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TIEMPO
2
AREA DEL CONOCIMIENTO GESTION DE PLAZOS

• 1) INTRODUCCION

• 2) PROCESOS DE GESTION DE TIEMPOS
 Entrada / Técnica-Herramientas / Salidas
 Ejercicios ( De selección múltiples / Memorizar procesos )

• 3) TIPS DE GESTION DE TIEMPOS



3
AREAS DEL
CONOCIMIENTO
Gestión de Alcance
del Proyecto
Gestión de Riesgos
del Proyecto
Gestión de Calidad
del Proyecto
Gestión de Tiempos
del Proyecto
Gestión de Adquisiciones
del Proyecto
Gestión de Recursos
Humanos del Proyecto
Gestión de Integración
del Proyecto
Gestión de Comunicaciones
del Proyecto
Gestión de Costos
del Proyecto
1. - INTRODUCCION
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
4
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Se toma la
decisión de
dividirlo en
fases
Selección
Gerente
Proyectos
Desarrolla
Acta de
Constitución
Del Proyecto


Crea el
Quiebre del
Proyecto
Desarrolla
Plan de
Gestión del
Proyecto
Reunión de
Kickoff

Adquiere el
Team final
Ejecuta el
Plan de Gestión
De Proyectos
Recomiendan
e Implementan
Cambios
Selecciona
Proveedor

Mide respecto
De la Línea
Base
Reporta el
Performance
Del Proyecto
Crea pronósticos
Administra
Contratos

Confirmar si trabajo
Cumple los
requerimientos
Obtener aceptación
Formal del producto
Completar Cierre
contrato
Actualizar Lecciones
aprendidas

1.1 Overview Grupo de Procesos de Gestión de Proyectos
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1. INTRODUCCION
5
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
Desde el WBS llegar al
nivel más pequeño de
trabajo para estimar,
controlar, gestionar y
calendarizar, llamado
nivel de actividad
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
6
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
Tomar las actividades
secuenciarlas en como
el trabajo debe
realizarse, salida
diagrama de red.
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
7
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
Determinación de la
cantidad y tipo de
recurso que
completará las
actividades
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
8
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
A través de técnicas de
estimación de tiempo
(similares al costo)
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
9
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
Calendarizar el Diagrama
de Red, considerando
disponibilidad de recursos,
fecha impuestas, días
laborales.
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
10
Iniciación Planificación Ejecución
Monitoreo y
Control
Cierre
Definición de
Actividad
Secuencia de
Actividades
Estimación de
Recursos
Estimación de
duración
Desarrollo
Cronograma
Control
Cronograma
Reportes de progreso del
Cronograma.

GESTION DE TIEMPOS
1.2 Procesos de Gestión de Tiempos en Proyectos
1. INTRODUCCION
11
1.- Define Activities
The process of identifying the specific
actions to be performed to produce
the project deliverables.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131, Figure 6-1
Project Time Management Overview
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
12
Factores Ambientales : Elementos tangibles o intangibles, internos o externos,
Aumentan o restringen las opciones de dirección de proyectos.
Entradas
Proceso, Estructura y Cultura de la empresa / Normas de las industrias /
Instalaciones
Recursos humanos existentes / Clima Política / Canales de organización /
B.D. de Costos / Sistemas de información para la gestión de Proyectos.
Activos de los procesos de la organización: Abarcar activos relativos a procesos
que
pueden usarse para influir en el éxito del proyecto
Planes, políticas, procedimientos formales o informales, Base de Conocimiento
(Lecciones Aprendidas), información histórica
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
13
Factores Ambientales (En Particular Gestión Tiempo) :
Entradas
Proceso : Existencia de un Ciclo de Vida de Proyectos,
Estructura de la empresa : Existencia de Subgerencia de Proyectos
Cultura de la Empresa : Periodo en Meses
Canales de organización : Formales Notas Internas / Informales Outlock-MS
Sistemas de información para la gestión de Proyectos : MS-project
Activos de los procesos de la organización (En Particular Gestión Tiempo)
Procedimientos formales : Procedimientos formales, con plantillas para estimar
actividades de proyectos
información histórica : B.D. de Cartas Gantt de Proyectos periodos anteriores

GESTION DE TIEMPOS
14
1.- Define Activities – Inputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 134, 6.1.1.1, Scope Baseline
• Scope Baseline
The project deliverables, constraints, and
assumptions documented in the project scope
baseline are considered while defining activities.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 133
Figure 6-3 Define Activities:
Inputs, Tools & Techniques,
and Outputs
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
15
1.- Define Activities – Tools and Techniques
Project Time Management
• Decomposition
The technique of subdividing the project work
packages into smaller more manageable
components called activities.
• Rolling Wave Planning
A form of progressive elaboration planning where
the work to be accomplished in the near term is
planned in detail & future work is planned at a high
level of the WBS.
• Templates
Can be standard activity list from a previous
project.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 134, 6.1.2.1 – 4, Define Activities
PMBOK®Guide, Page 133
Figure 6-3 Define Activities:
Inputs, Tools & Techniques,
and Outputs
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
16
• Activity List
A comprehensive list including all schedule activities
required on the project.

• Activity Attributes
Multiple components associated with each activity
that can be included within the activity list.

• Milestone List
A list of significant points or events in the project that
identifies and indicates whether the milestone is
mandatory.


PMBOK®Guide, Page 136 - 137, 6.1.3.1 – 3 Define
Activities: Outputs
1.- Define Activities – Outputs
Project Time Management
PMBOK®Guide, Page 133
Figure 6-3 Define Activities:
Inputs, Tools & Techniques,
and Outputs
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
17
• An activity list is a comprehensive list including all
schedule activities required on the project.
Major Deliverable Activity/Task
D1: T1.1
T1.2
T1.3
D2: T2.1
T2.2
T2.3
D3: T3.1
T3.2
T3.3
Project Time Management: Activity List
PMBOK®Guide, Page 136, 6.1.3.1 Activity List
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
18
MILESTONE DUE DATE
• A list of significant points or events in the project that
identifies and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory.
Project Time Management: Milestone List
PMBOK®Guide, Page 137, 6.1.3.3 Milestone List
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
19
1. Define Activities Inputs include:
A. Enterprise Environmental Factors and
Organizational Process Assets
B. Scope Baseline
C. Project Management Plan
D. A and B only.
E. A, B and C

D
PMBOK®Guide, Page
134, 6.1.1, Define
Activities: Inputs
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
20
3. Define Activities outputs include:
A. Activity List and Activity Attributes.
B. Milestone List and Change Requests
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above

A
PMBOK®Guide, Page 135,
6.1.3 Define Activities:
Outputs
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
21
5. Define Activities tools & techniques include:
A. Decomposition and Templates
B. Rolling Wave Planning
C. Expert Judgment
D. B and C only
E. A, B and C
E
PMBOK®Guide, Page
134, 6.1.2, Define
Activities: Tools and
Techniques
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
22
7. Rolling wave planning is:
A. The technique that involves subdividing the project
work packages into smaller more manageable
components called activities
B. As a form of progressive elaboration planning where
the work to be accomplished in the near term is
planned in detail and future work is planned at a
higher level of the WBS.
C. A comprehensive list including all schedule activities
required on the project.
D. None of the above project.

B
Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning where
the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future
work is planned at a higher level of the WBS..
PMBOK®Guide, Page 134, 6.1.2.2 Rolling Wave Planning
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
23
8. Project work packages are typically decomposed into
smaller components called:



A. Management points
B. Control accounts
C. Activities
D. None of the above
C
Project work packages are typically decomposed into smaller
components called activities that represent the work necessary to
complete the work package.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 133, 6.1, Define Activities
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
24
10. An activity list is:
A. The technique that involves subdividing the project
work packages into smaller more manageable
components called activities.
B. A list of significant points or events in the project that
indicates whether the event is mandatory.
C. A comprehensive list including all schedule activities
required on the project.
D. None of the above


C
The activity list is a comprehensive list including all schedule
activities required on the project.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 135, 6.1.3.1 Activity List
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
25
2. Sequence Activities
The process of identifying and
documenting relationships
among the project activities.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 50, 3.4.6 Sequence Activities
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131, Figure 6-1
Project Time Management Overview
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
26
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
• Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
A method of constructing a project schedule network
diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as
nodes, to represent activities & connects them with
arrows.
A method used in Critical Path Method (CPM),
PMBOK®Guide, Page 136
Figure 6-5
Sequence Activities: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.1, Precedence
Diagramming Method
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
PDM‟s , This technique is also called Activity-On-Node
(AON)
27
Dependency: PMBOK® Guide – Glossary, Page 437
A logical relationship between two project schedule activities, or
between a project schedule activity & a schedule milestone.
four types of dependencies (logical relationships) are:
1. Finish-to-Start
2. Finish-to-Finish
3. Start-to-Start
4. Start-to-Finish
In PDM, finish-to-start is the most commonly used type
and the start-to-finish is rarely used.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.1, Precedence
Diagramming Method
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
28
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
Actividad Antecesora, actividad que debe comenzar o terminar
antes que otra actividad pueda comenzar o terminar.
Actividad sucesora, actividad que no puede comenzar o
terminar hasta que otra actividad comience.
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
A
B
2.- Finish-to-Finish : La finalización de la actividad sucesora depende
de la finalización de la actividad predecesora.
A
B
1.- Finish-to-Start : El inicio de la actividad sucesora depende de la
finalización de la actividad predecesora.
A B
29
GESTION DE TIEMPOS
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
3.- Start-to-Start : El inicio de la actividad sucesora depende del inicio de la
actividad predecesora
A
B
4.- Start-to-Finish : La finalización de la actividad sucesora depende del inicio
de la actividad predecesora.
Ejemplo : Escenario de Corte de Energía Eléctrica, y
está en funcionamiento generador de respaldo, en el
instante en que llega la energía eléctrica, se apaga
el generador de respaldo

A: Energía Eléctrica Distribuida
B: Energía Eléctrica de Respaldo.
A
B
30
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
This technique is also called Activity-On-Node (AON).

2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
Actividad Actividad Predecesora
Inicio -
A Inicio
B Inicio
C Inicio
D A
E A,B
F D
G E,C
Fin F,G
31
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
This technique is also called Activity-On-Arrow (AOA).

2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
Actividad Actividad Predecesora
Inicio -
A Inicio
B Inicio
C Inicio
D A
E A,B
F D
G E,C
Fin F,G
32
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
METODO ACTIVIDAD EN RELACIONES POSIBLES ACTIVIDAD DUMMY
PDM EL NODO FIN-INICIO / INICIO-INICIO / FIN-FIN / INICIO-FIN NO ES USADA
ADM LA FLECHA SÓLO FIN-INICIO ES USADA
PDM Precedence Diagraming Method
ADM Arrow Diagraming Method
Diferencias entre PDM y ADM
33
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
Tipos de Dependencias
1.- Mandatory Dependency : Inherente a la naturaleza del trabajo que se está
Ejecutando o requerido por el contrato. Ejemplo Diseño antes que construcción.
2.- Discretionary Dependency : la forma en que el gerente prefiere setear las
dependencias. Estas dependencias pueden ser cambiadas si es necesario.
3.- External Dependency : Basadas en necesidades o deseos de partes fuera
del proyecto ( por ejemplo Gobierno, Cliente )
34
2. Sequence Activities – Tools and Techniques
Lead and Lags
Un “Lead” puede ser agregado para comenzar una actividad antes que la
actividad predecesora sea completada. En otras palabras permite una
aceleración de la actividad sucesora. Por ejemplo en informática comenzar la
codificación de programas 5 dias antes que termine el diseño.
Un “Lag” es un tiempo de espera insertado entre actividades. En otras palabras
impacta en una demora en la actividad sucesora. Por ejemplo se debe esperar 3
días para que el concreto esté en condiciones antes que se pueda construir el
marco de la casa.
35
Slide 35
14. Sequence Activities Tools & Techniques include:
A. PDM.
B. Critical Path Method and EVM
C. Schedule Network Templates and external
dependencies
D. A and B only
E. A and C only
F. None of the above

A
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.2,
Sequence Activities: Tools and
Techniques
36
Slide 36
15. Activity Sequencing inputs include:
A. Activity Attributes and Activity List
B. Milestone List and Approved Change Requests
C. Project Scope Statement
D. A and C only
E. A and B only

D
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.2,
Sequence Activities: Inputs
37
Slide 37
16. Activity Sequencing outputs include:
A. Project Schedule Network Diagrams and
Project Document Updates .
B. Activity Attributes (Updates) and
Requested Changes
C. PDM
D. A and B
E. B and C
A
PMBOK®Guide, Page 141, 6.2.3,
Sequence Activities: Outputs
38

A Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) is a method … for constructing a
project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as
nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the
logical relationships that exist between them.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.1, Precedence Diagramming Method
Slide 38
17.Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) is:
A. A method of constructing a project schedule network
diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as
nodes, to represent activities & connects them with arrows.
B. A method of constructing a project schedule network
diagram that uses arrows to represent activities and
connects to nodes to show dependencies
C. The technique of identifying early and late start dates and
well as early and late finish dates for the uncompleted
schedule activities.
D. None of the above
39
18. The dependencies or logical relationships included
in PDM are:
A. Finish-to-start and Finish-to-finish
B. Start-to-start and Start-to-finish.
C. Start-to-finish and Finish-to Finish-to Start
D. A. B and C only
D
PDM includes four types of dependencies or logical relationships:
Finish-to-start (FS), Finish-to-finish (FF), Start-to-start (SS), Start-to-
finish (SF).
PMBOK®Guide, Page 138, 6.2.2.1, Precedence Diagramming Method
40
19. Dependencies are defined as:
A. The series of tasks that must be completed on
schedule for a project to finish on schedule. Each
task on the critical path is a critical task
B. A logical relationship between two project scheduled
activities or between a project schedule activity and a
schedule milestone.
C. A relationship in which the start or finish date of a
task depends on a task in another project.
D. A scheduled task on the critical path
E. None of the above
B
PMBOK® Guide, Page 437, Glossary, Logical Relationship
41
20. The types of dependencies are used to define the
sequence among the activities are:
A. Optional dependencies.
B. Mandatory dependencies.
C. Discretionary dependencies.
D. External dependencies.
E. A, B and D
F. B, C and D
F
PMBOK®Guide, Page 139 - 140, 6.1.2.2, Dependency Determination
42
21. External Dependencies are:
A. A relationship between two linked tasks; linked by a
dependency between their finish and start dates.
B. Contractually required or inherent in the nature of the
work.
C. A scheduled task on the critical path
D. Referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft
logic established based on knowledge of best practices
within a particular application area or some unusual
aspect of the project where a specific sequence is
desired, even though there may be other acceptable
sequences.
E. A relationship between project activities and non-project
activities
F
PMBOK®Guide, Page 139 , 6.1.2.2, Dependency Determination
43
Slide 43
3.- Estimate Activity Resources

The process of estimating the type
& quantities material, people,
equipment, or supplies required to
perform each activity.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 50, 3.4.7 Sequence Activities
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131, Figure 6-1
Project Time Management Overview
44
Slide 44
• Resource Calendars
Information on which resources are potentially
available during planned activity period is used for
estimating resource utilization.

Resources calendars specify when and how long
identified project resources will be available during
the project.

The composite resource calendar includes the
availability, capabilities, and skills of human
resources.


PMBOK®Guide, Page 143, 6.3.1.3 Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs
3.- Estimate Activity Resources – Inputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 142
Figure 6-8 Estimate Activity
Resources: Inputs, Tools
and Techniques, and
Outputs
45
Slide 45
3.- Estimate Activity Resources – Tools and Techniques
• Alternatives Analysis
Includes using various levels of resource capability or
skills, different size or type of machines, different tools,
and make-or-buy decisions regarding the resource.
• Published Estimating Data
Published updated production rates and unit costs of
resources for an extensive array of labor trades,
material, and equipment for different countries and
geographical locations within countries.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 142
Figure 6-8 Estimate Activity
Resources: Inputs, Tools
and Techniques, and
Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 144, 6.3.2.2 - 3, Estimate Activity Resources
46
Slide 46
3.- Estimate Activity Resources – Tools and Techniques
• Bottom-up Estimating
A method of estimating a component of work.

The work is decomposed into more detail. An estimate
is prepared of what is needed to meet the requirements
of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and
these estimates are then aggregated into a total
quantity for the component of work.

The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the
size and complexity of the work identified at the lower
levels. Generally smaller work scopes increase the
accuracy of the estimates.
• Project Management Software
Used to help plan, organize and manage resource
pools and develop resource estimates.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 144, 6.3.2.4 - 5, Schedule Network Templates
PMBOK®Guide, Page 142
Figure 6-8 Estimate Activity
Resources: Inputs, Tools
and Techniques, and
Outputs
47
PMBOK®Guide, Page 146, 6.3.3.1 -2 Estimate Activity Resources: Outputs
Slide 47
• Activity Resource Requirements
Identifies the types and quantities of resources
required for each activity in a work package.
• Resource Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical structure if the identified resources y
resource category and resource type.



3.- Estimate Activity Resources – Outputs

PMBOK®Guide, Page 142
Figure 6-8 Estimate Activity
Resources: Inputs, Tools
and Techniques, and
Outputs
48
Slide 48
4.- Estimate Activity Durations
The process of approximating
the number of work periods
needed to complete individual
schedule activities with
estimated resources.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131, Figure 6-1
Project Time Management Overview
49 Marilyn D. Varnado, PMP, SCPM CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Slide 49
4.- Estimate Activity Durations– Tools and Techniques
• Analogous Estimating
Uses parameters such as duration, budget, size,
weight, and complexity from a similar previous project
as the basis for estimating and how to reconcile
differences between them.

Generally less costly and time consuming than other
techniques and less accurate

PMBOK®Guide, Page 149, 6.4.2.2, Analogous Estimating
PMBOK®Guide, Page 146
Figure 6-10 Estimate Activity
Duration: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs
50
Slide 50
4.- Estimate Activity Durations– Tools and Techniques

• Parametric Estimating
Uses a statistical relationship between historical data
and other variables to calculate an estimate for activity
parameters.

Produces higher levels of accuracy depending upon
the model.

PMBOK®Guide, Page 150, 6.4.2.3, Parametric Estimating
PMBOK®Guide, Page 146
Figure 6-10 Estimate Activity
Duration: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs
51
Slide 51
4.- Estimate Activity Durations– Tools and Techniques
• Three-point Estimates
Originated with the Program Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT).
PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate
range for an activity‟s duration:
1. Most Likely (t
m
): The duration of the activity, given
the resources likely to be assigned, their productivity,
realistic expectations of availability for the activity,
dependencies on other participants, & interruptions
2. Optimistic (t
0
): The activity duration is based on
analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity.
3. Pessimistic (t
p
): The activity duration is based of on
analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 150, 6.4.2.4, Three-Points Estimates
PMBOK®Guide, Page 146
Figure 6-10 Estimate Activity
Duration: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs
52
Slide 52
4.- Estimate Activity Durations– Tools and Techniques
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Formulas
These formulas are used for estimating activity duration & costs.
1. Estimación PERT (Normal distribution)


2. Standard deviation of an activity (σ)


3. Variance of an activity

PMBOK®Guide, Page 150, 6.4.2.4, Three-Points Estimates
53
Graphical Evaluation Review Technique (GERT)
Network analysis technique that allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic &
activity duration estimated.
GERT is rarely used today because it has been proven to be less accurate than PERT
and Critical Path Method (CPM).
GERT is mainly used on project activities that are only performed in part, as well as
those activities that may be performed more than once (loop).
The GERT diagram is
 Similar to the PDM by using Activity on Nodes diagram
 Allows repeating of a task or activity several times called looping
 Permits an if/then condition in the schedule called branching




The above graphic illustrates a fragment of a GERT diagram with a loop.
4.- Estimate Activity Durations– Tools and Techniques
54
4.- Estimate Activity Durations – Tools and Techniques
• Reserve Analysis
Duration estimates may include contingency reserves,
referred to as time reserves or buffers into the overall
project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty.

Produces higher levels of accuracy depending upon
the model.

PMBOK®Guide, Page 151, 6.4.2.5, Reserve Analysis
PMBOK®Guide, Page 146
Figure 6-10 Estimate Activity
Duration: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs
55
2. Presupuesto de Costos
8. Preupuesto de costos
7.- Reserva de Aminstración ( Dueño)
6.- Linea Base de Costos
5.- Reserva de Contingencia
4.- Estimacion de Costo del Proyecto
3.- Cuenta de control
2.-Paquete de Actividades
1.- Estimación de Actividades $ 100 $ 100 $ 200
$ 100
$ 1.700
$ 170
$ 1.870
$ 1.100
$ 500
$ 1.600
$ 400
$ 400
$ 300
56
• Activity Duration Estimates
Quantitative assessments of the likely number of
work periods that will be required to complete an
activity.


PMBOK®Guide, Page 151, 6.4.3.1 Activity Duration Estimates
4.- Estimate Activity Durations – Outputs

PMBOK®Guide, Page 146
Figure 6-10 Estimate Activity
Duration: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs
57
Please refer to the table:
25. If these three tasks (i.e. Task A,
Task B, Task C) are not part of the
critical path of a project, what is
the PERT estimate for the duration
of the project?

A. 22.5
B. 10.33
C. 32
D. Can not be determined.
D
Since the tasks are not on the critical path of the project, we cannot
determine the PERT estimate for the duration of the project. The PERT
estimate can only be calculated for the critical path of the project.
No direct answer in the PMBOK Project Time Management
58
B
PERT analysis calculates an Expected (t
E
) activity duration using a
weighted average of three estimates:
t
E
= (Optimistic + 4* (Most Likely) + Pessimistic )/6
t
E
= (10 + 4 * 13 + 16)/6
t
E
= 13
PMBOK®Guide, Page 150, 6.4.2.4, Three-points Estimates
26. An activity has an optimistic estimate of ten days,
pessimistic estimate of sixteen days, and most likely
estimate of thirteen days. Assuming a normal
distribution, what is the PERT duration?
A. 12 days
B. 13 days
C. 14 days
D. 15 days
t
E
= t
0
+ 4t
m
+ t
p

6
59
27. An activity has an optimistic estimate of sixteen days,
pessimistic estimate of ten days, and most likely
estimate of thirteen days. Assuming a normal
distribution, what is the standard deviation?
A. 1
B. 1.5
C. 2
D. 2.5
A
Standard Deviation (sigma)
= (Pessimistic - Optimistic) / 6
= (16 - 10) / 6
= 1
No direct answer in the PMBOK
t
E
= t
p
– t
o

6
60
28. Refer to diagram below. An activity has an optimistic
estimate of 10 days, pessimistic estimate of 16 days,
and most likely estimate of 13 days. Assuming a
normal distribution, what is the probability that the
task will be completed within 10 - 16 days?
A. 99.99 %
B. 99.73 %
C. 95.46 %
D. 68.26%
B
So, if the task has to be completed
within 10 to 16 days, then the
probability of completion within the
timeframe is 99.73%(3 sigma) as
shown in the exhibit.
No direct answer in the PMBOK
61
B
If the duration of task J is increased by 1 week,
Start -> G -> I -> J -> End = 23 weeks; this also lies on the critical path (23
days). Since there are 3 critical paths now, a delay in any of the critical
paths will delay the overall project - this increases the overall project risk.
No direct answer in the PMBOK ® Guide

Please refer to this diagram:
33.What is the effect on the
project if the duration of
task J is increased to 9
weeks?
A. No effect since task J
is not on the critical path
B. Risk of the project will increase
C. The overall time-frame required to complete the project will increase by 1 week
D. None of the above
62
D
The duration of the project should be calculated after drawing a network
diagram and determining the critical path. The duration of the project is
the length of the critical path and not the sum of the duration of all the
tasks in the project.
No direct answer in the PMBOK ® Guide
34. All the following statements regarding the creation of
Time Estimates are correct EXCEPT:
A. Mathematical analysis like CPM, GERT & PERT indicate the dates on which
the activity can be scheduled given resource limits and other constraints
B. Duration compression techniques including fast tracking & crashing can help
in decreasing the project schedule
C. WBS classification allows for useful activity ordering and sorting
D. The duration of the project is the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the
project.
63
Slide 63
36. The Estimate Activity Durations inputs include:
A. Enterprise environmental factors and
organizational process assets
B. Activity list, activity attributes and
activity resource requirements
C. Resource calendar and
project scope statement
D. All of the above.
E. A and C only

D
PMBOK®Guide, Page 147, 6.4.1
Activity Duration Estimates:
Inputs
64
37. The Estimate Activity Durations outputs include:
A. Activity duration estimates
B. Project documents updates
C. Reserve analysis
D. A and B only
E. A, B and C

D
PMBOK®Guide, Page 151, 6.4.3
Activity Duration Estimates:
Outputs
65
38. The tools and techniques for Estimate Activity
Durations include:
A. Expert judgment and analogous estimating
B. Parametric estimating and three-point estimates
C. Reserve analysis
D. A and B only
E. A, B and C

E
PMBOK®Guide, Page 149, 6.4.2
Activity Duration Estimates:
Tools and Techniques
66 Marilyn D. Varnado, PMP, SCPM CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Slide 66
36. Parametric Estimating is:
A. The technique of estimating the types and quantities of resources required to
perform each schedule activity.
B. A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project
deliverables into smaller more manageable components, until the project work
associated with accomplishing the project scope.
C. An estimating technique that uses the values of parameters or measures the
scale from a previous similar activity
D. An estimating technique that uses the values of statistical relationship
between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate for an
activity parameters.
D
Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical
data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate
an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 150, 6.4.2.3, Parametric Estimating
67
5.- Develop Schedule
¿ Qué se necesita antes para desarrollar un cronograma de actividades del proyecto ?
Una vez que el diagrama de red está y las estimaciones están completadas, es
Tiempo de poner la información en un programa. La diferencia entre una estimación
de tiempo y un cronograma es que el cronograma está basado en un calendario.
 Un entendimiento del trabajo requerido del proyecto. ( Project Scope Statement )
 Actividades Definidas ( WBS, WBS-DIC, Activity List)
 Orden de cómo el trabajo será realizado ( Secuence Activity)
 Estimación de Recursos necesitados ( Estimate Activity Resource )
 Estimación de Duración de Cada Actividad ( Estimate Activity Durations )
68
Slide 68
5.- Develop Schedule
Project Time Management

The process of analyzing activity sequences,
durations, resource requirements, and
schedule constraints to create the project
schedule.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 51, 3.4.9 Develop Schedule
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131, Figure 6-1
Project Time Management Overview
69
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
• Schedule Network Analysis
A technique that generates the project schedule.

Uses analytical techniques as:
 Critical Path Method
 Critical Chain Method
 What-If Analysis
 Resource Leveling
Definition: PMBOK®Guide - Glossary, Page 448
• Schedule Network Analysis: The technique of
identifying early and late start dates and well as
early and late finish dates for the uncompleted
portions of project schedule activities.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 154, 6.5.2.1, Schedule Network Analysis
70
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques

• Critical Path Method
Calculates the theoretical early start and finish
dates and late start and finish dates for all
schedule activities without regard for any resource
limitations by performing forward and backward
pass analysis through the schedule network.

The resulting early & late start & finish dates are
not necessarily the project schedule; rather, they
indicate the time periods within which the activity
could be scheduled, given activity durations,
logical relationships, leads, lags & constraints.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 154, 6.5.2.2, Critical Path Method
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
71
Definitions:
• Float or Slack: The amount of time that a schedule activity in
a project network can be delayed without causing a delay.


• Free Float (FF): PMBOK®Guide - Glossary, Page 435
The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without
delaying the early start date of any immediate successor activity
within the network path.
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
PMBOK®Guide, Page 155, 6.5.2.2, Critical Path Method
72
PMBOK®Guide, Page 155, 6.5.2.2, Critical Path Method
Definitions:
• Total Float (TF): PMBOK®Guide - Glossary, Page 451
Total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its
early start date without delaying the project finish date, or
violating a schedule constraint.
Calculated early start & finish dates, & late start & finish dates, may be
affected by activity total float, which provides schedule flexibility and,
may be positive, negative, or zero.
The schedule flexibility is measured by the positive difference between
early and late dates, and is termed “total float.”

5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
Free float affects subsequent tasks & total float affects project completion date
73
Definitions:

Critical Path Methodology:
• A schedule network analysis technique used to determine the
amount of scheduling flexibility (the float) on various logical network
paths in the project schedule network, and to determine the minimum
total project duration.
Critical Activity:
• A critical activity is a scheduled task or activity on the critical path.
Critical Path:
• Generally, but not always the sequence of schedule activities that
determines the duration of the project. It is the longest path.
Critical paths have either a zero or negative total float.
PMBOK®Guide, Glossary, Page 431
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
74
PMBOK®Guide, Page 154, 6.5.2.2, Critical Path Method
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
Free-float the amount of time that a schedule activity can
be delayed without delaying the early start of any
inmediately following schedule activities (Succesor).
inicio
D
F
E
A
B
C
fin
100
100
100
10
70
30
Tiempo Más Temprano de F : 30 ( cuando termina E)
Holgura Libre de D es 30 – 10 = 20
Holgura Libre de E es 30 – 30 = 0
75
Free Float (FF): The
amount of time that a
schedule activity can be
delayed without delaying
the early start of any
immediately following
schedule activities
Total Float (TF): Total
amount of time that a
schedule activity may be
delayed from its early
start date without
delaying the project
finish date, or violating a
schedule constraint
76


• Total Float: The schedule flexibility measured by the positive difference between
early and late dates
Adjustments to activity durations, logical relationships, leads
and lags, or other schedule constraints may be necessary to
produce network paths with a zero or positive total float.
Once the total float for a network path is zero or positive, then
the free float can also be determined.
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
77

The critical path based on duration and have either a zero or
negative total float, Adjustments to activity durations, logical
relationships, leads and lags, or other schedule constraints may be
necessary to produce network paths with a zero or positive total float.
5.- Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
PMBOK®Guide, Page 154, 6.5.2.2, Critical Path Method
78
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
• Critical Chain Method (CCM)
A schedule network analysis technique that modifies the
project schedule to account for limited resources.

In lieu of managing total float of network paths, the CCM
focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against
the remaining durations of task chains.

PMBOK®Guide, Page 155, 6.5.2.3, Critical Chain Method
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
79
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
• Resource Leveling
A schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule
model that has already been analyzed by the critical path
method.
• Resource leveling can be used when shared or critical required
resources:
 Are only available at certain times,
 Are only available in limited quantities, or
 To keep resource usage at a constant level.
• This can cause the original critical path to change.
• Necessary when resources are over-allocated
PMBOK®Guide, Page 156, 6.5.2.4, Resource Leveling
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
80
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
• What-If Scenario Analysis
This is an analysis of the question “What if the situation
represented by scenario „X‟ happens?”

A schedule network analysis is performed using the
schedule to compute the different scenarios or
introducing external factors.

The outcome of the what-if scenario analysis can be
used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule
under adverse conditions, and in preparing contingency
and response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact
of unexpected situations.

Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations
with different sets of activity assumptions.

The most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 156, 6.5.2.5, What-If Scenario Analysis
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
81

Definitions:
What-If Scenario Analysis: PMBOK®Guide - Page 156
A schedule network analysis using a schedule model to compute
schedule activities‟ finish and start dates considering different
scenarios. The results can be used to evaluate the feasibility of a
project. The most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis. (also
covered in Risk Management)

Monte Carlo Analysis: PMBOK®Guide - Glossary, Page 438
A technique that computes, or iterates, the project cost or project
schedule many times using input values selected at random from
probability distributions of possible costs or durations, to calculate a
distribution of possible total project cost or completion dates.



Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
82
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
• Schedule Compression
Shortens the project schedule without changing the
project scope, to meet schedule constraints,
imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.

Schedule compression techniques include:
 Crashing
Cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine
how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for
the least incremental cost.
Will only work for activities where
additional resources will shorten the duration.
 Fast Tracking
Phases or activities that normally would be done in
sequence are performed in parallel.
Will only work if activities can be overlapped.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 156 - 157, 6.5.2.7, Schedule Compression
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
83
Definitions:
• Crashing:
A specific type of project schedule compression technique
performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule
duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how
to get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least
additional cost.
Decrease total schedule duration and increase resources to
complete a schedule activity.
Example: An activity takes 40 hours with one full-time resource.
Crash the activity to 20 hours by using two full-time resources.
Typically, crashing a schedule includes reducing activity durations &
increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities.

PMBOK®Guide, Glossary, Page 431
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
84
Definitions:
• Fast Tracking:
A specific project schedule compression technique that changes
network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in
sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to
perform schedule activities in parallel.

Making sequential activities duration overlapping or simultaneous.
Example: Activity A is scheduled to start on July 5 & end July 15
and Activity B is scheduled to start on July 15 & end July 25 due to
using Jane as a resource only. John has the same skillset and is
available to work from July 10 to July 20. By replacing Jane on
Activity B with John would shorten the project schedule by 5 days.

May result in rework and increased risk. PMBOK®Guide, Glossary, Page 435
Develop Schedule – Tools and Techniques
85 Marilyn D. Varnado, PMP, SCPM CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Slide 85
• Project Schedule
Although a project schedule can be presented in
tabular form, it is more often presented graphically,
using one or more of the following formats:
Milestone Charts
Bar Charts
Project Schedule Network Diagrams


PMBOK®Guide, Page 157, 6.5.3.1 Project Schedule
Develop Schedule – Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
86
Project Time Management: Develop Schedule – Outputs
Project Schedule:
• Milestone charts.
Similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major
deliverables and key external interfaces.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 157, 6.5.3.1 Project Schedule
PMBOK, Page 158, Figure 6-14, Project Schedule – Graphic Examples
87
Project Time Management: Develop Schedule – Outputs
Project Schedule:
• Bar charts:
With bars representing activities, show activity start and end dates, as well as
expected durations.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 157, 6.5.3.1 Project Schedule
PMBOK, Page 158, Figure 6-14, Project Schedule – Graphic Examples
88
Project Time Management: Develop Schedule – Outputs
Project Schedule:
Project schedule network diagrams.
Show both the project network logic and the project‟s critical path schedule
activities.


Logic bar chart example
PMBOK, Page 158, Figure 6-14
Project Schedule – Graphic Examples
Activity-on-node diagram format
PMBOK, Page 139, Figure 6-7
Precedence Diagram Method
PMBOK®Guide, Page 157, 6.5.3.1 Project Schedule
89
• Schedule Baseline
A specific version of the project schedule developed from
the schedule network analysis.

It is accepted and approved by the project management
team as the schedule baseline with baseline start & finish
dates.

A component of the project management plan.


PMBOK®Guide, Page 159, 6.5.3.2 Schedule Baseline
Develop Schedule – Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
90
• Schedule Data
Includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule
activities, activity attributes and documentation of all
identified assumptions and constraints.

Information frequently supplied as supporting detail
includes, but is not limited to:
 Resource requirements by time period, often in
the form of a resource histogram
 Alternative schedules, such as best-case or
worst-case, not resource leveled, resource
leveled, with or without imposed dates and
 Schedule contingency reserves.
Includes resource histograms, cash-flow projections,
and order and delivery schedules.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 159, 6.5.3.2 Schedule Baseline
Develop Schedule – Outputs
PMBOK®Guide, Page 152
Figure 6-12
Develop Schedule: Inputs,
Tools and Techniques, and
Outputs
91
Control Schedule
The process of monitoring the status of the
project to update project progress and
manage changes to the schedule baseline.
Concerned with:
• Determining the current status of the
project schedule
• Influencing the factors that create schedule
changes
• Determining that the project schedule has
changed
• Managing the actual changes as they
occur.
Control Schedule is a component of the
Perform Integrated Change Control process
PMBOK®Guide, Page 160, 6.6 Control Schedule
PMBOK®Guide, Page 131,
Figure 6-1 Project Time
Management Overview

92
6.- Control Schedule – Tools & Techniques


PMBOK®Guide, Page 162, 6.6.2.1, Performance Reviews
• Performance Reviews
Performance reviews measure, compare,
and analyze schedule performance, i.e.:
Actual start and finish dates
Percent complete
Remaining duration for work in progress
If earned value is utilized, schedule variance
(SV) and schedule performance index (SPI)
are used to assess the magnitude of
schedule variation.
An important part of schedule control is to
decide if schedule variation requires
corrective action.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 160,
Figure 6-15, Control
Schedule: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs

93
6.- Control Schedule – Tools & Techniques


• Variance Analysis
Schedule performance measurements (SV,
SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of
variation to the original schedule baseline.
The total float variance is used to evaluate
project time performance.
Important aspects of schedule control are:
Determining the cause and degree of
variance relative to the schedule
baseline
Deciding whether corrective or
preventive action is required..
PMBOK®Guide, Page 160,
Figure 6-15, Control
Schedule: Inputs, Tools and
Techniques, and Outputs

PMBOK®Guide, Page 162, 6.6.2.2, Variance Analysis
94
6.- Control Schedule – Tools & Techniques

PMBOK®Guide, Page 160,
Figure 6-15, Control
Schedule: Inputs, Tools
and Techniques, and
Outputs

• Scheduling Tool
Schedule is updated and compiled into the
schedule to reflect the actual progress of the
project and the remaining work to be
The scheduling tool and supporting scheduling
data are used in conjunction with:
Manual methods or
Project management software
to perform schedule network analysis to
generate an updated project schedule.
PMBOK®Guide, Page 163, 6.6.2.8, Scheduling Tool
95



Definitions:
 Schedule Baseline: A specific version of the schedule model
used to compare actual results to the plan to determine if preventive
or corrective action is needed to meet the project objectives.
 Schedule Management Plan: The document that establishes
criteria and the activities for developing and controlling the project
schedule. It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project
management plan.
 Schedule Model: A model used in conjunction with manual
methods or project management software to perform schedule
network analysis to generate the project schedule for use in
managing the project execution.
 Schedule Network Analysis: The technique of identifying early
and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the
uncompleted portions of project schedule activities.
PMBOK®Guide, Pages 446 – 447, Glossary
6.- Control Schedule

96



Definitions:
 Performance Reports: Documents and presentations that provide
organized and summarized work performance information, earned
value management parameters and calculations, and analyses of
project work progress and status.
 Resource Leveling: Any form of schedule network analysis in
which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by
resource constraints (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-
manage changes in resource availability levels).
 Variance Analysis: A method for resolving the total variance in
the set of scope, cost, and schedule variables into specific
component variances that are associated with defined factors
affecting the scope, cost, and schedule variables.
PMBOK®Guide, Pages 440, 445, 452, Glossary
6.- Control Schedule
97
Algunos Tips para el examen
1.- Duración, Tiempos Tempranos, Tiempos Tardíos
Si el tiempo tardío de fin es 80, el tiempo temprano de inicio es 15, el tiempo temprano
de Fin es 50 ¿ Cuál es la duración y holgura de la actividad ?
Actividad
(arriba)
Temprano
(Abajo)
Tardío
(Izquierda)
Inicio
(Derecha)
Fin
15 50
80
Duración = Tiempo Temprano de Fin – Tiempo Temprano de inicio = 50 – 15 = 35
Holgura = Tiempo Tardío de Fin – Tiempo Temprano de Fin = 80 – 50 = 30
98
98
2.- Memorizar los entregables/Tècnicas principales de los procesos
Definir las
Actividades
Secuenciar las
Actividades
Estimar los
Recursos para
las Actividades
Estimar la
Duración para
las actividades
Desarrollar el
Cronograma
Contralar el
cronograma
Lista de
Actividades
Diagrama
De Red
Resource
Breakdown
Structure
Estimación
Duración
(Analoga,
Parametrica,
3puntos,
Analisis de
reserva)
Cronograma
( Ruta Critica,
Compresión del
Cronograma)
Actualización
Plan Gestión Proyecto
(Análisis de Varianza,
Nivelación de recursos,
Compresión del
Cronograma)
Algunos Tips para el examen
99
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
1.- A Method of shortening the duration of the project by doing
activities in parallel is referred to as :
a.- Leveling

b.- Leading.

c.- Creating Milestones

d.- Fast Tracking.
100
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
2.- Which of the following is usually a result of fast tracking a
project ?
a.- Activities will have to be removed from the critical path

b.- Potencial Cost Overrrun

c.- Activity durations will have to be compressed

d.- Increased risk.
101
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
3.- A completation of a local goverment study resides on your
critical path. This would most likely be reffered to as:
a.- an external dependency.

b.- hard logic

c.- soft logic

d.- a mandatory dependency
102
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
4.- Which of the following provides the best definition for lag?
a.- The product of a forward and backward pass.

b.- The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start date
of Its sucessor.

c.- The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project.

d.- Activity waiting time.
103
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
5.- A task was scheduled to use two persons, full time, and take two weeks
to complete . Instead the project manager was only able to assign one
person to this take. At the end of the two weeks the person assigned to
the task was 75 % complete. What is the cost performence index?
a.- 1,5

b.- 1,33

c.- 0,5

d.- 0,75
FORMULAS
CPI = EV/AC
EV = Costo Planificado del Trabajo Realizado
AC = Costo Real
PV = Costo Planificado
DESARROLLO
Respuesta 1
PV = 2 [semanas] * 2 [personas] * X [ $ / Semana]
PV = 4 X
Trabajo Realizado = 75 %
AC = 2[Semanas] * 1[Persona]*X [$/Semana]
AC = 2 X
EV = 75 % * 4X
EV = 3X
CPI = EV / AC = 3X / 2 X
CPI = 3/2 = 1,5
Respuesta 2
AC = 0,5 * PV
EV = PV * 75 %
EV = PV * 75 % / ( 0,5 * PV)
EV = 0,75 / 0,5
EV = 1,5
104
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
6.- Fast tracking requires more sophisticated schedule and
control methods because it is a practice that ______ the
schedule to place the system in operation at ______ ?
a.- Compresses; an earlier date.

b.- increases; minimum cost

c.- stabilizes ; an earlier date

d.- moderates ; the first opportunity
105
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
7.-You are remodeling your kitchen and decides to prepare a
network diagram for this project. Your appliances must be
purchased and available for installation by the time the
cabinet are completed. In this example, these relationship
are:
a.- Start To finish

b.- Start to start

c.- Finish to finish.

d.- Finish to start
106
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
8.-What is another name for the waiting time between two
tasks?
a.- Slack

b.- Lag.

c.- Total Float

d.- Free Float
107
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
9.-You need to assess the implications of crashing a project.
What is the first thing you should do?
a.- The resources cost for each person involved on the project

b.- The time that will be saved in the overall schedule when tasks are expedited
ok the critical path

c.- The cost of additional resources to be added to the project‟s critical path

d.- The cost and time slope for each critical activity that can be expedited.
108
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
10.- Activity A has a duration of 3 days and begins on the
morning of Monday the 14 th. The succesor activity, B, has a
finish-to-start relationship with A . The finish-to-start
relationship has 3 days of lag , and activity B has a duration of
4 days. Sunday is a non-workday. What can be determined
from these data ?
a.- the total duration of both activities is 8 days

b.- the finish date of B is Wednesday the 13 th

c.- Calendar time between the start of A to the finish of B is 14 days

d.- Calendar time between the start of A to the finish of B is 11 days.
109
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
11.- Management has decided to crash a project to avoid
penalty payment for late deliveries. Additional costs are
expected. To crash the project either overtime or additional
resources should be assigned to:
a.- Those activities with the longest time duration

b.- Those activities on the critical path beggining with the longest time duration
activities.

c.- Those activities with the greatest degree of risk

d.- All Activities
110
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
12.- An activity has an early start date of 10th and late start
date of 19th. The activity has a duration of 4 day. There are
no non-workdays. From the information given what can be
concluded about the activity?
a.- The late finish is the 25 th

b.- The early finish date of the activity is the end of the day on the 14th

c.- Total float for the activity is 9 days.

d.- The Activity can be completed ind 2 days if the resources devoted to it are doubled
111
111
13.- La técnica de valor ganado considera 3 áreas del
conocimiento


a.- Costos , Tiempo, Calidad

b.- Tiempo, Alcance y Costos.

c.- Costos, Comunicación, Alcance

d.- Tiempo , Control, Costos

Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
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112
14.- Si una actividad tiene un comienzo temprano de 4 días, y un fin
Temprano de 13 días y un fin tardío de 22 días. Cual es la Duración
de la actividad?


a.- 4

b.- 9

c.- 24

d.- 19

Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
Comienzo Temprano (ES) = 4
Termino Temprano (EF) = 13
Término Tardío (LF) = 22

Duración = EF – ES
= 13 - 4
= 9
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113
Ejercicios Preguntas PMP
15.- Si una actividad tiene comienzo temprano el día 4, un fin temprano el dia
13 días y un fin tardío el día 22. Cual es la Duración de la actividad?


Dias del mes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Comienzo Temprano Fin Temprano
Actividad
10 dias