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School Preparedness

Questionnaire Specifcations
Emergency Preparedness Policies and Practices in Public
Schools in California
Questionnaire Specifcations
Overview This study involved a mail survey of a sample of public
school districts and school sites in California to assess
emergency and disaster preparedness. Self-administered
uestionnaires were developed to assess prior
emergency and disaster e!periences" perceived
preparedness" preparedness in terms of planning"
training and euipment and supplies" and compliance
with the state mandate to implement the Standardi#ed
$mergency %anagement System.
& sample of '() public school districts stratifed by
urban-rural locality and a sample of *+, school sites
nested within the school district sample were selected
for the survey. The survey was administered by mail and
included follow-up by mail and telephone. & total of -(
responses from school districts and '., responses from
school sites were obtained for response rates of *-/
0-(1)223 for school districts and 44/ 0'.,1*,23 for
school sites" respectively.
The survey was administered between September )22.
and 5anuary )22+.
Study Ob6ectives This study had two main ob6ectives. The frst ob6ective
was to describe the state of emergency preparedness in
public school districts and public school sites in
California. The second ob6ective was to e!plain observed
di7erences in the 8ind and level of preparedness as a
function of school district and school site characteristics"
including urban-rural locality" student demographics"
prior disaster e!perience" and resource capacity.
Questionnaires Two uestionnaires were developed for this study. One
was designed to assess preparedness at the school
district level and the other was designed to assess
preparedness at the school site level. %ost of the
concepts were measured in both uestionnaires 0e.g."
prior disaster e!perience" perceived preparedness"
emergency resources3. & few concepts" such as district
monitoring and support of site-level preparedness" were
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School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
only included in one uestionnaire and not in the other.
%ultiple sources were used to develop the
uestionnaires. 9r. %ari#en :amire# of the Childrens
;ospital of <os &ngeles conducted formative research
involving structured interviews with administrators and
teachers of the <os &ngeles =nifed School 9istrict to
identify 8ey aspects of school emergency preparedness.
Those fndings were augmented with input from
administrators of the <os &ngeles County O>ce of
$ducation 0<&CO$3 and representatives from three local
school districts participating in <&CO$?s $mergency
:esponse and Crisis %anagement 0$:C%3 pro6ect. &s a
result" 9r. :amire# and 9r. <inda @ourue" Professor at
=C<& School of Public ;ealth" developed a survey
uestionnaire to assess emergency preparedness at
school sites participating in <&CO$?s $:C% pro6ect.
The uestionnaire developed for <&CO$?s $:C% pro6ect
provided the basis for developing the uestionnaires
used in the present study. Other than adapting many of
the uestionnaire items and developing a version to be
used with school districts" several new items were added
to the uestionnaires to obtain more detailed information
and to measure additional concepts. These additional
concepts were considered potential predictors of
emergency preparedness based on an e!tensive review
of the descriptive and theoretical literature on disaster
preparedness and school health policies.
@oth the school district and school site uestionnaires
were pilot-tested with )2 school districts and )2 school
sites which varied in si#e" urban-rural locality" district
type 0i.e." elementary" unifed and high school districts3
and school level 0i.e." elementary" middle and high
schools3. The response rates for the pilot study were
)./ 0.1)23 for the school districts and 4./ 0,1)23 for the
school sites" respectively. :espondents did not report
any di>culty answering the uestions. On average"
respondents reported that it too8 '( minutes to
complete the district uestionnaire 0e!cept for one
outlier who reportedly too8 '(2 minutes to complete the
uestionnaire because he had only been on the 6ob for +
months3 and )* minutes to complete the school
uestionnaire" respectively.
)
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
9istrict
Questionnaire
The district uestionnaire was directed to the individual
who was designated as the most appropriate district
sta7 person to complete the uestionnaire. The designee
was identifed by contacting each school district by
phone. An most cases" sta7 in the Superintendent?s o>ce
made the designation. The designee was typically the
person responsible for ris8 management" school safety"
and1or school maintenance and operations for the
district.
Bame of School
9istrict
This item as8s the respondent to record the name of the
school district. Once the name is confrmed" the name of
the school district is replaced with an identifcation
number and is detached from the rest of the
uestionnaire responses in order to maintain
confdentiality.
;ow many school
sites are there in
your districtC
This item as8s the respondent to record the number of
school sites in the school district. This is a measure of
the si#e of the school district. Some studies have shown
that the si#e of organi#ations is positively correlated with
the e!tent of organi#ational disaster preparedness
0@aner6ee D Eillespie" '--*3.
Q' This item as8s the respondent to indicate the district
type.
Q) This item as8s the respondent to record their current
position or title in the district o>ce.
Q4 This item as8s the respondent to record the number of
years he1she has been wor8ing at the current school
district.
$arthua8e preparedness at the household level has
been associated with stronger community ties or
involvement indicated by home ownership and presence
of school-age children in the household 0:ussell" Eolt#" D
@ourue" '--.F Turner" Bigg" D ;eller-Pa#" '-(+3. <onger
tenure is li8ely to be associated with stronger ties and
commitment to the school community" which" in turn"
might motivate e7orts to improve school emergency
preparedness.
Q* This item as8s the respondent to record the percentage
of their annual wor8 time that they spend specifcally on
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School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
emergency preparedness and response activities.
Q. This item as8s whether the school district has a
committee or team that specifcally deals with
emergency preparedness and response issues.
The availability of school health councils has been shown
to correlate with the number of school health policies
and programs implemented in schools 0@rener" Gann"
%c%anus" Stevenson" D Hooley" )22*3. The availability
of a committee or team is e!pected to have a similar
positive e7ect on the implementation of school
emergency preparedness policies and programs.
Q+ This item as8s whether the school district has an
emergency preparedness coordinator" and if so" whether
it is a full- or part-time position.
& study has shown that school districts with a program
coordinator who spends more of their time on school
health programs were more li8ely to implement health
programs reuired by the government compared to
districts without coordinators or with a coordinator who
spends less time on those programs 0Pan8rat# D ;allfors"
)22*3.
Q, This item as8s about the school district?s prior
e!perience with ). di7erent 8inds of potential
emergencies or disasters" including natural events" such
as earthua8e and Ioods" technological events" such as
ha#ardous material spills or power failures" and human-
initiated events" such as school shootings and terrorist
activities1threats. Jor each type of event" the respondent
is as8ed to indicate whether the event occurred in the
last three years" occurred over three years ago" or never
occurred in or around their school district. This item
measures the e!tent of prior disaster e!perience in
terms of the range of di7erent events e!perienced" and
also distinguishes between historical events and more
recent events.
The e!perience-behavior hypothesis" which posits that
prior disaster e!perience is associated with higher levels
of preparedness" has had some support at the individual
and household levels 0Borris" Smith" D Ganiasty" '---F
Sattler" Gaiser" D ;ittner" )2223. Similarly" prior disaster
e!perience has been associated with higher levels of
*
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
preparedness in organi#ations 0@aner6ee D Eillespie"
'--*F 9ahlhamer D 9KSou#a" '--,F Hebb" Tierney" D
9ahlhamer" )2223. This emphasis on concrete
e!perience as the cause of behavior change or the
adoption of new behavior is also consistent with the
behaviorist perspective of organi#ational learning
0Glimec8i D <assleben" '--(3.
&t the same time" a number of studies have shown that
household preparedness and ha#ard mitigation activities
increase in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster
during the Lwindow of opportunity"M but that activities
drop to pre-event levels relatively uic8ly 0<indell D
Perry" )222F Bguyen" )22)F Siegel" Shoaf" &ff" D
@ourue" )2243. Thus" only recent disaster e!perience is
e!pected to correlate with school preparedness.
Q( This item as8s the respondent to record the type of
event that they thin8 is most li8ely to occur in or around
their school district in the future.
Q- This item as8s the respondent to record the type of
event that they feel their school district is not at all
prepared or least prepared to handle.
Q'2 This item as8s about the range of emergency1disaster
impacts that the school district has e!perienced in the
last three years" including fnancial impact" human
casualties" and property damage.
At is possible that the e!tent of damage e!perienced in
prior events is a stronger predictor of preparedness
rather than the simple e!perience of events. An fact"
multiple e!periences of events without any signifcant
damage may contribute to a false sense of security or
immunity and result in lower levels of preparedness for
future events.
Q'' This item as8s the respondent to record the event
occurring at any time in the past that had the most
signifcant impact on their school district.
Q') This item as8s the respondent to use a scale of ' 0Bot at
all prepared3 to . 0Nery well prepared3 to rate their
school district?s preparedness in each of four areas of
preparednessO planning" drills1e!ercises" training" and
.
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
euipment and supplies.
Q'4 This item as8s the respondent to rate their school
district?s overall preparedness for emergencies and
disasters using a scale of ' 0Bot at all prepared3 to '2
0$!tremely well prepared3.
%easures of perceived preparedness can be compared to
measures of actual preparedness 0e.g." freuency of
drills" maintenance of euipment and supplies3 to assess
whether perceived preparedness is an accurate indicator
of actual preparedness.
Q'* This item as8s the respondent to rate their school
district?s preparedness to shelter students for at least )*
continuous hours in an emergency using a scale of '
0Bot at all prepared3 to '2 0$!tremely well prepared3.
Andividuals as well as social groups and organi#ations are
e!pected to be self-su>cient for the frst ,) hours
following an emergency or disaster event until formal
emergency assistance becomes available. This uestion
is intended to assess the school district?s perceived
capability to shelter students for at least )* hours during
an emergency.
Q'. This item as8s whether the respondent 8nows which
school sites within the district are designated :ed Cross
shelters.
School sites are often designated :ed Cross shelters and
will be used as community shelters during large-scale
emergencies. Gnowing which school sites are designated
shelters" and coordinating with the :ed Cross prior to the
occurrence of emergencies are important steps in
emergency planning.
Q'+-Q)4 This series of items as8 about the district?s emergency
plan and school site emergency plans. Q'- and Q)2 as8
about the procedures and items included in the district
emergency plan. These lists of emergency procedures
and items are based on recommendations made by the
<os &ngeles County O>ce of $ducation Safe Schools
O>ce. Q'( and Q)4 specifcally as8 whether the plans
comply with the Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement
System.
+
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
School districts and county o>ces of education are held
responsible for developing comprehensive school safety
plans" including disaster procedures" for its schools
operating 8indergarten or any of grades ' to ') 0Section
4))(2-4))(- of the California $ducation3. The plans are
to be site-specifc" and should be reviewed" updated and
forwarded to the school district or county o>ce of
education each year. Jurthermore" school districts and
school sites are mandated to use the Standardi#ed
$mergency %anagement System 0Section (+2, of the
California Eovernment Code3.
Q)* This item as8s whether the school district participates in
emergency planning for the city and1or county.
&ccording to the Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement
System" school districts are designated Lspecial districtsM
which must coordinate their emergency response with
other Loperational areas"M or levels of government" such
as the city or county. Thus" school districts should be
involved in emergency planning and e!ercises at the city
and county level.
Q).-Q)+ Q). measures the e!tent of sta8eholder involvement in
the development of the district?s emergency
preparedness policies" plans and activities. Q)+ as8s the
respondent to use a scale of ' 0Bot at all committed3 to .
0Nery committed3 to rate the level of commitment to
improve emergency and disaster preparedness in the
school district shown by each of fve entitiesO school
principals" school board" district administrators" county
o>ce of education and state department of education.
=sing data on local government planning for natural
ha#ard mitigation" @urby and colleagues 0@urby" )224F
@urby D %ay" '--(F 9alton D @urby" '--*3 showed that
sta8eholder involvement and planning agency
commitment are some of the 8ey factors that lead to
stronger plans and higher rates of plan implementation.
Q), This item as8s about the sources of funding for the
district?s emergency preparedness activities. The
fnancial resources available to a school district can
directly a7ect their ability to implement preparedness
policies and activities.
Q)(-Q)- Q)( as8s the respondent to indicate their emergency
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School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
response role. This list of emergency response roles was
developed based on an adaptation of the Ancident
Command System 0ACS3 to schools. Q)- as8s if the
school district uses the ACS" a component of the
Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement System 0S$%S3
which outlines 8ey emergency response roles1functions
and the structure of command.
&ll districts should be using the ACS as part of S$%S.
:espondents should be clear about their emergency
response role and should ideally be responsible for a
single role1function" especially if their district uses the
ACS.
Q42-Q4+ This series of uestions as8s about emergency response
training and drills1e!ercises. Q42 as8s about the types of
training that the respondent has received during the last
school year. Q4' as8s the respondent to use a scale of '
0Bot at all adeuate3 to . 0Nery adeuate3 to rate the
adeuacy of emergency response training for fve groups
of people in the school districtO district administrators"
other district o>ce sta7" school administrators" school
teachers" and other school sta7. &ll categories of sta7
should be adeuately trained in emergency response
procedures. Q4) as8s the respondent to record the 8inds
of training that they thin8 would be helpful to prepare
themselves for emergencies. Q44 to Q4. as8s the
respondent to record the number of district-wide drills"
city drills1e!ercises" and county drills1e!ercises that the
district conducted or participated in during the last
school year. Adeally" at least one of each type of e!ercise
should be conducted each year. <astly" Q4+ as8s if S$%S
was incorporated into the drills and e!ercises.
Compliance with S$%S should be documented in the
areas of planning" training" e!ercises" and performance
0Section )**4 of the California Code of :egulation3.
Q4,-Q*' This series of uestions as8s about emergency
euipment and supplies owned by the school district.
Ownership and maintenance of physical resources" along
with planning" training and e!ercises" is a necessary
component of emergency preparedness.
Q4, as8s about the types of communication devices
used during emergencies1disasters in the district. Q4(
as8s the respondent to record the type of
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School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
communication device which is a3 used most often" b3
most reliable" and c3 least reliable during emergencies.
Q4- as8s whether any of the communication devices or
systems are incompatible throughout the district. Q*2
as8s about the types of emergency euipment and
supplies that are available at school sites in the district.
Q*' as8s the respondent to record emergency
euipment and1or supplies that they thin8 their district
needs to acuire or replace.
Q*) This item as8s about the e!tent to which students?
parents are involved in emergency preparedness and
training for the school district. &ctive support and
involvement by parents is one of the 8ey factors in the
initiation" implementation and continuation of school
programs in general 0Jullan" )22'3.
Q*4 This item as8s about the e!tent to which the school
district coordinates with other local agencies and
organi#ations on emergency preparedness and response
issues.
%ulti-agency coordination is a 8ey component of the
Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement System. School
districts should coordinate with their local emergency
responders 0i.e." fre" police3 as well as with local
government agencies 0i.e." city o>ces" county o>ces3
and other organi#ations or groups in anticipation of the
multi-agency coordination that will become inevitable
during emergency response.
Q** This item as8s about the 8ind of support services that
the district o>ce provides to its school sites to assist in
emergency preparedness and response.
Support services o7ered by school districts to school
sites" such as the provision of model policies or sta7
training opportunities" appear to facilitate health policy
development and program implementation 0Small et al."
)22'3. Studies have also shown that fnancial and
technical assistance from higher-level government
agencies is one factor that e!plains better uality of
local natural ha#ard mitigation plans 0@urby D %ay"
'--(3.
Q*. This item as8s about the ways in which the district
monitors emergency preparedness policies and practices
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School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
at its school sites.
The combination of pressure and support from e!ternal
agencies to implement programs and to comply with
standards are considered 8ey e!ternal factors that
promote the implementation and continuation of school
programs 0Jullan" )22'3. 9istrict monitoring activities
should apply some pressure on school sites to carry out
reuirements for emergency preparedness and S$%S
compliance.
Q*+ This item as8s the respondent to record anything else
that they would li8e to tell the researchers about
emergency preparedness in their school district or in
general.
Q*,
Telephone
Anterview
:ecruitment
This is the fnal section in the uestionnaire which
e!plains that follow-up telephone interviews will be
conducted with volunteers. :espondents are as8ed to
provide their name and contact information if they wish
to be eligible for the telephone interview. Once the
uestionnaire is received" the name and contact
information given in this section will be detached and
8ept separately in order to maintain confdentiality of the
uestionnaire responses.
'2
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
School
Questionnaire
The school uestionnaire was directed to the school
principals. Principals were given the option of
designating another sta7 member to complete the
uestionnaire. At was decided that the human and
fnancial resources reuired to contact all *,' school
sites to identify a designated person would not be
worthwhile given that the formative research showed
that school principals and assistant principals typically
self-identify themselves as the LcommanderM of
emergency preparedness and response at the school site
level.
Bame of School
9istrict
This item as8s the respondent to record the name of the
school district. Once the name is confrmed" the name of
the school district is replaced with an identifcation
number and is detached from the rest of the
uestionnaire responses in order to maintain
confdentiality.
Bame of School
Site
This item as8s the respondent to record the name of the
school site. Once the name is confrmed" the name of
the school site is replaced with an identifcation number
and is detached from the rest of the uestionnaire
responses in order to maintain confdentiality.
Q' This item as8s the respondent to indicate the school
level.
Q) This item as8s about the respondent?s current position at
the school.
Q4 This item as8s the respondent to record the number of
years he1she has been wor8ing at the current school.
$arthua8e preparedness at the household level has
been associated with stronger community ties or
involvement indicated by home ownership and presence
of school-age children in the household 0:ussell et al."
'--.F Turner et al." '-(+3. <onger tenure is li8ely to be
associated with stronger ties and commitment to the
school community" which" in turn" might motivate e7orts
to improve school emergency preparedness.
Q* This item as8s the respondent to record the percentage
of their annual wor8 time that they spend specifcally on
''
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
emergency preparedness and response activities.
Q. This item as8s about the school?s prior e!perience with
). di7erent 8inds of potential emergencies or disasters"
including natural events" such as earthua8e and Ioods"
technological events" such as ha#ardous material spills
or power failures" and human-initiated events" such as
school shootings and terrorist activities1threats. Jor each
type of event" the respondent is as8ed to indicate
whether the event occurred in the last three years"
occurred over three years ago" or never occurred in or
around their school site. This item measures the e!tent
of prior disaster e!perience in terms of the range of
di7erent events e!perienced" and also distinguishes
between historical events and more recent events.
The e!perience-behavior hypothesis" which posits that
prior disaster e!perience is associated with higher levels
of preparedness" has had some support at the individual
and household levels 0Borris et al." '---F Sattler et al."
)2223. Similarly" prior disaster e!perience has been
associated with higher levels of preparedness in
organi#ations 0@aner6ee D Eillespie" '--*F 9ahlhamer D
9KSou#a" '--,F Hebb et al." )2223. This emphasis on
concrete e!perience as the cause of behavior change or
the adoption of new behavior is also consistent with the
behaviorist perspective of organi#ational learning
0Glimec8i D <assleben" '--(3.
&t the same time" a number of studies have shown that
household preparedness and ha#ard mitigation activities
increase in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster
during the Lwindow of opportunity"M but that activities
drop to pre-event levels relatively uic8ly 0<indell D
Perry" )222F Bguyen" )22)F Siegel et al." )2243. Thus"
only recent disaster e!perience is e!pected to correlate
with school preparedness.
Q+ This item as8s the respondent to record the type of
event that they thin8 is most li8ely to occur in or around
their school district in the future.
Q, This item as8s the respondent to record the type of
event that they feel their school district is not at all
prepared or least prepared to handle.
Q( This item as8s about the range of emergency1disaster
')
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
impacts that the school has e!perienced in the last three
years" including fnancial impact" human casualties" and
property damage.
At is possible that the e!tent of damage e!perienced in
prior events is a stronger predictor of preparedness
rather than the simple e!perience of events. An fact"
multiple e!periences of events without any signifcant
damage may contribute to a false sense of security or
immunity and result in lower levels of preparedness for
future events.
Q- This item as8s the respondent to record the event
occurring at any time in the past that had the most
signifcant impact on their school.
Q'2 This item as8s the respondent to use a scale of ' 0Bot at
all prepared3 to . 0Nery well prepared3 to rate their
school?s preparedness in each of four areas of
preparednessO planning" drills1e!ercises" training" and
euipment and supplies.
Q'' This item as8s the respondent to rate their school?s
overall preparedness for emergencies and disasters
using a scale of ' 0Bot at all prepared3 to '2 0$!tremely
well prepared3.
%easures of perceived preparedness can be compared to
measures of actual preparedness 0e.g." freuency of
drills" maintenance of euipment and supplies3 to assess
whether perceived preparedness is an accurate indicator
of actual preparedness.
Q') This item as8s the respondent to rate their school?s
preparedness to shelter students for at least )*
continuous hours in an emergency using a scale of '
0Bot at all prepared3 to '2 0$!tremely well prepared3.
Andividuals as well as social groups and organi#ations are
e!pected to be self-su>cient for the frst ,) hours
following an emergency or disaster event until formal
emergency assistance becomes available. This uestion
is intended to assess the school?s perceived capability to
shelter students for at least )* hours during an
emergency.
Q'4-Q'- This series of items as8s about the school?s emergency
'4
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
plan. Q', and Q'( as8 about the procedures and items
included in the school emergency plan. These lists of
emergency procedures and items are based on
recommendations made by the <os &ngeles County
O>ce of $ducation Safe Schools O>ce. Q'. specifcally
as8s whether the plan complies with the Standardi#ed
$mergency %anagement System.
School districts and county o>ces of education are held
responsible for developing comprehensive school safety
plans" including disaster procedures" for its schools
operating 8indergarten or any of grades ' to ') 0Section
4))(2-4))(- of the California $ducation3. The plans are
to be site-specifc" and should be reviewed" updated and
forwarded to the school district or county o>ce of
education each year. Jurthermore" school districts and
school sites are mandated to use the Standardi#ed
$mergency %anagement System 0Section (+2, of the
California Eovernment Code3.
Q)2 This item as8s if the respondent 8nows whether their
school site is a designated :ed Cross shelter.
School sites are often designated :ed Cross shelters and
will be used as community shelters during large-scale
emergencies. Gnowing whether one?s school site is a
designated shelter" and coordinating with the :ed Cross
prior to the occurrence of emergencies are important
steps in emergency planning.
Q)' This item as8s whether the school provides students with
information and instructions on how to prepare for and
respond to disasters at home.
@y increasing students? awareness and disseminating
practical information on disaster preparedness to the
students? households" schools can indirectly contribute
to improving disaster preparedness in the community as
a whole. This uestion aims to assess this potential
secondary e7ect of school preparedness.
Q)) This item measures the e!tent of sta8eholder
involvement in the development of the school?s
emergency preparedness policies" plans and activities.
=sing data on local government planning for natural
ha#ard mitigation" @urby and colleagues 0@urby" )224F
'*
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
@urby D %ay" '--(F 9alton D @urby" '--*3 showed that
sta8eholder involvement is one of the 8ey factors that
lead to stronger plans and higher rates of plan
implementation.
Q)4 This item as8s about the e!tent to which students?
parents are involved in emergency preparedness and
training at the school site. &ctive support and
involvement by parents is one of the 8ey factors in the
initiation" implementation and continuation of school
programs in general 0Jullan" )22'3.
Q)* This item as8s about the sources of funding for the
school?s emergency preparedness activities. The
fnancial resources available to a school can directly
a7ect their ability to implement preparedness policies
and activities.
Q).-Q)+ Q). as8s the respondent to indicate their emergency
response role. This list of emergency response roles was
developed based on an adaptation of the Ancident
Command System 0ACS3 to schools. Q)+ as8s if the
school district uses the ACS" a component of the
Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement System 0S$%S3
which outlines 8ey emergency response roles1functions
and the structure of command.
&ll schools should be using the ACS as part of S$%S.
:espondents should be clear about their emergency
response role and should ideally be responsible for a
single role1function" especially if their school uses the
ACS.
Q),-Q4, This series of uestions as8s about emergency response
training and drills1e!ercises. Q), as8s about the types of
training that the respondent has received during the last
school year. Q)( as8s the respondent to use a scale of '
0Bot at all adeuate3 to . 0Nery adeuate3 to rate the
adeuacy of emergency response training for three
groups of people in the schoolO administrative sta7"
certifcated sta7 0mainly teachers3" and classifed sta7.
&ll categories of school sta7 should be adeuately
trained in emergency response procedures. Q)- as8s
the respondent to record the 8inds of training that they
thin8 would be helpful to prepare themselves for
emergencies. Q42 to Q44 as8s the respondent to record
the number of earthua8e" fre" loc8down and district-
'.
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
wide drills that the school conducted or participated in
during the last school year. Adeally" at least one of each
type of e!ercise should be conducted each year. Q4.
as8s if S$%S was incorporated into the drills and
e!ercises. Compliance with S$%S should be documented
in the areas of planning" training" e!ercises" and
performance 0Section )**4 of the California Code of
:egulation3. Q4+ as8s the time of school day that the
school conducts drills. Adeally" drills should be conducted
at various times of the day" including lunch hours and
before1after school hours" since emergencies can occur
at any time. Q4, as8s if the school reports their drill
activities to the district o>ce.
Q4( This item as8s about the 8ind of members who serve on
a school site committee or team that deals with disaster
planning and emergency preparedness. Q4(& as8s the
respondent to rate the level of involvement of this school
site committee1team in developing and reviewing the
school?s emergency preparedness policies" plans and
activities using a scale ranging from ' 0Bot at all
involved3 to '2 0$!tremely involved3. Af the school has no
such committee or team" the respondent s8ips Q4(&.
The availability of school health councils has been shown
to correlate with the number of school health policies
and programs implemented in schools 0@rener et al."
)22*3. The availability of a committee or team is
e!pected to have a similar positive e7ect on the
implementation of school emergency preparedness
policies and programs" provided they are actively
involved in the planning process.
Q4- This item as8s whether the school has a designated
crisis response team.
At has become common for schools to have designated
crisis response teams consisting of a handful of school
sta7 members who receive concentrated training and
participate in regular e!ercises in emergency response
and crisis management.
Q*2 This item as8s whether the school has an emergency
preparedness coordinator" and if so" whether it is a full-
or part-time position.
'+
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
& study has shown that school districts with a program
coordinator who spends more of their time on school
health programs were more li8ely to implement health
programs reuired by the government compared to
districts without coordinators or with a coordinator who
spends less time on those programs 0Pan8rat# D ;allfors"
)22*3. At is e!pected that having a program coordinator
for emergency preparedness at the school site would
have a similar positive e7ect on emergency
preparedness planning and implementation.
Q*' This item as8s the respondent to use a scale of ' 0Bot at
all committed3 to . 0Nery committed3 to rate the level of
commitment to improve the school?s emergency and
disaster preparedness shown by each of si! entitiesO
school principal" parents" school board" school district"
county o>ce of education and state department of
education.
=sing data on local government planning for natural
ha#ard mitigation" @urby and colleagues 0@urby D %ay"
'--(F 9alton D @urby" '--*3 argue that commitment of
the sta8eholders and of the planning agency is one of
the 8ey factors that lead to stronger plans and higher
rates of plan implementation.
Q*) This item as8s about the e!tent to which the school
coordinates with other local agencies and organi#ations
on emergency preparedness and response issues.
This uestion aims to assess the e!tent to which school
sites directly engage in multi-agency coordination. %ulti-
agency coordination is a 8ey component of the
Standardi#ed $mergency %anagement System 0S$%S3.
;owever" in the case of schools" it is possible that school
districts serve as the liaison between local
agencies1organi#ations and the school sites" and the
school sites themselves have little or no direct wor8ing
relationships with local agencies and organi#ations.
Q*4-Q*, This series of uestions as8s about emergency
euipment and supplies owned by the school. Ownership
and maintenance of physical resources" along with
planning" training and e!ercises" is a necessary
component of emergency preparedness.
',
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
Q*4 as8s about the types of communication devices
used during emergencies1disasters at the school site.
Q** as8s the respondent to record the type of
communication device which is a3 used most often" b3
most reliable" and c3 least reliable during emergencies.
Q*. as8s about the types of emergency euipment and
supplies that are available at the school site. Q*+ as8s
whether the emergency euipment and supplies were
inspected and1or maintenanced during the last school
year. Q*, as8s the respondent to record emergency
euipment and1or supplies that they thin8 their district
needs to acuire or replace.
Q*( This item as8s the respondent to record anything else
that they would li8e to tell the researchers about
emergency preparedness at their school or in general.
Q*-
Telephone
Anterview
:ecruitment
This is the fnal section in the uestionnaire which
e!plains that follow-up telephone interviews will be
conducted with volunteers. :espondents are as8ed to
provide their name and contact information if they wish
to be eligible for the telephone interview. Once the
uestionnaire is received" the name and contact
information given in this section will be detached and
8ept separately in order to maintain confdentiality of the
uestionnaire responses.
'(
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
References
@aner6ee" %. %." D Eillespie" 9. J. 0'--*3. Strategy and organi#ational
disaster preparedness. Disasters, 18" 4**-4.*.
@rener" B. 9." Gann" <." %c%anus" T." Stevenson" @." D Hooley" S. J. 0)22*3.
The relationship between school health councils and school health
policies and programs in =S schools. Journal of School Health, 740*3"
'42-'4..
@urby" :. 5. 0)2243. %a8ing plans that matterO Citi#en involvement and
government action. Journal of the American Planning Association,
690'3" 44-*-.
@urby" :. 5." D %ay" P. 5. 0'--(3. Antergovernmental environmental planningO
&ddressing the commitment conundrum. Journal of Environmental
Planning an !anagement, 410'3" -.-''2.
9ahlhamer" 5. %." D 9KSou#a" %. 5. 0'--,3. 9eterminants of business disaster
preparedness in two =.S. metropolitan areas. "nternational Journal of
!ass Emergencies an Disasters, 1#" )+.-)('.
9alton" <. C." D @urby" :. 5. 0'--*3. %andates" plans" and plannersO @uilding
local commitment to development management. Journal of the
American Planning Association, 6$0*3" ***-*+'.
Jullan" %. 0)22'3. %he ne& meaning of eucational change '(r e)*. Bew
Por8" BPO Teachers College Press.
Glimec8i" :." D <assleben" ;. 0'--(3. %odes of organi#ational learningO
Andications from an empirical study. !anagement +earning, ,90*3" *2.-
*42.
<indell" %. G." D Perry" :. H. 0)2223. ;ousehold ad6ustment to earthua8e
ha#ardO & review of research. Environment an -ehavior, (,0*3" *+'-
.2'.
Bguyen" <. ;. 0)22)3. %he relationshi. /et&een re.orte in0uries resulting
from the Januar1 17, 1994 2orthrige earth3ua4e an the ao.tion of
earth3ua4e .re.areness activities) =npublished 9issertation"
=niversity of California" <os &ngeles" <os &ngeles.
Borris" J. ;." Smith" T." D Ganiasty" G. 0'---3. :evisiting the e!perience-
behavior hypothesisO The e7ects of ;urricane ;ugo on ha#ard
preparedness and other self-protective acts. -asic an A..lie Social
Ps1cholog1, ,10'3" 4,-*,.
Pan8rat#" %. %." D ;allfors" 9. 9. 0)22*3. Amplementing evidence-based
substance use prevention curricula in Borth Carolina public school
districts. Journal of School Health, 740-3" 4.4-4.(.
:ussell" <. &." Eolt#" 5. 9." D @ourue" <. @. 0'--.3. Preparedness and ha#ard
mitigation actions before and after two earthua8es. Environment an
-ehavior, ,70+3" ,**-,,2.
Sattler" 9. B." Gaiser" C. J." D ;ittner" 5. @. 0)2223. 9isaster preparednessO
:elationships among prior e!perience" personal characteristics" and
distress. Journal of A..lie Social Ps1cholog1, ($0,3" '4-+-'*)2.
Siegel" 5. %." Shoaf" G. A." &ff" &. &." D @ourue" <. @. 0)2243. Surviving two
'-
School Preparedness
Questionnaire Specifcations
disastersO 9oes reaction to the frst predict response to the secondC
Environment an -ehavior, (#0.3" +4,-+.*.
Small" %. <." 5ones" S. $." @arrios" <. C." Crossett" <. S." 9ahlberg" <. <."
&lbuuerue" %. S." et al. 0)22'3. School policy and environmentO
:esults from the School ;ealth Policies and Programs Study )222.
Journal of School Health, 710,3" 4).-44*.
Turner" :. ;." Bigg" 5. %." D ;eller-Pa#" 9. 0'-(+3. 5aiting for isaster. <os
&ngeles" C&O =niversity of California Press.
Hebb" E. :." Tierney" G. 5." D 9ahlhamer" 5. %. 0)2223. @usinesses and
disastersO $mpirical patterns and unanswered uestions. 2atural
Ha6ars 7evie&, 10)3" (4--2.
)2