Construct a Ho$chart that illustrates the steps of photosynthesis. >e!in $ith the
ener!y of sunli!ht and end $ith the production of su!ars. 4nclude as much detail as
possi"le in the numerous steps.
Chemical (ath$ays
1. 1escri"e the process of cellular respiration.
Cellular respiration is the process that releases ener!y "y "reakin! do$n
molecules in food in the presence of o%y!en.
&. What are the products of !lycolysis?
7lycolysis produces & molecules of pyruic acid6 & molecules of A,(6 and &
molecules of #A13.
+. #ame the t$o main types of fermentation.
Alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
0. What is a calorie? A Calorie?
A calorie is the amount of ener!y re<uired to raise the temperature of 1 !ram
of $ater 1 de!ree Celsius. A Calorie is 1FFF calories.
2. 3o$ is the function of #A1
similar to that of #A1(
>oth are electron carriers.
=. 3o$ are lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation similar? 3o$ are
they di'erent?
Similar: >oth proide ener!y to cells in the a"sence of o%y!en. 1i'erent:
Alcoholic fermentation produces alcohol6 car"on dio%ide6 and #A1
6 $hile
lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid and #A1
-atter and Ener!y
Write the conersion of A1( to A,( as a chemical e<uation. What are the reactants
and the product? 9ou may $ish to refer "ack to Chapter & to reie$ chemical
Kre"s CycleCElectron Carrier
1. What happens to pyruic acid durin! the Kre"s cycle?
(yruic acid is "roken do$n into car"on dio%ide in a series of ener!y.e%tractin!
&. 3o$ does the electron transport chain use the hi!h.ener!y electrons from the
Kre"s cycle?
,he electron transport chain uses the hi!h.ener!y electrons from the Kre"s
cycle to conert A1( and A,(.
+. Why is cellular respiration considered to "e much more e'icient than !lycolysis
Cellular respiration ena"les the cell to produce +0 more A,( molecules per
!lucose molecule in addition to the & A,( molecules o"tained from !lycolysis.
0. 3o$ many molecules of A,( are produced in the entire "reakdo$n of !lucose?
2. Compare the ener!y Ho$ in photosynthesis to the ener!y Ho$ in cellular
,he ener!y Ho$s in photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in
opposite directions. (hotosynthesis is the process that @depositsA ener!y6 $hile
cellular respiration is the process that @$ithdra$sA ener!y.
=. 3o$ is the chemical ener!y in !lucose similar to money in a sain!s account?
,he ener!y in !lucose is @saedA and can "e @$ithdra$nA $hen the "ody needs
Unit +: Animal Systems
>ody Systems
1. Se<uence the leels of or!ani*ation in multicellular or!anisms.
,he leels are cells6 tissues6 or!ans and or!an systems.
&. What is homeostasis?
3omeostasis is the process "y $hich or!anisms keep internal conditions
relatiely constant despite chan!es in e%ternal enironments.
+. 1escri"e the functions of each of the eleen or!an systems.
Students should state the functions of each of the eleen or!an systems6 as
descri"ed in Fi!ure +2.&.
0. What are the four types of tissue?
,he four types of tissues are epithelial6 connectie6 nerous and muscle.
2. Look at the nerous tissue in Fi!ure +2.+. Compare the cells of the nerous
tissue to the cells of one of the other types of tissue. Which parts of an animal
$ould contain these types of cells?
Ans$ers may ary. Cells of nerous tissue6 as $ell as cells of each of the other
types of tissues6 $ould "e found in the heart and in most other or!ans of an
-akin! a Lenn 1ia!ram
1ra$ a Lenn dia!ram to relate the four "asic leels of or!ani*ation in the human
"ody. (roide at least three e%amples for each leel included in your dia!ram.
,he #erous System
1. 1escri"e the functions of the nerous system.
,he human nerous system controls and coordinates functions throu!hout the
"ody and responds to internal and e%ternal stimuli.
&. What happens $hen a neuron is stimulated "y another neuron?
4f the stimulus is lar!e enou!h6 an impulse "e!ins that traels rapidly alon! the
a%on to$ard the a%on terminals6 $here the impulse is passed on to another cell.
+. #ame and descri"e the three types of neurons.
Sensory neurons6 motor neurons and interneurons
0. 1escri"e the role of the myelin sheath.
,he myelin sheath insulates the a%on and !reatly increases the speed of
transmission of nere impulses.
2. 3o$ can the leel of pain you feel ary if a stimulus causes an all.or.none
,here are t$o possi"le factors: the num"er of sensory neurons actiated "y a
stimulus and the fre<uency of the stimulation.
Creatin! a Flo$chart
Create a Ho$chart to sho$ the eents that occur as a nere impulse traels from one
neuron to the ne%t. 4nclude as much detail as you can. Use your Ho$chart to e%plain
the process to a classmate.
,he #erous System
1. 1iscuss the oerall function of the central nerous system.
,he function of the central nerous system is to relay messa!es and to process
and analy*e information.
&. 1escri"e the functions of the t$o diisions of the peripheral nerous system.
,he sensory diision transmits impulses from sense or!ans to the central
nerous system. ,he motor diision transmits impulses from the central
nerous system to muscles.
+. 3o$ is the central nerous system protected from in/ury?
4t is protected "y the skull and erte"rae6 the menin!es and the cere"rospinal
0. What is the role of the hypothalamus?
4t reco!ni*es and analy*es hun!er6 thirst6 fati!ue6 an!er and "ody temperature.
4t also controls the coordination of the nerous and endocrine systems.
2. 4s a reHe% part of the central nerous system6 the peripheral nerous system6 or
"oth? E%plain.
>oth6 "ecause it inoles sensory and motor neurons of the peripheral system
and is processed in the spinal cord.
=. Would you e%pect the cere"rum of a "ird to "e more or less deeloped relatie
to its si*e than the cere"rum of a human? E%plain.
Less deeloped6 "ecause "irds hae less a"ility to think and learn than humans
Structure and Function
Usin! Section +0.16 decide $hich parts of the nerous system are most likely to "e
inoled $ith innate6 or in"orn6 "ehaiors. Which parts are likely to "e inoled $ith
learned "ehaiors? E%plain your reasonin!.
,he #erous System
1. #ame the 5e types of sensory receptors and list $here they are found in the
(ain receptors: eery$here e%cept the "rain) thermoreceptors: skin6 "ody
core6 hypothalamus) mechanoreceptors: skin6 skeletal muscles6 inner ears)
chemoreceptors: nose6 taste "uds) photoreceptors: eyes
&. 4dentify the functions of the cornea6 pupil6 lens6 retina and optic nere.
Cornea: helps to focus li!ht) pupil: controls the amount of li!ht that enters the
eye) lens: ad/usts focus for near or far distances) retina: rod and cone
photoreceptors conert li!ht into electrical impulses) optic nere: carries the
electrical impulses to the "rain
+. What are the four "asic tastes detected "y the ton!ue?
,he four "asic taste receptors are receptors for salty6 "itter6 s$eet and sour
0. E%plain $hy you can?t @tasteA food $hen you hae a "ad cold.
>ecause much of the sense of taste is actually due to interaction $ith the sense
of smell.
2. 4f you spin around for a time6 the Huid in your semicircular canals also moes.
When you stop suddenly6 you feel as thou!h you are still moin!. Why do you
think you mi!ht feel di**y?
Sensory receptors la! "ehind the rapid chan!es in position.
Creatie Writin!
4ma!ine that you hae to do $ithout your sense of taste for one day. 3o$ $ould this
inHuence your food choices? Write a + to 0 para!raph essay descri"in! ho$ the
a"sence of this sense or!an $ould a'ect your day.
1. 1escri"e the e'ects of stimulants6 cocaine6 depressants and opiates on the
central nerous system.
Stimulants increase the release of neurotransmitters6 cocaine causes the
sudden release of dopamine6 depressants enhance the e'ects of certain
neurotransmitters6 and opiates mimic endorphins.
&. E%plain the e'ects of alcohol on the "ody.
As a depressant6 alcohol slo$s do$n the rate at $hich the central nerous
system functions.
+. What is a dru!?
Any su"stance other than food that causes a chan!e in the "ody.
0. Why is drinkin! and driin! an e%tremely dan!erous "ehaior?
>ecause alcohol slo$s do$n reHe%es6 disrupts coordination and impairs
2. Which do you think is a more di'icult addiction to "reak: one in $hich a person
is physically dependent on a dru!6 or one in $hich a person is psycholo!ically
dependent on a dru!? E%plain your ans$er.
Some students mi!ht say a psycholo!ical dependence is more di'icult to "reak.
;thers mi!ht say a physical dependence is more di'icult to "reak. Students
should support their conclusions $ith sound reasonin!.
(ersuasie Writin!
8esearch one of the dru!s mentioned in this section to 5nd out more a"out the short
and lon! term e'ects of the dru! on the "ody. ,hen6 deelop an informational
"rochure tryin! to persuade someone not to take the dru!. 3int: >e sure to include
speci5c facts.
Skeletal System
1. List the di'erent functions of the skeletal system.
,he skeletal system supports the "ody6 protects internal or!ans6 allo$s
moement6 stores mineral reseres and proides a site for "lood cell formation.
&. 1escri"e the structure of a typical "one.
A typical "one has a thick layer of compact "one coered "y periosteum.
3aersian canals contain the "lood essels and neres. At the ends of lon!
"ones6 there is a layer of spon!y "one "eneath the compact "one layer.
+. What is a /oint? List the three types of /oints.
A /oint is a place $here one "one attaches to another. ,hree types of /oints are
immoa"le6 sli!htly moa"le6 and freely moa"le.
0. 3o$ does compact "one di'er from spon!y "one?
Compact "one is denser than spon!y "one. Spon!y "one is found in the ends of
lon! "ones and in the middle of short6 Hat "ones.
2. Why do you think the amount of cartila!e decreases and the amount of "one
increases as a person deelops?
,he cartila!e decreases "ecause minerals replace cartila!e durin! ossi5cation.
Creatie Writin!
Use li"rary or 4nternet resources to 5nd out more a"out osteoporosis. ,hen6 deelop
an adertisin! campai!n for the dairy industry "ased on the relationship "et$een
milk and healthy "one deelopment.
-uscular System
1. List the three types of muscle tissue and e%plain the function of each.
Skeletal6 $hich controls oluntary moements) smooth6 $hich controls
inoluntary moements) and cardiac6 $hich controls contractions of the heart
&. E%plain ho$ a muscle contracts.
-yosin cross."rid!es cause the thin 5laments to slide oer the thick 5laments6
shortenin! the muscle.
+. 1escri"e the importance of re!ular e%ercise.
4t maintains muscular and skeletal stren!th) increases coordination6 endurance
and He%i"ility) and decreases "ody fat.
0. What is the function of the muscular system?
,o control "ody moement6 help circulate "lood6 and help moe food throu!h
the di!estie system.
2. What is the role of acetylcholine in the process of muscle contraction?
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter. 4t di'uses across nere synapses to
produce impulses in muscle cell mem"ranes.
=. 4f a muscle cell receies a second stimulus $hile it is contractin!6 $ill it
respond to the second stimulus? E%plain
#o) it must rela% "efore it can respond to a second impulse.
Usin! -odels
Create your o$n model to sho$ ho$ actin 5laments slide oer myosin 5laments
durin! a muscle contraction. 4nclude as much detail in your model as possi"le.
4nte!umentary System
1. List the functions of the inte!umentary system.
Seres as a "arrier a!ainst infection and in/ury6 helps re!ulate "ody
temperature6 remoes $aste products6 protects a!ainst UL radiation6 and
allo$s sensory input
&. What or!ans and tissues make up the inte!umentary system?
Skin6 hair6 nails and !lands
+. Compare the structures of the epidermis and dermis.
,he epidermis6 the outer6 thinner layer6 contains melanin and has a surface
layer of dead cells. ,he dermis6 the inner6 thicker layer6 contains "lood essels6
neres6 !lands6 sense or!ans6 muscles and hair follicles.
0. 3o$ does the skin help maintain "ody temperature?
>lood essels in the dermis narro$ to consere heat and $iden to increase heat
loss. Eaporation of s$eat also causes heat loss.
2. 4n $hat $ay is the !ro$th of hair and nails similar?
>oth !ro$ from an area of rapidly diidin! cells at the "ase of the hair or nail.
=. Why does cuttin! your skin hurt6 "ut cuttin! your hair or nails does not hurt?
,he dermis contains neres) hair and nails hae no neres.
Structure and Function
Compare and contrast the structure and function of the dermal tissue implants
discussed in Chapter &+ $ith the structures in human skin. 4n $hat $ays are they
similar? 3int: 9ou may $ish to or!ani*e your ideas in a Lenn dia!ram.
Circulatory System
1. List the structures of the circulatory system.
3eart6 "lood essels and "lood
&. Compare the functions of the three types of "lood essels in the circulatory
Arteries carry "lood from the heart to the tissues) capillaries "rin! food and
o%y!en to the tissues and a"sor" car"on dio%ide and $aste products) eins
carry "lood "ack to the heart from the rest of the "ody.
+. 1escri"e the path of "lood circulation throu!h the "ody.
,he ri!ht side of the heart pumps "lood from the heart to the lun!s. ;%y!en.
rich "lood from the lun!s returns to the left side of the heart6 $here it is
pumped to the rest of the "ody. ,he eins return o%y!en.poor "lood to the ri!ht
side of the heart.
0. What is the role of the nerous system in heart"eat re!ulation?
#eurotransmitters released "y the sympathetic nerous system increase
heart"eat. ,hose released "y the parasympathetic nerous system decrease
2. 4f you $ere standin!6 $ould you e%pect the "lood pressure to "e hi!her in your
arm or in your le!? E%plain your ans$er.
4t $ould "e hi!her in your arm "ecause your arms are physically closer to your
heart. >lood pressure decreases as you moe farther from the heart.
Cause and E'ect
Use li"rary or 4nternet resources to research the connection "et$een a hi!h.fat diet
and cardioascular disease. Write a short commentary that could "e used on a
teleision ne$s pro!ram that e%plains the connection. 3int: (repare a cause.and.
e'ect dia!ram to or!ani*e your ideas.
>loodCLymph System
1. List the main function of the red "lood cells6 $hite "lood cells and platelets.
8ed "lood cells carry o%y!en) $hite "lood cells 5!ht infection) platelets help
"lood to clot.
&. 1escri"e the role of the lymphatic system.
4ts role is to collect Huid lost "y "lood and return it to the circulatory system.
+. What types of materials are dissoled in plasma?
7ases6 salts6 nutrients6 en*ymes6 hormones6 $aste products and plasma
0. E%plain ho$ "lood clots.
When platelets come in contact $ith the "roken ed!es of a "lood essel6 their
surfaces "ecome sticky. A cluster of platelets deelops around the $ound. ,he
platelets release clottin! factors6 $hich start reactions that produce a "lood
2. Sometimes lymph nodes must "e sur!ically remoed. Althou!h more lymph
essels eentually !ro$6 $hat result $ould you e%pect to see immediately after
Areas $ithout lymph nodes and essels $ould retain e%cess Huid and "ecome
s$ollen immediately after sur!ery.
Constructin! a Concept -ap
Construct a concept map that sho$s the components of "lood. 4nclude information
a"out the functions of the di'erent components. I>e sure to include the di'erent
types of $hite "lood cells.J
8espiratory System
1. 4nterpret the function of the respiratory system "y statin! $hat it does.
4t "rin!s a"out the e%chan!e of o%y!en and car"on dio%ide "et$een the "lood6
the air6 and tissues.
&. 1escri"e some of the health pro"lems caused "y smokin! to"acco.
Chronic "ronchitis: "ronchi "ecome s$ollen and clo!!ed $ith mucus)
emphysema: loss of elasticity in lun!s) lun! cancer: deadly disease that
spreads to other parts of "ody
+. E%plain the process of !as e%chan!e in the lun!s.
;%y!en di'uses from aleoli into the "lood across capillary $alls6 and car"on
dio%ide di'uses from "lood into air in the aleoli.
0. 1escri"e ho$ "reathin! is controlled.
When the leel of car"on dio%ide rises in the "lood6 the "reathin! center sends
out nere impulses that cause the diaphra!m to contract and "rin! air into the
2. As you hae read6 the "reathin! center in the "rain responds to the leel of
car"on dio%ide in the "lood : not the leel of o%y!en. What conse<uences does
this hae for people at hi!h altitudes?
,he leel of car"on dio%ide in their "lood is normal6 so their "reathin! center
does not increase the rate of "reathin!. As a result6 they do not !et enou!h
Structure and Function
Compare $hat you learned in Units M and B a"out respiration in terrestrial
arthropods6 5sh6 and Hat$orms $ith human respiration. 8elate the method of
respiration to the type of enironment the or!anism inha"its. What do these methods
hae in common? 3o$ do they di'er?
1i!estie System
1. List the or!ans of the di!estie system and !ie the function of each.
-outh: "e!ins mechanical di!estion6 "e!ins chemical di!estion of starch)
esopha!us: moes food to stomach) stomach: continues mechanical di!estion6
"e!ins chemical di!estion of protein) small intestine: completes chemical
di!estion of starch and protein6 chemical di!estion of fats) lar!e intestine:
remoes $ater from undi!ested food.
&. E%plain the function of the di!estie system.
,o help conert foods into simple molecules that can "e a"sor"ed and used "y
+. 3o$ do mechanical and chemical di!estion $ork to!ether to "reak do$n foods?
-echanical di!estion physically "reaks do$n food into smaller pieces6 $hich
makes it easier for en*ymes to chemically "reak do$n lar!e food molecules into
smaller molecules.
0. 3o$ does "ile help in the di!estion of fats?
>ile dissoles and disperses fat droplets6 makin! it easier for en*ymes to reach
and further "reak do$n fats.
2. What can you infer a"out the diet of an animal that has a lar!e appendi%?
,he diet pro"a"ly contains a lot of cellulose.
-atter and Ener!y
3o$ $ould the rate of di!estion "e a'ected if en*ymes $ere not released "y the
arious or!ans and !lands? 9ou may $ish to refer to Chapter & for a reie$ of
en*yme action.
E%cretory System: Kidney
1. What are the functions of the kidneys?
Kidneys remoe $aste products from "lood6 maintain "lood p36 and re!ulate
$ater content and olume of "lood.
&. 1escri"e ho$ "lood is puri5ed.
>lood enters a nephron throu!h the arteriole) impurities are 5ltered out and
emptied into the collectin! duct) puri5ed "lood e%its throu!h the enule.
+. 1escri"e the structures of a kidney.
8enal medulla: inner part of kidney) renal corte%: outer part of kidney)
nephron: functional unit of kidney) renal artery and ein: "lood essels
enterin! and leain! kidney) !lomerulus: small net$ork of capillaries in
nephron) >o$man?s capsule: hollo$6 cup.shaped structure in nephron) loop of
3enle: section of nephron tu"ule) collectin! duct: tu"e for transferrin! $aste.
0. What is the role of the skin in e%cretion?
,he skin e%cretes $ater6 salts6 and urea in s$eat.
2. When there is too much Huid in the "lood6 the heart must pump harder.
1iuretics are su"stances that stimulate the kidneys to remoe more Huid from
the "ody. Why do you think diuretics are often prescri"ed as a treatment for
hi!h "lood pressure?
>ecause diuretics reduce the olume of "lood and6 there"y6 lo$er "lood
Constructin! a Flo$chart
Construct a Ho$chart that illustrates ho$ $astes are remoed "y the kidneys. >e
sure to include the terms >o$man?s capsule6 loop of 3enle6 capillaries6 collectin!
duct and ureter.
Endocrine System
1. 1escri"e the function of the endocrine system in the "ody.
,o produce hormones that a'ect the actiities of cells throu!hout the "ody
&. E%plain ho$ the endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis.
,he endocrine system6 alon! $ith the autonomic nerous system6 continually
ad/usts many "ody actiities6 helpin! the "ody maintain relatiely constant
internal conditions.
+. Compare endocrine !lands and e%ocrine !lands.
Endocrine !lands secrete hormones directly into the "loodstream. E%ocrine
!lands release their secretions throu!h ducts.
0. What are prosta!landins and $hy are they called @local hormonesA?
All cells produce hormonelike su"stances called prosta!landins6 $hich are
called @local hormonesA "ecause they a'ect only near"y cells or tissues.
2. What are the adanta!es of hain! "oth a nerous system and an endocrine
,he nerous system "roadcasts speci5c messa!es <uickly to a limited num"er
of cells6 $hereas the endocrine system "roadcasts messa!es slo$ly to tar!et
cells throu!hout the "ody.
Cellular >asis of Life
Use $hat you learned in Chapter E a"out di'usion and ho$ materials cross cell
mem"ranes to e%plain the actions of steroid hormones and nonsteriod hormones.
Endocrine System
1. 1escri"e the role of each ma/or endocrine !land.
(ituitary: re!ulates functions such as !ro$th and actions of other !lands)
hypothalamus: controls the pituitary !land) parathyroids and thyroid:
meta"olism and leel of calcium in "lood) adrenals: meta"olism6 salt e%cretion6
and response to stress) pancreas: leel of "lood !lucose) oaries and testes:
production of !ametes and secretion of se% hormones.
&. Why is the hypothalamus an important part of "oth the nerous system and the
endocrine system?
4t monitors sensory input from the nerous system and uses it to control the
endocrine system ia the pituitary !land.
+. What endocrine !land !oes to $ork $hen you are surprised $ith a pop <ui*?
,he adrenal !land
0. What are the t$o types of dia"etes mellitus?
,ype 4 Ilittle or no secretion of insulinJ and ,ype 44 Ilo$ or normal leels of
insulin "ut cell response to insulin is ine'icientJ.
2. Suppose the secretion of a certain hormone causes an increase in the
concentration of su"stance N in the "lood. A lo$ concentration of N causes the
hormone to "e released. What is the e'ect on the rate of hormone secretion if
an a"normal condition causes the leel of N in the "lood to remain ery lo$.
,he rate of hormone secretion remains hi!h.
Creatin! an 4nformational >rochure
Create a "rochure that descri"es "oth types of dia"etes. 9ou may $ish to include
information on risk factors6 treatment6 and preentie measures that can "e taken.
Use ima!es from ma!a*ines or the 4nternet to illustrate your "rochure. 3int: >e sure
to choose some hi!h.interest ima!es to make your "rochure isually appealin!.
8eproductie System
1. 1escri"e the functions of the male and female reproductie systems.
,o produce6 store and release !ametes) ,he female reproductie system also
prepares the female?s "ody to nourish a deelopin! em"ryo.
&. What happens durin! each of the four phases of the menstrual cycle?
Follicular phase: e!! deelops) oulation: e!! is released) luteal phase: e!!
traels throu!h Fallopian tu"e6 $here it may "e fertili*ed6 to the uterus)
menstruation: linin! of uterus6 "lood and e!! are dischar!ed throu!h a!ina.
+. What is pu"erty?
(u"erty is a period of rapid !ro$th and se%ual maturation.
0. #ame t$o S,1?s caused "y "acteria and t$o caused "y iruses.
>acterial S,1s include Chlamydia6 syphilis6 and !onorrhea. Liral S,1s include
hepatitis >6 !enital herpes6 !enital $arts and A41S.
2. Which hormone is at its peak durin! oulation? I3int: 9ou may $ish to refer to
Fi!ure +B.1=.J
Luteini*in! hormone6 or L3
4nformation and 3eredity
3o$ many chromosomes are there in a human e!! cell or in a sperm cell? 3o$ many
are there in a fertili*ed e!!? 9ou may $ish to refer "ack to Section 10.1.
1. 1escri"e the process of fertili*ation.
Sperm attaches to a "indin! site and releases en*ymes that attack the e!!?s
protectie layer) e!! and sperm nuclei mer!e.
&. 1escri"e the role of the placenta.
,he placenta is the em"ryo?s or!an of respiration6 nourishment and e%cretion.
+. 1escri"e the three sta!es of early deelopment.
4mplantation: "lastocyst attaches itself to the $all of the uterus) !astrulation:
three cell layers form) neurulation: the nerous system deelops.
0. What are the three !erm layers that result from !astrulation?
Ectoderm6 mesoderm and endoderm
2. What is o%ytocin6 and $hat is its role in child"irth?
;%ytocin is a hormone that stimulates la"or.
=. Why do you think doctors recommend that $omen aoid most medications and
alcohol durin! pre!nancy?
>ecause these su"stances may cross the placenta and harm the em"ryo or
Creatin! a ,imeline
Startin! $ith your "irth date6 create a timeline of physical and social deelopmental
milestones. As resources6 you can use interie$s6 photo!raphs and memories.
4mmune System
1. 1escri"e the "ody?s nonspeci5c defenses a!ainst patho!ens.
Un"roken skin is a "arrier to patho!ens. 4f patho!ens penetrate the skin6 they
cause an inHammatory response. (atho!ens that enter throu!h the mouth or
nose are trapped in mucus6 or attacked "y lyso*yme6 di!estie en*ymes6 and
stomach acid. Liruses tri!!er the production of interferons.
&. 1escri"e the function of the immune system.
,o protect the "ody a!ainst patho!ens.
+. 3o$ do interferons protect the "ody a!ainst iruses?
4nterferons inhi"it the pro!ress
0. 3o$ are anti!ens related to anti"odies?
An anti!en is a su"stance on the surface of a patho!en that tri!!ers an immune
response. Anti"odies are molecules that are custom.made to "ind to speci5c
2. 3o$ are actie and passie immunity similar? 3o$ are they di'erent?
,hey "oth proide anti"odies a!ainst a speci5c patho!en. Actie immunity is
often permanent) passie immunity is temporary.
Science6 ,echnolo!y and Society
7ettin! accinated is much safer than !ettin! the disease that the accine preents.
3o$eer6 like any dru!6 accines are capa"le of causin! serious pro"lems. 4nterie$
5e people a"out their thou!hts on accinations. As a class6 arran!e a de"ate that
addresses "oth the "ene5ts and risks of accinations.
4mmune System
1. What happens in an autoimmune disease?
4n an autoimmune disease6 the immune system attacks the "ody?s o$n cells.
&. 1escri"e the arious $ays 34L is transmitted from person to person.
Ans$ers should include the four "ulleted items on pa!e 1F0=.
+. What are the t$o main types of immune system disorders?
Autoimmune diseases6 and immunode5ciency diseases.
0. Why is it di'icult for a person $ith 34L to 5!ht o' infections?
34L kills o' most of the helper , cells6 $hich !reatly reduces the immune
system?s response to infection.
2. 4n treatin! asthma6 the 5rst thin! many physicians do is ask patients to list
times and places they hae e%perienced asthmatic reactions. Why do you think
doctors do this?
1octors ask asthmatic patients $here and $hen their asthmatic reactions occur
in order to identify the anti!ens that tri!!er the asthma attacks.
Structure and Function
Compare the process of 34L replication $ith that of other iruses. 9ou may $ish to
reie$ Fi!ure 0F.10 as $ell as Chapter 1B.
7re!or -endel
1. What are dominant and recessie alleles?
1ominant: form of an allele $hose trait al$ays sho$s up if it is present)
recessie: form of an allele $hose trait sho$s up only $hen the dominant allele
is not present.
&. What is se!re!ation? What happens to alleles durin! se!re!ation?
Separation of paired alleles) the alleles are separated durin! the formation of
!ametes6 $ith the result that each !amete carries only a sin!le allele from the
ori!inal pair.
+. What did -endel conclude determines "iolo!ical inheritance?
Factors that are passed from one !eneration to the ne%t
0. 1escri"e ho$ -endel cross.pollinated pea plants.
-endel cut a$ay the male parts of one Ho$er6 then dusted it $ith pollen from
another Ho$er.
2. Why did only a"out one fourth of -endel?s F
plants e%hi"it the recessie trait?
;nly one.fourth of the possi"le !amete com"inations did not hae a dominant
=. Why $ere true."reedin! pea plants important for -endel?s e%periments?
,rue."reedin! pea plants hae t$o identical alleles for a !ene6 so in a !enetic
cross each parent contri"uted only one form of a !ene6 makin! inheritance
patterns more detecta"le.
Usin! 1ia!rams
Use a dia!ram to e%plain -endel?s principles of dominance and se!re!ation. 9our
dia!ram should sho$ ho$ the alleles se!re!ate durin! !amete formation.
1. 3o$ are the principles of pro"a"ility used to predict the outcomes of !enetic
,he $ay in $hich the alleles se!re!ate is random6 and pro"a"ility allo$s the
calculation of the likelihood that a particular allele com"ination $ill occur in
&. 3o$ are (unnett s<uares used?
,o predict and compare the !enetic ariations that $ill result from a cross
+. What is pro"a"ility?
,he likelihood that a particular eent $ill occur
0. 1e5ne the terms !enotype and phenotype.
7enotype: actual alleles present for a trait6 or !enetic makeup) phenotype:
isi"le e%pression of the alleles6 or physical characteristics.
2. An F
plant that is homo*y!ous for shortness is crossed $ith a hetero*y!ous F

plant. What is the pro"a"ility that a seed from the cross $ill produce a tall
plant? Use a (unnett s<uare to e%plain your ans$er and to compare the
pro"a"le !enetic ariations in the F
2F percent) (unnett s<uare:
t t
, ,t ,t
t tt tt
1ra$in! (unnett S<uares
4ma!ine that you came upon a tall pea plant similar to those -endel used in his
e%periments. 3o$ could you determine the plant?s !enotype $ith respect to hei!ht?
1ra$ t$o (unnett s<uares to sho$ your ans$er.
-endelian 7enetics
1. E%plain $hat independent assortment means.
1urin! !amete formation6 pairs of alleles for di'erent traits se!re!ate6 or
separate6 independently of each other.
&. 1escri"e t$o inheritance patterns "esides simple dominance.
Ans$ers include descriptions for any t$o: incomplete dominance6
codominance6 multiple alleles6 or poly!enic traits.
+. What is the di'erence "et$een incomplete dominance and codominance?
4n incomplete dominance6 t$o alleles com"ine their e'ects to produce a sin!le
in."et$een phenotype6 such as pink Ho$ers from red and $hite parents. 4n
codominance6 each allele is e%pressed separately6 as $hen erminette chickens
hae "oth "lack and $hite feathers.
0. Why are fruit Hies an ideal or!anism for !enetic research?
,hey are small6 easy to keep in the la"oratory6 and produce lar!e num"ers of
o'sprin! in a short period of time.
2. A !eneticist studyin! coat color in animals crosses a male ra""it hain! the
!enotype CC $ith a female hain! !enotype Cc
. ,he !eneticist then crosses a
male $ith a Cc
female. 4n $hich of the t$o crosses are the o'sprin! more
likely to sho$ !reater !enetic ariation? Use (unnett s<uares to e%plain your
,he o'sprin! in the second cross $ill sho$ !reater ariation "ecause 1FF
percent of the o'sprin! from the 5rst cross ICC % Cc
J $ill "e full color.
(ro"lem Solin!
Construct a !enetics pro"lem to "e !ien as an assi!nment to a classmate. ,he
pro"lem must test incomplete dominance6 codominance6 multiple alleles6 or poly!enic
traits. 9our pro"lem must hae an ans$er key that includes all of your $ork.
1. 1escri"e the main results of meiosis.
Four haploid cells !enetically di'erent from one another and from the ori!inal
&. What are the principal di'erences "et$een mitosis and meiosis?
-itosis produces t$o !enetically identical diploid cells) meiosis produces four
!enetically di'erent haploid cells.
+. What do the terms diploid and haploid mean?
1iploid: t$o sets of chromosomes) haploid: one set of chromosomes
0. What is crossin!.oer?
3omolo!ous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads6 $hich may e%chan!e
portions of their chromatids6 resultin! in the e%chan!e of alleles "et$een the
homolo!ous chromosomes.
2. 4n human cells6 &# D 0=. 3o$ many chromosomes $ould you e%pect to 5nd in
a sperm cell? 4n an e!! cell? 4n a $hite "lood cell? E%plain.
>oth sperm and e!! cells hae &+ chromosomes "ecause they are !ametes6
$hich are haploid cells. A $hite "lood cell has 0= chromosomes "ecause it is a
diploid "ody cell.
4nformation and 3eredity
4n ase%ual reproduction6 mitosis occurs6 "ut not meiosis. Which type of reproduction
: se%ual or ase%ual : results in o'sprin! $ith !reater !enetic ariation? E%plain your
1. 3o$ does the principle of independent assortment apply to chromosomes?
4t is the chromosomes that assort independently6 not indiidual !enes.
&. What are !ene maps6 and ho$ are they produced?
A !ene map sho$s the relatie locations of !enes on a chromosome. ,he
fre<uency of crossin!.oer "et$een !enes is used to produce a map of
distances "et$een !enes.
+. 3o$ does crossin!.oer make !ene mappin! possi"le?
,he farther apart t$o !enes are6 the more likely they are to "e separated
durin! a crossoer in meiosis. ,herefore6 the fre<uency of crossin!.oer is
e<ual to the distance "et$een t$o !enes.
0. 4f t$o !enes are on the same chromosome "ut usually assort independently6
$hat does that tell you a"out ho$ close to!ether they are?
,he t$o !enes are located ery far apart from each other.
Cause.E'ect (ara!raph
4n your o$n $ords6 e%plain $hy the alleles for reddish.oran!e eyes and miniature
$in!s in 1rosophila are usually inherited to!ether. 4nclude the idea of !ene linka!e.
3int: ,o or!ani*e your ideas6 dra$ a cause.e'ect dia!ram that sho$s $hat happens
to the t$o alleles durin! meiosis.
1. List the conclusions 7ri'ith6 Aery6 3ershey and Chase dre$ from their
7ri'ith and Aery: !enes $ere pro"a"ly made of 1#A) 3ershey and Chase:
!enetic material of "acteriopha!e $as 1#A6 not protein.
&. 1escri"e Watson and Crick?s model of the 1#A molecule.
1#A is a dou"le heli% in $hich t$o strands are $ound around each other.
+. What are the four kinds of "ases found in 1#A?
Adenine6 thymine6 !uanine6 cytosine
0. 1id Watson and Crick?s model account for the e<ual amounts of thymine and
adenine in 1#A? E%plain.
9es) hydro!en "onds can form only "et$een certain "ase pairs : adenine $ith
thymine and !uanine $ith cytosine.
2. Why did 3ershey and Chase !ro$ iruses in cultures that contained "oth
radioactie phosphorus and radioactie sulfur? What mi!ht hae happened if
they had used only one radioactie su"stance?
So that "oth the iral 1#A and iral proteins $ould "e marked) either they
$ould not hae "een a"le to trace the location of the unmarked molecule in the
"acterial cell6 or the results $ould not hae "een conclusie.
Science as a Way of Kno$in!
Usin! the e%periments of 7ri'ith6 Aery6 or 3ershey and Chase as an e%ample6
deelop a Ho$chart that sho$s ho$ the scientist or scientists used scienti5c
processes. >e sure to identify each process. 3int: 9ou may $ish to reie$ Chapter 1
$hich descri"es scienti5c methods.
1. E%plain ho$ 1#A is replicated.
,he 1#A molecule separates into t$o strands6 $hich sere as templates
a!ainst $hich the ne$ strands are made6 follo$in! the rules of "ase pairin!.
&. Where and in $hat form is eukaryotic 1#A found?
4n the cell nucleus as chromosomes
+. 3o$ are the lon! 1#A molecules found in eukaryotes packed into short
1#A is ti!htly $ound around histones6 formin! nucleosomes. #ucleosomes are
ti!htly coiled and supercoiled to form chromosomes.
0. 3o$ are histones related to nucleosomes?
#ucleosomes are composed of 1#A $ound around histones.
2. What is the role of 1#A polymerase in 1#A replication?
(olymeri*es indiidual nucleotides to produce 1#A
=. 3o$ is the structure of chromosomes in eukaryotes di'erent from the structure
of chromosomes in prokaryotes?
(rokaryotes: sin!le6 circular 1#A molecule) eukaryotes: many chromosomes
composed of ti!htly coiled 1#A and proteins called histones
Creatin! a Lenn 1ia!ram
-ake a Lenn dia!ram that compares the process of 1#A replication in prokaryotes
and eukaryotes. Compare the location6 steps and end products of the process in each
kind of cell. IFor more on Lenn dia!rams6 see Appendi% A.J
8#AC(rotein Synthesis
1. List the three main types of 8#A.
-essen!er 8#A6 transfer 8#A6 ri"osomal 8#A
&. What happens durin! transcription?
8#A polymerase "inds to 1#A6 separates the strands6 and then uses one strand
as a template to assem"le 8#A.
+. What happens durin! translation?
,he cell uses information from messen!er 8#A to produce proteins.
0. 1escri"e the three main di'erences "et$een 8#A and 1#A.
,he su!ar in 8#A is ri"ose instead of deo%yri"ose) 8#A is !enerally sin!le.
stranded) 8#A contains uracil in place of thymine.
2. Usin! the !enetic code6 identify the amino acids that hae the follo$in!
messen!er 8#A strand codes: U77CA7U7C
Creatie Writin!
An 8#A molecule is lookin! for a /o" in a protein synthesis factory6 and it asks you to
$rite its resume. ,his 8#A molecule is not yet speciali*ed and could6 $ith some
structural chan!es6 function as either m8#A6 t8#A or r8#A. ,he resume you create
should reHect the <uali5cations needed for each type of 8#A.
1. What is a mutation?
A chan!e in !enetic material.
&. What is the si!ni5cance of mutations to liin! thin!s?
-utations can "e harmful "y producin! defectie proteins that disrupt normal
"iolo!ical actiities. -utations are also the source of !enetic aria"ility and can
"e "ene5cial.
+. What are t$o kinds of frameshift mutations?
,$o kinds of frameshift mutations are insertions and deletions.
0. What are four types of chromosomal mutations?
Four kinds of chromosomal mutations are deletions6 duplications6 inersions
and translocations.
2. ,he e'ects of a mutation are not al$ays isi"le. 3o$ mi!ht a "iolo!ist
determine $hether a mutation has occurred6 and if so6 $hat type of mutation it
A researcher could compare the 1#A se<uence of normal 1#A to that of the
mutated 1#A. ,he "ase se<uence should reeal the type of mutation.
CompareCContrast (ara!raph
Write a para!raph comparin! and contrastin! !ene mutations and chromosomal
mutations. 3int: ,o or!ani*e your ideas6 use a compareCcontrast ta"le. ,he column
heads mi!ht "e 1e5nition6 ,ypes and E'ects.
7enetic En!ineerin!
1. 7ie one e%ample of selectie "reedin!.
#early all domestic animals6 includin! horses6 cats and farm animals6 and most
crop plants hae "een produced "y selectie "reedin!.
&. 8elate !enetic ariation and mutations to each other.
-utations are the ultimate source of !enetic ariation.
+. 3o$ mi!ht a "reeder induce mutations?
>y usin! radiation and chemicals.
0. What is polyploidy?
,he condition of hain! many sets of chromosomes
2. 9ou are a !eneticist tryin! to deelop a sunHo$er $ith red Ho$ers and a short
stem. As you compare the sunHo$ers you hae6 $hat !enetic ariations $ould
you look for? What kinds of plants $ould you select for crossin!?
(lants $ith shorter stems and plants $ith more red pi!ment in their Ho$ers.
Science6 ,echnolo!y6 and Society
Write a para!raph in $hich you su!!est $ays that plants could "e !enetically altered
to improe the $orld?s food supply. 3int: ,he 5rst sentence in your para!raph
should e%press the para!raph?s main idea.
7enetic En!ineerin!
1. What is transformation?
A process in $hich a cell incorporates 1#A from outside the cell into its o$n
&. 3o$ can you tell if a transformation e%periment has "een successful?
4f transformation is successful6 the 1#A $ill "e inte!rated into one of the cell?s
+. 3o$ are !enetic markers related to transformation?
A !enetic marker makes it possi"le to distin!uish a cell that has "een
transformed from those that hae not.
4. What are t$o features that make plasmids useful for transformin! cells?
,hey hae 1#A se<uences that promote plasmid replication6 and they hae
!enetic markers.
2. Compare the transformation of a "acterium cell $ith the transformation of a
plant cell.
8ecom"inant plasmids are simply taken up "y "acterial cells. (lant cells do not
naturally take up 1#A. 8ecom"inant plasmids are either directly in/ected into
cells or carried into the cell "y an infectin! "acterium.
Writin! a (lan for an E%periment
4ma!ine that you are a !enetic en!ineer. 1etermine $hat your ne%t e%periment $ill
"e. ,hen6 $rite up the steps you $ill follo$ and $hat your intended result $ill "e.
Applied 7enetics
1. List one practical application for each of the follo$in!: trans!enic "acteria6
trans!enic animals6 trans!enic plants.
Sample ans$ers: trans!enic "acteria : to produce human proteins for medical
use6 produce materials for plastics) animals : study !enes6 improe food supply6
proide human proteins) plants : improe food supply6 produce human
anti"odies6 produce plastics
&. What is a trans!enic or!anism?
An or!anism that contains !enes from another species.
+. What "asic steps $ere follo$ed to produce 1olly?
,he nucleus of an e!! cell is remoed and replaced $ith a nucleus taken from
another adult. ,his e!! is then placed in the reproductie system of a foster
mother6 $here it deelops normally.
0. List reasons you $ould or $ould not "e concerned a"out eatin! !enetically
modi5ed food.
Some may "e concerned "ecause the foods mi!ht harm humans6 for e%ample6
"y causin! aller!ies. ;thers $ill not "e concerned "ecause they think the
!enetic modi5cations $ill not a'ect humans adersely.
Conductin! a Surey
Surey at least ten people a"out their ie$points on clonin! animals. ,o help the
people you surey understand the topic6 prepare an illustrated e%planation of the
process of clonin!.
3uman 3eredity
1. What are se% chromosomes? What determines $hether a person is male or
N and 9 chromosomes) Females hae t$o N chromosomes) males hae one N
and one 9 chromosome.
&. Usin! an e%ample6 e%plain ho$ a small chan!e in a person?s 1#A can cause a
!enetic disorder.
4n cystic 5"rosis6 for e%ample6 the deletion of three 1#A "ases alters the
structure of a protein and preents its normal function. ,his dama!es tissues
throu!hout the "ody.
+. 3o$ does studyin! !enetic disorders such as (KU help "iolo!ists understand
normal alleles?
A speci5c !enetic disorder produced "y an a"normal or nonfunctionin! allele
!ies researchers clues a"out the normal functionin!s of the !ene6 as $hen
(KU $as sho$n to result from a missin! en*yme.
4. 4f a $oman $ith type ; "lood and a man $ith type A> "lood hae children6
$hat are the children?s possi"le !enotypes?
i and I
1ra$in! a (edi!ree
Choose a family and a trait6 such as facial dimples6 that you can trace throu!h three
!enerations. Find out $ho in the family has had the trait and $ho has not. ,hen6
dra$ a pedi!ree to represent the family history of the trait.
7enetic 1isorders
1. Why are se%.linked disorders more common in males than in females?
-ales hae /ust one N chromosome. ,hus6 all N.linked alleles are e%pressed in
males6 een if they are recessie.
&. 3o$ does nondis/unction cause chromosome num"er disorders?
Chromosomes fail to separate6 causin! !ametes to hae a"normal num"ers of
+. List at least t$o e%amples of human se%.linked disorders.
Ans$ers include color"lindness6 hemophilia6 and 1uchenne muscular
0. 1escri"e t$o se% chromosome disorders.
A female $ith ,urner?s syndrome has only one N chromosome and is sterile. A
male $ith Kinefelter?s syndrome has one or more e%tra N chromosomes and is
usually sterile.
2. 1istin!uish "et$een se%.linked disorders and se% chromosome disorders.
Se%.linked disorders are caused "y alleles of !enes usually carried on the N
chromosome. Se% chromosome disorders are caused "y nondis/unction6 or se%
chromosomes failin! to separate correctly durin! meiosis.
E%plainin! a (rocess
Write a para!raph e%plainin! the process of nondis/unction. 3int: ,o or!ani*e your
$ritin!6 refer to Fi!ure 10.12 and use this dia!ram to create a Ho$chart that sho$s
the steps in the process.
3uman -olecular 7enetics
1. What is the 3uman 7enome (ro/ect?
An on!oin! e'ort to analy*e the human 1#A se<uence
&. 1escri"e ho$ !ene therapy $orks.
An a"sent or faulty !ene is replaced "y a normal6 $orkin! !ene.
+. #ame t$o common uses for 1#A testin!.
,o detect alleles for a !enetic disorder and to identify indiiduals.
0. 1escri"e ho$ molecular "iolo!ists identify !enes in se<uences of 1#A.
>y lookin! for promoters6 $hich are "indin! sites for 8#A polymerase) an open
readin! frame and introns as $ell as e%ons
2. Ealuate the potential impact of the 3uman 7enome (ro/ect on "oth scienti5c
thou!ht and society. 3o$ has it improed our understandin! of human
!enetics? 3o$ mi!ht it "e used to "ene5t humankind? What potential ethical
pro"lems mi!ht it create?
(ossi"le ans$er: Learn causes of !enetic disorders and ho$ the inheritance
and e%pression of human traits is controlled. 3elpful in curin! diseases6 "ut
could cause discrimination and the manipulation of human traits for pro5t.
Science6 ,echnolo!y and Society
>iolo!ists may one day "e a"le to use !enetic en!ineerin! to alter a child?s inherited
traits. Under $hat circumstances6 if at all6 should this a"ility "e used? When should
it not "e used? Write a persuasie para!raph e%pressin! your opinion. 3int: Use
speci5c e%amples of traits to support your ideas.
7enes and Lariation
1. 4n !enetic terms6 $hat indicates that eolution is occurrin! in a population?
Eolution is occurrin! $hen there is a chan!e in the relatie fre<uency of
alleles in a population.
&. What t$o processes can lead to inherited ariation in populations?
-utations and the !enetic shuOin! that results from se%ual reproduction.
+. 3o$ does the ran!e of phenotypes di'er "et$een sin!le.!ene traits and
poly!enic traits?
Sin!le.!ene traits hae only t$o distinct phenotypes. (oly!enic traits can hae
many possi"le phenotypes.
0. What is a !ene pool? 3o$ are allele fre<uencies related to !ene pools?
A !ene pool is the com"ined !enetic information of all mem"ers of a particular
population. Allele fre<uencies are the num"er of times certain alleles occur in
a particular !ene pool compared $ith other alleles.
2. Ealuate the si!ni5cance of mutations to the process of "iolo!ical eolution.
3int: 3o$ does mutation a'ect !enetic ariation?
-utations increase !enetic ariation6 $hich is needed for natural selection to
"rin! a"out eolutionary chan!e.
4nformation and 3eredity
3o$ does the process kno$n as independent assortment relate to the !enetic
ariation that results from se%ual reproduction? 3int: 8efer to Chapter 11.
7enetic Chan!e
1. 1escri"e ho$ natural selection can a'ect traits controlled "y sin!le !enes.
4t can lead to chan!es in allele fre<uencies and the eolution of traits.
&. 1escri"e three patterns of natural selection on poly!enic traits. Which one
leads to t$o distinct phenotypes?
1irectional selection faors one e%treme) sta"ili*in! selection faors the middle
of the ran!e) disruptie selection faors "oth e%tremes and leads to t$o
+. 3o$ does !enetic drift lead to a chan!e in a population?s !ene pool?
7enetic drift causes random chan!es in allele fre<uencies in small populations.
0. What is the 3ardy.Wein"er! principle?
Allele fre<uencies in a population remain constant unless one or more factors
cause the fre<uencies to chan!e.
2. 3o$ are directional selection and disruptie selection similar? 3o$ are they
>oth are types of selection on poly!enic traits in $hich the cure shifts a$ay
from the middle. 4n directional selection6 the cure shifts to$ard one end6 and
in disruptie selection6 to$ard "oth ends.
Usin! -odels
1emonstrate natural selection on poly!enic traits "y cuttin! a sheet of paper into
s<uares of 5e di'erent si*es to represent si*es in a population. Use the s<uares to
model directional6 sta"ili*in! and disruptie selection. ,hen6 think of an alternatie
$ay to model one type of selection. 1ecide $hich model $orks "est6 and !ie your