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RAN14.

0
Capacity Monitoring Guide


Issue 02
Date 2012-06-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Issue 02 (2012-06-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
i
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RAN14.0
Capacity Monitoring Guide About This Document

Issue 02 (2012-06-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
ii
Traffic on a mobile telecommunications network, especially a new network, increases by the
day. To support the increasing traffic, more and more resources are required, such as signaling
processing resources, transmission resources, and air interface resources.
If any type of network resource is insufficient, user experience is affected (for example, the
call drop rate increases). This means that real-time resource monitoring, timely resource
bottleneck detection, and proper network expansion are critical to good user experience on a
mobile telecommunications network. This document describes how to monitor usage of
various network resources, locate network resource bottlenecks, and perform network
expansion in a timely manner.
Guidelines provided in this document are applicable to BSC6900 and BTS3900 series base
stations, but can only be used as references for RNCs and NodeBs of earlier versions.
This document is intended for network maintenance personnel.
This document consists of the following chapters.
1 Network Resource
Monitoring Methods
Describes basic concepts associated with network resources, including definitions
and monitoring activities.
2 Network Resource
Counters
Describes various network resources.
3 HSPA Related
Resources
Describes how to monitor network resources when HSPA is enabled.
4 Diagnosis of Problems
Related to Network
Resources
Provides fault analysis and locating methods that experienced WCDMA network
maintenance personnel can use to handle network congestion or overload events
efficiently.
RAN14.0
Capacity Monitoring Guide About This Document

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iii
5 Counter Definitions Lists all performance counters mentioned in the other chapters. These counters
help in monitoring network resources and designing resource analyzing
instruments.

Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue
contains all changes made in previous issues.
This is the second commercial release of RAN 14.0.
Compared with issue 01 (2012-04-30), this issue incorporates the following changes:
Update the formula for calculating CE usage, replace the NodeB counter with RNC
Counter.
Add MPU part.
Adjust SPU,DPU,Interface board threshold.
Adjust the document structure.
This is the first commercial release of RAN 14.0.
Compared with issue Draft A (2012-02-15), this issue optimizes the description.
This is the draft for RAN14.0.
RAN14.0
Capacity Monitoring Guide Contents

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1.1 Network Resource Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Resource Monitoring Procedure ....................................................................................................................... 3

2.2 SPU CPU Load ................................................................................................................................................ 5
2.3 MPU CPU Load ............................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 DPU DSP Load ................................................................................................................................................ 7
2.5 Interface Board Load ........................................................................................................................................ 7
2.6 Uplink Load ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.7 Downlink Load ................................................................................................................................................. 9
2.8 CE Usage .......................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.9 OVSF Code Usage ......................................................................................................................................... 10
2.10 Iub Bandwidth .............................................................................................................................................. 12
2.11 Common Channels ....................................................................................................................................... 12
2.12 NodeB CPU Load ........................................................................................................................................ 13
2.13 Main processing and transmission unit (WMPT/UMPT) CNBAP Load ..................................................... 13

3.1 HSDPA ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.1 Power Resources ................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2 Code Resources ..................................................................................................................................... 16
3.2 HSUPA ........................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2.1 CE Resources ........................................................................................................................................ 17
3.2.2 RTWP .................................................................................................................................................... 17

4.1 Call Blocks in the Basic Call Flow ................................................................................................................ 18
4.2 Call Congestion Counters ............................................................................................................................... 20
4.2.1 Performance Counters Associated with Paging Loss ............................................................................ 20
4.2.2 Performance Counters Associated with RRC Congestion Rates ........................................................... 20
4.2.3 Performance Counters Associated with RAB Congestion Rates........................................................... 21
4.3 Signaling Storms and Solutions ..................................................................................................................... 22
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4.4 Resource Analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 24
4.4.2 CE Resource Consumption Analysis .................................................................................................... 26
4.4.3 Code Resource Usage Analysis ............................................................................................................. 29
4.4.4 Iub Resource Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 29
4.4.5 Power Resource Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 30
4.4.6 SPU CPU Usage Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 31
4.4.7 DPU DSP and Interface Board CPU Usage Analysis ........................................................................... 33
4.4.8 PCH Usage Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 33
4.4.9 FACH Usage Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 34


RAN14.0
Capacity Monitoring Guide 1 Network Resource Monitoring Methods

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There are two methods of monitoring system resources and detecting resource bottlenecks:
Prediction-based monitoring: This is a proactive approach wherein various network
resources are monitored simultaneously.
You can monitor usage of a network resource (for example, the downlink transmit power of a
cell), predict the resource usage trend and impacts, and determine whether to perform network
expansion after comparing the detected resource usage with a preset upper threshold. After
detecting that usage of a resource is higher than its upper threshold for a long time (for
example, a cell remains overloaded during busy hours for several consecutive days), you can
split the cell or add carriers for network expansion. This approach, which applies to daily
resource monitoring, is easy to implement and can be used to determine high-load cells and
RNCs. This chapter describes the procedure for monitoring network resources.
NOTE
For details on network resources, see chapter 2 "Network Resource Counters." For details on
HSPA-associated resources, see chapter 3 "HSPA Related Resources."
Problem-driven analysis: When a network performance counter deteriorates (for example,
calls are dropped), a thorough analysis is performed. This method is applicable to
analysis upon network congestion. This method requires more analysis instruments and
skills than the prediction-based monitoring method, but can use the current system and
eliminates the need for an immediate network expansion. For details on this method, see
chapter 4 "Diagnosis of Problems Related to Network Resources."
NOTE
In addition to the preceding two methods, other methods may also be used by network maintenance
engineers for system problem analysis.
The network resources that can be monitored are as follows:
SPU: indicates the signaling processing unit on an RNC. An RNC supports various types
of SPUs. SPUs process air interface signaling and manage transport resources. They are
the most likely network resource bottleneck.
MPU: indicates the main control processing unit on an RNC. It manages control-plane
resources, user-plane resources, and transport resources. If provided on an SPUb board,
the MPU subsystem may be overloaded.
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Capacity Monitoring Guide 1 Network Resource Monitoring Methods

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DPU: indicates the user-plane processing unit on an RNC. It distributes user-plane
service data. With rapid development of mobile broadband (MBB), more and more DPU
resources are consumed. There is a high possibility that the preset DPU resource
capability cannot meet the requirements for the rapid development.
Received total wideband power (RTWP): indicates the total wideband power received by
a base station within a bandwidth (namely, the uplink load generated due to the receiver
noise, external radio interference, and uplink traffic). This is a counter for measuring
uplink load, similar to the received signal strength counter (RSSI) in the CDMA system.
RSSI is a downlink load measurement, indicating the total channel power received by a
UE.
Transmitting carrier power (TCP): indicates the full-carrier power transmitted by a cell
and is a counter for monitoring downlink load. This counter value is limited by the
maximum transmission capability of the power amplifier at a NodeB.
Channel element (CE): indicates the baseband processing resource. CEs are managed
and shared at the NodeB level. For a new network, this counter has a small start value to
lower capital expenditure (CAPEX). Generally, CEs are the most likely resource
bottleneck that results in network congestion.
Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF): indicates the downlink OVSF code
resource. For a cell, only one OVSF code tree is available in the downlink direction.
Iub interface resource: On an IP transport network, uplink and downlink Iub interface
bandwidth can be dynamically adjusted for both NodeBs and RNCs. Generally, transport
resource bottlenecks do not result from insufficient capacities of interface boards but
from low bandwidth available on the IP transport network.
Paging channel (PCH): The PCH usage is directly related to the LAC area plan and PCH
state transition. PCH overload will cause a decrease in the paging success ratio.
Random access channel (RACH) and forward access channel (FACH): The RACH and
FACH carry signaling and some user-plane data. RACH/FACH overload will cause a
decrease in access success ratio and affect user experience.
Main processing and transmission unit(WMPT/UMPT): The main processing and
transmission unit performs site transmission, signaling, and system management. CPU
overload of the WMPT will cause a decrease in system processing capabilities, therefore
affecting NodeB-related KPIs.

Figure 1-1 Allocation of radio resources that can be monitored



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Capacity Monitoring Guide 1 Network Resource Monitoring Methods

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This section describes the resource monitoring procedure. This procedure is easy to
implement and is applicable to most scenarios.
For a newly constructed network, you can monitor only one resource. Once detecting that this
resource exceeds its upper threshold, check whether other resources exceed their upper
thresholds.
If yes, the cell or NodeB is overloaded. Perform network expansion.
If no, the cell or NodeB is not necessarily overloaded. In this case, network expansion is
not mandatory and the problem can be solved by other adjustments or optimizations.
For example, the CE usage is more than 70% but the usages of other resources such as RTWP,
TCP, and OVSF codes are within their allowed ranges. In this case, CE resources are
insufficient but the cell is not overloaded. To solve the problem in this example, configure
licenses allowing more CEs or add baseband processing boards, instead of performing
network expansion immediately.
Figure 1-2 Resource monitoring flowchart


As shown in Figure 1-2, an SPU is overloaded if its CPU usage is 50% to 60%, regardless of
other resource usages.
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This flowchart is applicable to most resource monitoring scenarios, except when the system
overload is due to an unexpected event, but not a service increase. Unexpected events are not
considered in this flowchart.
Causes for unexpected events can be located based on their association with various resource
bottlenecks. For details on how to locate a resource-related problem, see chapter 4 "Diagnosis
of Problems Related to Network Resources."

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Capacity Monitoring Guide 2 Network Resource Counters

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Various counters are defined to represent the resource usage or load of a UTRAN system. In
addition, upper thresholds for these counters are predefined.
Identifying the busy hour is a key to accurate counter analysis. There are various methods of
identifying the busy hour. The simplest one is to take the hour when the most resources are
consumed as the busy hour.
Table 2-1 RNC resources and threshold
SPU CPU VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN 50%
MPU CPU VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN 50%
DPU DSP Load VS.DSP.UsageAvg 60%
Interface Board CPU
Load
VS.INT.CPULOAD.MEAN 50%
Interface Board
Forwarding Load
VS.INT.TRANSLOAD.RATIO.MEAN 70%
SPUs process all the air interface signaling and transmission interface signaling. They are the
boards most likely to be overloaded due to signaling storms.
If SPUs are overloaded, new messages are discarded and new call requests are rejected. This
will affect end user experience.
The load indicator of SPUs is their CPU usage. A Huawei RNC can house multiple SPUs.
Each SPUa board contains four CPUs (each represents a subsystem). Each SPUb board
contains eight CPUs.
A Huawei RNC automatically shares and balances its load between CPUs. If an SPU is
overloaded, add SPUs as required.
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The mean SPU resource usage (SPU CPU load) is indicated by the counter
VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN expressed in percentage.
It is recommended:
If the SPU CPU usage is over 50% in the busy hour for three consecutive days in one
week, add SPUs as required.
If the SPU CPU usage is over 60% in the busy hour for three consecutive days in one
week, take emergency expansion measures.
Figure 2-2 SPU Threshold

MPU is a resource manager which take charge of resource allocation of SPU, DPU and
interface board for UE call.
Physically, it corresponds to subsystem 0 on a certain SPUa/SPUb.
The MPU CPU load is indicated by the counter VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN and the mean
MPU CPU load is expressed as a percentage.
It is recommended that 50% be used as the monitoring threshold. If any one MPU CPU load
is over 50% for a specified period, adjust the resources between MPUs or add more MPU.
Huawei provides professional services to accomplish the adjustment.
The maximum 5 MPU can be defined in per subrack.
How to find the MPU? Execute the MML “ DSP BRD” and check if one SPUa or SPUb’ s subsystem 0
“Logic function type = RUCP” , if Yes, it is MPU. Or check the RNC configuration files to find
“ADD BRD”, for example:
ADD BRD: SRN=0, BRDCLASS=XPU, BRDTYPE=SPUb, LGCAPPTYPE=RUCP, SN=0;
LGCAPPTYPE=RUCP indicates the subsystem 0 of the SPU is MPU.

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The performance of a DPU is measured by its DSP usage. An RNC can house multiple DPU
boards. Each DPUb or DPUe board contains several DSPs.
Load on an RNC can be dynamically balanced between all its DSPs. The DPU resource usage
(the DSP load) is indicated by the counter VS.DSP.UsageAvg (the mean DSP load expressed
in percentage).
It is recommended that the average DPU DSP usage be not higher than 60%. If the DPU DSP
usage is higher than 60% in the busy hour for three consecutive days in one week, expand the
DPU capacity.
The interface board performance is measured by its CPU usage (for forwarding load or
session load). An RNC can house several interface boards. If an interface board is overloaded,
re-allocate the load to other interface boards or add an interface board.
The interface board resource usage is indicated by the following counters:
VS.INT.CPULOAD.MEAN: mean CPU usage of an interface board, which is expressed
in percentage.
VS.INT.TRANSLOAD.RATIO.MEAN: mean forwarding load of an interface board,
which is expressed in percentage.
Session load = VS.INT.CFG.INTERWORKING.NUM/Number of session setup or
release times x 60 x SP
where
VS.INT.CFG.INTERWORKING.NUM: indicates the number of call setup attempts on an
interface board.
SP: indicates the measurement period, expressed in minutes.
Number of session setup or release times (per second): 500 for a single-core interface
board (1000 for the GOUa and FG2a) and 5000 for a multi-core interface board.
It is recommended that you expand the interface board capacity if the mean CPU usage or the
session load is higher than 50% or the forwarding load is higher than 70% for three
consecutive days in one week.

In a CDMA system, the radio performance of a cell is limited by the received noise. This
means that the total received noise (or total received power) in a cell can be used to measure
the uplink cell capability.
In a WCDMA system, the RTWP value minus the cell background noise is the noise increase
that results from a service increase. The noise increase (%) represents the uplink service
increase. For example, a 3 dB noise increase corresponds to 50% uplink load and a 6 dB noise
increase corresponds to 75% uplink load.
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Generally, the total uplink received bandwidth is 5 MHz and the background noise is –106
dBm. For the relationship between RTWP, noise increase, and uplink load, see Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3 Relationship between RTWP, noise increase, and uplink load


Generally, the uplink load threshold is 75% and the corresponding RTWP is smaller than –100
dBm. The corresponding equivalent number of users (ENU) ratio should be smaller than 75%
if the power-based admission decision is based on algorithm 2 (the algorithm for the ENU).
If the RTWP value is larger than –100 dBm, the cell is overloaded in the uplink direction.
Generally, if a cell is overloaded or the RTWP value is too large, the cell coverage decreases,
live service quality declines, or new service requests are rejected.
Huawei RNCs support the following RTWP and ENU counters:
VS.MeanRTWP: mean RTWP in a cell (unit: dBm)
VS.MinRTWP: minimum RTWP in a cell (unit: dBm)
VS.RAC.UL.EqvUserN: uplink mean ENU on all dedicated channels in a cell
UlTotalEqUserNum: maximum ENU that is configured by the ADD UCELLCAC
command.
UL ENU Ratio = VS.RAC.UL.EqvUserNum/UlTotalEqUserNum
In some areas, the background noise increases to more than –106 dBm due to other
interference or hardware faults (for example, poor quality of antennas or feeder connectors).
In this case, the VS.MinRTWP counter value (RTWP when the cell carries no traffic) is
considered the background noise.
If the VS.MinRTWP value is larger than –100 dBm or smaller than –110 dBm in the idle hour
for three consecutive days in one week, there are hardware faults or external interference.
Locate and rectify the faults.
Normally, VS.MeanRTWP is used as the cell capacity indicator. If the VS.MeanRTWP value
is higher than –100 dBm (corresponding to a 6 dB noise increase or 75% load) or the uplink
ENU ratio is higher than 75% in the busy hour for two or three days in one week, the cell is
regarded as heavily loaded.
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When the cell is heavily loaded, perform capacity expansion operations such as adding a
carrier or increasing the UlTotalEqUserNum values.
The downlink capacity of a cell is limited by its total available transmit power, which is
determined by the base station amplifier and by software settings.
When the downlink power is exhausted, the following may occur:
The cell coverage decreases.
The data throughput decreases.
The service quality declines.
New call requests are rejected.
The amount of consumed downlink power in a cell is not only related to cell traffic (or load),
but also related to the user's location and the cell coverage. The larger the cell coverage and
the farther the user is located from the cell, the more power is consumed. The heavier the
traffic in a cell, the more power is consumed.
In a WCDMA system, TCP is defined to measure the downlink total transmit power. For
Huawei RNCs, four TCP-associated counters are defined:
VS.MeanTCP: mean carrier transmit power in a cell
VS.MaxTCP: maximum carrier transmit power in a cell
VS.MinTCP: minimum carrier transmit power in a cell
VS.MeanTCP.NonHS: mean downlink carrier transmit power for non-HSDPA in a cell
VS.MeanTCP is used as the downlink load indicator. If VS.MeanTCP is constantly higher
than 85% VS.MaxTCP, the cell is overloaded in the downlink direction.
Some live UTRAN networks use hierarchical cell structures with multiple frequency layers.
The downlink power settings and the corresponding downlink TCP thresholds vary by carrier.
For example,
If the maximum TCP value is 20 W (43 dBm), the downlink TCP threshold is 17 W (42.3
dBm).
If the maximum TCP value is 40 W (46 dBm), the downlink TCP threshold is 34 W (45.3
dBm).
If VS.MeanTCP or VS.MaxTCP exceeds 85% of its threshold in the busy hour for three
consecutive days in one week, the cell is regarded as heavily loaded in the uplink direction.
Perform capacity expansion operations such as adding a carrier.
CE resources are baseband resources in a NodeB. One CE is the resources consumed by a
12.2 kbit/s voice call. If a new call arrives but there are not enough CEs (not enough baseband
processing resources), the call will be blocked.
CE resources are managed and shared at the NodeB level (note that 850 MHz and 1900 MHz
cells cannot share CEs with each other, because the cells belong to different license groups).
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The total available CE resources are limited by both the installed hardware and the configured
software licenses. If the hardware resources in the current installation are sufficient and the
CEs are only limited by licenses, then the corrective action is to modify the license file to
expand the cell capacity.
The usage metric can also be used to monitor CE resources. Once the CE usage is consistently
higher than the threshold 70%, the NodeB is overloaded, with respect to CE usage. CE
expansion is required.
Since separate baseband processing units are used in the uplink and downlink, CE
management is also separate for the uplink and downlink. CE usage for the uplink and
downlink is defined as:
NodeB_UL_CE_MEAN_RATIO = UL Mean CE Used Number / UL NodeB CE Cfg Number

If VS.NodeB.ULCredit Used.Mean>0, it indicates t hat CE OVERBOOKING feat ure
is available, t hen UL Mean CE Used Number=
VS.NodeB.ULCredit Used.Mean/ 2 ,ot herwise
UL Mean CE Used Number = Sum_AllCells_of_NodeB(VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.Mean/2),
VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.Mean counts usage of UL Credit for cell, “/2” is for the uplink credit
number is twice the number of uplink CEs, and the downlink credit number is equal to the
number of downlink CEs.
UL NodeB CE Cfg Number = MIN(NodeB License UL CE Number, NodeB Physical UL CE
Capacity)

NodeB_DL_CE_MEAN_RATIO = DL Mean CE Used Number / DL CE Cfg Number
Where,
DL Mean CE Used Number = Sum_AllCells_of_NodeB(VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.Mean),
VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.Mean counts usage of DL Credit for cell.
DL CE Cfg Number = MIN(NodeB License DL CE Number, NodeB Physical DL CE
Capacity)

The counter is from RNC.
The License CE Number is distributed by M2000, the NodeB Physical CE Capacity and Physical UL
group CE Capacity is calculation by NodeB board configuration and board specification(MML query).
In a WCDMA system, channels are distinguished by code. For each channel, two types of
codes are available: scramble code and orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code.
In the uplink, each user is allocated a unique scramble code.
In the downlink, each cell is allocated a unique scramble code. That is, the users in a cell use
the same scramble code. Each user in a cell is allocated a unique OVSF code.
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In a WCDMA cell, data from different users is distinguished based on code division and all
user data is transmitted over the same frequency almost at the same time. OVSF codes
provide perfect orthogonality, minimizing interference between data from different users.
Figure 2-4 shows an OVSF code tree.
Figure 2-4 OVSF code tree


A maximum spreading factor (SF) of 256 is supported.
For a cell, only an OVSF code tree is available, with sibling codes orthogonal to each other
but not with their parent or child codes. As a result, once a code is allocated to a user, neither
its parent nor child code can be allocated to any other user. The total OVSF resources are
limited. If available OVSF codes are insufficient to implement the desired QoS, a new call
request may be rejected.
An OVSF code tree can be divided to four codes (SF = 4), 8 codes (SF = 8), 16 codes (SF =
16), or 256 codes (SF = 256). This means that code resources with various SFs can be
considered N x equivalent SF = 256 codes. For example, one SF = 8 code is equivalent to
thirty-two SF = 256 codes. Based on this equivalence mapping, the OVSF code usage for a
user or a cell can be calculated.
A Huawei RNC monitors the average code usage of an OVSF code tree based on the number
of occupied equivalent SF = 256 codes. The average code usage of an OVSF code tree is
indicated by the VS.RAB.SFOccupy counter.
OVSF code usages are defined as follows:
OVSF_Utilization = VS.RAB.SFOccupy/256
DCH_OVSF_Utilization = DCH_OVSF_CODE/256
where
DCH_OVSF_CODE = (<VS.SingleRAB.SF4> + <VS.MultRAB.SF4>) x 64 +
(<VS.MultRAB.SF8> + <VS.SingleRAB.SF8>) x 32 + (<VS.MultRAB.SF16> +
<VS.SingleRAB.SF16>) x 16 + (<VS.SingleRAB.SF32> + <VS.MultRAB.SF32>) x 8 +
(<VS.MultRAB.SF64> + <VS.SingleRAB.SF64>) x 4 + (<VS.SingleRAB.SF128> +
<VS.MultRAB.SF128>) x 2 + (<VS.SingleRAB.SF256> + <VS.MultRAB.SF256>)
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A threshold (such as 70%) can be defined for DCH_OVSF_Utilization to judge whether a cell
runs out of OVSF codes. If OVSF code resources are insufficient in the busy hour for three
consecutive days in one week, perform capacity expansion operations such as adding a carrier
or splitting the cell.
Iub bandwidth needs to be monitored. Based on transport media, Iub transport is classified
into ATM transport and IP transport.
On either an ATM or IP transport network, Huawei RNCs and NodeBs can monitor the
average uplink/downlink load. You can learn the Iub bandwidth usage by comparing the
average uplink/downlink load and the total Iub bandwidth.
On an ATM transport network, Huawei RNCs and NodeBs can dynamically adjust the
bandwidth allowed for each user based on the service QoS requirements and user priorities,
and use reverse pressure to increase Iub bandwidth usage efficiency. On an IP transport
network, however, Huawei RNCs can use only upper-layer (RLC layer, for example)
measures to prevent packet loss over an Iub interface.
If calls are frequently rejected due to too many users accessing the network, the Iub
bandwidth may be insufficient. If so, increase Iub interfaces as required.
For an IP transport network, it is recommended that you do not monitor Iub bandwidth during
the implementation phase of the prediction-based monitoring method.
Capacities of common channels, such as PCHs and FACHs, are configurable. If PCH or
FACH capacities are insufficient, messages may be lost.
A PCH is used to transport paging messages.
An FACH is used to transport user signaling and a small amount of user data to a UE that is in
CELL_FACH state.
Common channel analysis needs to be conducted based on monitoring of both PCHs and
FACHs. A paging message may be lost if the PCH usage is too high. Paging messages are
broadcast across an entire LAC. Therefore, improper LAC planning will contribute to high
PCH usage. Two major sources contribute to FACH traffic: PS service state transition and
RRC signaling traffic.
Based on the default configurations for Huawei RNCs, the PCH usage and FACH usage are
calculated as follows:
PCH usage = VS.UTRAN.AttPaging1/(<SP> x 60 x 5/0.01)
Usage of an FACH carried on a non-standard SCCPCH = VS.CRNCIubBytesFACH.Tx x
8/[(60 x <SP> x 168 x 1/0.01) x VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate x 6/7 + [60 x <SP> x
360 x 1/0.01) x (1- VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate x 6/7)]
where,
VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate = <VS.CRNCIubBytesPCH.Tx>
/( <VS.CRNC.IUB.PCH.Bandwidth> x SP x 60.0)
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Usage of an FACH carried on a standard SCCPCH = VS.CRNCIubBytesFACH.Tx x
8/(60 x <SP> x 360 x 1/0.01)
In the preceding formulas, SP indicates the measurement period in seconds.
The basic principles for evaluating PCHs are as follows:
If paging messages are not re-transported, 5% of them will be lost when the PCH usage
reaches 60%. It is recommended that you troubleshoot this message loss or replan the
LAC.
If paging messages are re-transported once or twice, 1% of them will be lost when the
PCH usage reaches 70%. It is recommended that you troubleshoot this message loss or
replan the LAC.
The basic principle for evaluating FACHs is as follows:
If the FACH usage reaches 70%, it is recommended that you optimize specific policies or
parameters, or add FACHs as required.
Main control and transmission board, baseband boards, and extension transmission boards are
most likely to be overloaded on a network with many smart terminals. When the CPU on any
of the preceding boards is overloaded, the signaling message discard ratio increases and new
call requests are rejected.
The signaling performance of these boards is measured by their mean CPU usage
(VS.BRD.CPULOAD.MEAN) expressed in percentage.
It is recommended that you perform capacity expansion (such as splitting the corresponding
NodeB or adding a NodeB) if VS.BRD.CPULOAD.MEAN is greater than 60% in the busy
hour for three consecutive days in one week.
The main processing and transmission unit processes signaling messages and manages the
resources for other boards.
If the main processing and transmission unit is overloaded, a radio link fails to be set up or no
response to a radio link setup request is received. This decreases KPIs, such as success ratios
of RRC and RAB setup. For Huawei NodeBs, control NBAP (CNBAP) is used to assess the
main processing and transmission unit processing capacity.
CNBAP usage

where
VS.IUB.AttRLSetup: number of Iub interface RL establishment requests for a cell
VS.IUB.AttRLAdd: number of Iub interface RL addition requests for a cell
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VS.IUB.AttRLRecfg: number of Iub interface RL reconfiguration requests for a cell
SP: indicates the measurement period, expressed in minutes.
CNBAP capacity of a NodeB: depends on the main processing and transmission
unit/WBBP board configuration.
If the CNBAP usage is higher than 60% in the busy hour for three consecutive days in one
week, the main processing and transmission unit is becoming overloaded. Add a baseband
board or an extension transmission board, or split the NodeB.

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High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) includes High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). HSDPA and HSUPA functionalities are part
of the WCDMA standard. HSPA uses technologies such as fast scheduling, adaptive
modulation, and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) to transport data at high speed.
HSPA carries PS data. As conversational services are prioritized over PS data, HSPA uses
system resources only after conversational services are served. This chapter looks into how to
efficiently use the system resources by means of HSPA without changing the existing pattern
for resource allocation.
Figure 3-1 illustrates how the downlink transmit power of a cell is allocated. The dashed line
indicates the total downlink transmit power of a cell.
Figure 3-1 Dynamic power resource allocation

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Power for CCH: This portion of power is allocated to common transport channels (CCHs) of
the cell such as the broadcast channel, pilot channel, and paging channel.
Power margin: This portion of power is not allocated. The power margin is reserved to ensure
that the system can remain stable even if the UE position or environment changes.
Power for DPCH: This portion of power is allocated to real-time services (voice and video
calls) and PS R99 services, and varies with the number and locations of users. RNCs and UEs
can adjust power for DPCH based on the power control algorithm.
Power for HSPA: This portion of power is allocated to HSDPA and is calculated as follows:
HSDPA user power = Maximum cell transmit power – (Power for CCH + Power margin +
Power for DPCH)
HSPA power schedulers are designed primarily to make the most of available power.
In an HSDPA-enabled cell, TCP is still monitored to see if the system is overloaded in the
downlink. TCP thresholds for this cell are the same as those for a cell without HSDPA. With
HSDPA, downlink power overload affects HSDPA performance before it affects
conversational services.
HSDPA can share code resources with real-time services. The system can dynamically
reallocate OVSF codes to HSDPA services and real-time services based on OVSF code
allocation settings (such as the number of codes reserved only for HSDPA and the number of
codes that can be shared). These settings can be changed online based on the network plan.
When HSDPA is enabled, OVSF code resources are monitored the same way as when HSDPA
is not enabled. Note that a high OVSF usage can be reduced by adjusting OVSF code
allocation settings (such as the number of codes reserved only for HSDPA and the number of
codes that can be shared).
Figure 3-2 OVSF code sharing


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HSUPA channels are dedicated channels, and resource consumption of HUSPA services is
measured by CE. UL CEs are shared between R99 services and HSUPA services.
HSUPA improves user experience and uplink throughput, but also consumes more uplink CE
overhead for hybrid automatic repeat requests (HARQ) and soft handovers. This means that
uplink CE resources may become a system bottleneck. Therefore, uplink CE usage needs to
be monitored when HSUPA is enabled.
Huawei NodeBs support dynamic HSUPA CE management.
Similar to HSDPA, which is designed to make the most of the downlink power, HSUPA is
designed to make the most of uplink capacity margin. HSUPA is always authorized to send
data until the RTWP rises to 6 dBm.
HSUPA provision increases uplink data throughput but also consumes a large amount of
uplink RTWP, which is monitored in the same way regardless of whether HSUPA is
provisioned. If RTWP overload occurs, rates of HSUPA services must be lowered to ensure
QoS of conversational services.

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The preceding chapters describe the basic methods of monitoring network resources. These
methods can be used to resolve most problems caused by high resource usage. In certain
scenarios, further analysis is required to determine whether high resource usage is caused by a
traffic increase or other exceptions.
This chapter describes how to diagnose problems related to network resources. This chapter is
intended for experts who have a deep understanding of WCDMA networks.
When network resources are running out, KPIs related to system accessibility are most likely
to be affected first.
Figure 4-1 shows the basic call flowchart where possible block and failure points are marked.
For details about the call flow, see 3GPP TS 25.931.
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Figure 4-1 Call flowchart where possible block and failure points are marked


The call flow, which uses a mobile-terminated call as an example, is described as follows:
The CN sends a paging message to the RNC.
Upon receipt of the paging message, the RNC broadcasts the message on a PCH. If the PCH
is congested, the RNC may drop the message. See block point #1.
The UE cannot receive the paging message or fails to connect to the network. See failure
point # 2.
After receiving the paging message, the UE sends an RRC connection request to the RNC.
If the RNC is congested when receiving the RRC connection request, the RNC may drop the
request. See block point #3.
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If the RNC receives the RRC connection request and does not drop it, the RNC determines
whether to accept or reject the request. The request may be rejected due to insufficient
resources. See block point #4.
If the RNC accepts the request, the RNC instructs the UE to set up an RRC connection. The
RRC connection setup may fail, the UE does not receive the instruction, or the UE receives
the message but finds the configuration information to be incorrect. See failure points #5 and
#6.
After the RRC connection is set up, the UE sends NAS messages to negotiate with the CN
about service setup. If the CN determines to set up a service, the CN sends an RAB
assignment request to the RNC.
The RNC accepts or rejects the RAB assignment request based on the resource usage on the
RAN side. See block point #7.
If the RNC accepts the RAB assignment request, the RNC initiates an RB setup process.
During the process, the RNC sets up transmission resources over the Iub interface by setting
up a radio link (RL) to the NodeB, and sets up channel resources over the Uu interface by
sending an RB setup message to the UE. A failure may occur in the RL or RB setup process.
See failure points #8 and #9.
As shown in Figure 4-1, call congestion may occur during paging, RRC connection setup, or
RAB establishment.
The following describes performance counters and KPIs associated with call congestion rates.
For details about call congestion counters, see chapter 5 "Counter Definitions." You can also
refer to the BSC6900 UMTS Performance Counter Reference and 3900 Series WCDMA
NodeB Performance Counter Reference.
RNC-level and cell-level performance counters can be used to measure paging loss rates:
Paging loss (RNC)
Counters indicating that RNC-level paging loss ratio are caused by Iu-interface flow
control, CPU overload, or RNC-level PCH congestion: VS.RANAP.CsPaging.Loss and
VS.RANAP.PsPaging.Loss
Iu-interface paging loss ratio (RNC) = [(VS.RANAP.CsPaging.Loss +
VS.RANAP.PsPaging.Loss)/(VS.RANAP.CsPaging.Att + VS.RANAP.PsPaging.Att)] x
100%
Paging loss (Cell)
Counter indicating that paging requests are discarded due to cell-level PCH congestion:
VS.RRC.Paging1.Loss.PCHCong.Cell
Iu-interface paging loss ratio (cell) =
(VS.RRC.Paging1.Loss.PCHCong.Cell/VS.UTRAN.AttPaging1) x 100%
RRC congestion rates are associated with:
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Insufficient uplink power resources: VS.RRC.Rej.ULPower.Cong
Insufficient downlink power resources: VS.RRC.Rej.DLPower.Cong
Insufficient uplink CE resources: VS.RRC.Rej.UL.CE.Cong
Insufficient downlink CE resources: VS.RRC.Rej.DL.CE.Cong
Insufficient uplink Iub bandwidth resources: VS.RRC.Rej.ULIUBBand.Cong
Insufficient downlink Iub bandwidth resources: VS.RRC.Rej.DLIUBBand.Cong
Insufficient downlink code resources: VS.RRC.Rej.Code.Cong
Number of RRC requests: VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum
The following is the formula for calculating the paging loss ratio:
Vs.RRC.Block.Rate = Total RRC Rej/VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum x 100%
Where
Total RRC Rej = < VS.RRC.Rej.ULPower.Cong > + < VS.RRC.Rej.DLPower.Cong > +
< VS.RRC.Rej.UL.CE.Cong > + < VS.RRC.Rej.DL.CE.Cong > +
< VS.RRC.Rej.ULIUBBand.Cong > + < VS.RRC.Rej.DLIUBBand.Cong > +
< VS.RRC.Rej.Code.Cong >
RAB congestion rates are associated with:
Insufficient power resources
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULPower.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.DLPower.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULPower.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.DLPower.Cong
Insufficient uplink CE resources
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULCE.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULCE.Cong
Insufficient downlink CE resources
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCs.DLCE.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPs.DLCE.Cong
Insufficient downlink code resources
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCs.Code.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPs.Code.Cong
Insufficient downlink Iub bandwidth resources
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.DLIUBBand.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULIUBBand.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.DLIUBBand.Cong
− VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULIUBBand.Cong
Number of RAB setup requests: VS.RAB.AttEstab.Cell
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The following is the formula for calculating the call congestion ratio:
VS.RAB.Block.Rate = Total number of congestions due to the preceding
causes/VS.RAB.AttEstab.Cell
In busy hours, a smart terminal makes about 10 more call attempts than a common terminal
per call. The additional call attempts generate massive signaling exchange and occupy a large
amount of signaling processing resources of the RNC and NodeB on the control plane.
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Figure 4-2 Process for analyzing signaling storms


Table 4-1 provides solutions to signaling storms. These solutions attempt to reduce signaling
loads so that the network capacity does not need to be expanded immediately.
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Table 4-1 Signaling storm causes and solutions
No signaling connection
release indication (SCRI)
Nokia, Samsung, or
Motorola feature phones
Enable the Cell_PCH function to decrease signaling
services for these terminals.
SCRI without values
indicating causes
iPhone (R6) Enable the enhanced fast dormancy (EFD) function for
RNCs and add international mobile equipment
identities (IMEIs) of terminals to the whitelist.
R8 terminals with SCRI
carrying values
indicating causes
iPhone4 (after R6) Enable the R8 FD function for RNCs and add terminal
IMEIs to the whitelist.

Figure 4-3 illustrates the general troubleshooting process for resource usage issues.
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Figure 4-3 General troubleshooting process


Generally, an abnormal KPI initiates a troubleshooting process. Determining the top N cells
that may have problems facilitates follow-up troubleshooting.
It is recommended to analyze accessibility KPIs to identify the system bottleneck that causes
access congestion.
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Figure 4-4 Key points for bottleneck analysis


Cells under one NodeB share CEs. Common channels have reserved CE resources and
signaling is carried on a channel accompanying the DCH. Therefore, CCHs and signaling are
considered not to consume CEs.
Table 4-2 Number of CEs consumed by different services
AMR 12.2 kbit/s 1 1
CS 64 kbit/s 3 2
PS 64 kbit/s 3 2
PS 128 kbit/s 5 4
PS 144 kbit/s 5 4
PS 384 kbit/s 10 8
SF32 (HSUPA) 1 N/A
SF16 (HSUPA) 2 N/A
SF8 (HSUPA) 4 N/A
SF4 (HSUPA) 8 N/A
2*SF4 (HSUPA) 16 N/A
2*SF2 (HSUPA) 32 N/A
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2*SF2+2*SF4 (HSUPA) 48 N/A
2xM2+2xM4 64 N/A

NOTE
CE usage in Table 4-2 assumes that the signaling radio bearer (SRB) over HSUPA feature is enabled. If
the SRB is carried on an R99 DCH independently, an extra CE is consumed by the SRB. Therefore, add
one CE to the number listed in Table 4-2.
HSDPA services do not consume downlink R99 CEs. HSUPA services and R99 services share
uplink CEs.
CE congestion or routine CE usage monitoring may trigger CE resource analysis.
If the CE resource usage is higher than a preset threshold for a period of time or CE
congestion occurs, the CE resources are insufficient and must be increased to ensure system
stability.
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Figure 4-5 Process for analyzing CE resource consumption


Cells belonging to the same NodeB share CEs and CE resources consumed by a NodeB must
be manually calculated.
Check whether CE resource congestion occurs in a resource group or an entire site. If CE
resource congestion occurs in a resource group, reallocate CEs between resource groups. If
CE resource congestion occurs in an entire site, perform site capacity expansion and
reconfigure CEs as required.
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Huawei RNCs can reserve codes (for example, five SF = 16 codes) for HSDPA services. If
fixed codes are reserved for HSDPA services, code congestion may occur under high traffic.
The only solution to code congestion is to add carriers or split sectors.
In some scenarios, massive signaling exchange on the network occupies a large amount of
codes, causing code congestion, power congestion, or CPU overload. In these scenarios,
identify root causes and rectify faults rather than expanding capacity.
If code congestion occurs, operators can perform the following operations before expanding
capacity:
Decrease the maximum number of PS RABs.
Enable code-based load reshuffling (LDR).
Decrease the minimum number of codes reserved for HSDPA services.
Activate the license for dynamic code allocation on the NodeB.
Thresholds for the preceding code congestion-related operations must be set based on
operators' requirements for services quality.
NOTE
After IP RAN is introduced, Iub resources no longer need to be monitored. This section is retained to
provide a complete solution so that operators can compare solutions provided by different vendors.
If insufficient Iub bandwidth causes congestion, check the Iub bandwidth usage.
If the Iub bandwidth usage remains higher than 80% for a certain period, it can be determined
that the Iub bandwidth is insufficient.
If no more Iub resources are available or the issue is not urgent, decrease PS activity factors
so the system admits more users. The activity factor, which is the ratio of actual bandwidth
occupied by a user to the allocated bandwidth, is used to estimate the real bandwidth needed
in admission. The activity factor can be set on a per-NodeB basis. The default activity factor
is 70% for voice services and 40% for PS BE services.
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Figure 4-6 Process for analyzing Iub resources


Power congestion occurs if RTWP and TCP values are larger than preset thresholds.
If downlink power congestion occurs, enable the LDR and OLC function.
If uplink power is restricted, check whether any interference exists.
In most cases, interference rather than traffic increase causes uplink power restriction.
If RTWP is larger than –97 dBm over a period of time, analyze root causes and troubleshoot
the problem.
For high RTWP caused by high traffic (instead of signaling storms):
Workaround: Enable the LDR and OLC functions.
Solution: Add carriers or split cells.
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Figure 4-7 Process for analyzing power resources


Adding carriers is the most efficient solution to insufficient uplink power. If no more carriers
are available, add more sites or tilt down antennas to spit cells.
Among all RNC CPUs, SPU CPUs are the most likely resources to cause system bottlenecks
because smart terminals often cause signaling storms on networks.
If the SPU CPU usage is higher than the SPU CPU alarming threshold, RNCs will enable the
flow control function to discard some RRC setup or paging requests. Ensure that the CPU
usage is not higher than the SPU CPU alarming threshold.
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Figure 4-8 Process for analyzing SPU CPUs


If the SPU CPU usage is higher than 50%, advise customers to add SPU boards. If SPU CPU
usage is higher than 60%, add SPU boards immediately.
Check whether SPU subsystem loads are balanced. If they are unbalanced, adjust load sharing
thresholds so that subsystems share loads evenly.
In addition, identify root causes for the high CPU usage.
If signaling storms occur, check whether system configurations are correct or the transmission
link is interrupted. If high traffic causes the high CPU usage, add SPU boards to expand
capacity.
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If the DPU DSP or interface board CPUs are overloaded, the RNC will drop some user data.
The DPU DSP and interface board loads must be monitored closely.
Figure 4-9 Process for analyzing DPU DSP and interface board CPU usage


If the DPU DSP or interface board CPU usage is higher than 60%, add DPU boards or
interface boards.
Add hardware for capacity expansion if traffic increase or unbalanced transmission
causes the high loads.
In most cases, PCHs are overloaded because a LAC area covers too many cells.
Replan LAC areas to resolve the PCH overload issue.
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Figure 4-10 Process for analyzing PCH usage


Usually no FACH congestion will occur if the UE state transition switch is turned off.
However, the UE state transition switch is turned on by default to transfer low traffic services
to FACHs. This saves radio resources but increases traffic on FACHs.
Two solutions are available for resolving the FACH congestion issue:
Decrease values of PS inactive timers to transfer PS services to the CELL_PCH or IDLE
state and set up RRC connections on DCHs instead of FACH if DCH resources are
sufficient.
Add an SCCPCH to carry FACHs
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Figure 4-11 Process for analyzing FACH usage


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Call drop ratio Vs.Call.Block.Rate (custom) Vs.RRC.Block.Rate +
(<RRC.SuccConnEstab.sum>/(<VS.RRC.AttCon
nEstab.CellDCH> +
<VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.CellFACH>)) x
Vs.Rab.Block.Rate
RRC congestion
ratio
Vs.RRC.Block.Rate (custom) (<VS.RRC.Rej.ULPower.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.DLPower.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.ULIUBBand.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.DLIUBBand.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.ULCE.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.DLCE.Cong> +
<VS.RRC.Rej.Code.Cong>)/<VS.RRC.AttConn
Estab.Sum>
RAB congestion
ratio
Vs.RAB.Block.Rate (custom) (<VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULPower.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.DLPower.Cong>
+<VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULPower.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.DLPower.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULCE.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULCE.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCs.DLCE.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPs.DLCE.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCs.Code.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPs.Code.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.DLIUBBand.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabCS.ULIUBBand.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.DLIUBBand.Cong> +
<VS.RAB.FailEstabPS.ULIUBBand.Cong>)/VS.
RAB.AttEstab.Cell
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Call attempts VS.RAB.AttEstab.Cell (custom) (<VS.RAB.AttEstCS.Conv.64> +
<VS.RAB.AttEstab.AMR> +
<VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Conv> +
<VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Str> +
<VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Inter> +
<VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Bkg>)
R99_TCP_Utiliz
ation_Ratio
VS.MeanTCP.NonHS VS.MeanTCP.NonHS/Configured_Total_Cell_T
CP (43 dBm or 46 dBm)
Total_TCP_Utili
zation_Ratio
VS.MeanTCP VS.MeanTCP/Configured_Total_Cell_TCP
Max UL RTWP VS.MaxRTWP VS.MaxRTWP
Mean UL RTWP VS.MeanRTWP VS.MeanRTWP
Min UL RTWP VS.MinRTWP VS.MinRTWP
UL ENU ratio VS.RAC.UL.EqvUserNum VS.RAC.UL.EqvUserNum/UlTotalEqUserNum
IUB BW usage NODEB_Throughput (custom)
NODEB_Trans_Cap (custom)
NODEB_Throughput/NODEB_Trans_Cap
NODEB_Trans_
Cap
VS.IPDLTotal.1
VS.IPDLTotal.2
VS.IPDLTotal.3
VS.IPDLTotal.4
(VS.IPDLTotal.1 + VS.IPDLTotal.2 +
VS.IPDLTotal.3 + VS.IPDLTotal.4)
NODEB_Throug
hput
NODEB_Throughput_DL (custom)
NODEB_Throughput_UL (custom)
MAX(NODEB_Throughput_DL,
NODEB_Throughput_UL)
NODEB_Throug
hput_DL
VS.IPDLAvgUsed.1
VS.IPDLAvgUsed.2
VS.IPDLAvgUsed.3
VS.IPDLAvgUsed.4
(VS.IPDLAvgUsed.1 + VS.IPDLAvgUsed.2 +
VS.IPDLAvgUsed.3 + VS.IPDLAvgUsed.4)
NODEB_Throug
hput_UL
VS.IPULAvgUsed.1
VS.IPULAvgUsed.2
VS.IPULAvgUsed.3
VS.IPULAvgUsed.4
(VS.IPULAvgUsed.1 + VS.IPULAvgUsed.2 +
VS.IPULAvgUsed.3 + VS.IPULAvgUsed.4)
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PCH usage VS.UTRAN.AttPaging1 VS.UTRAN.AttPaging1/(60 x 60 x 5/0.01)
FACH usage VS.CRNCIubBytesFACH.Tx
VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate
(1) Utilization of FACH carried on
non-standalone SCCPCH
FACH Utility Ratio =
VS.CRNCIubBytesFACH.Tx x 8/((60 x <SP> x
168 x 1/0.01) x VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate x
6/7 + (60 x <SP> x 360 x 1/0.01) x (1-
VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate x 6/7))
where,
VS.PCH.Bandwidth.UsageRate =
<VS.CRNCIubBytesPCH.Tx>
/( <VS.CRNC.IUB.PCH.Bandwidth> x SP x
60.0)
(2) Utilization of FACH carried on standalone
SCCPCH
FACH Utility Ratio =
VS.CRNCIubBytesFACH.Tx x 8/(60 x <SP> x
360 x 1/0.01)
OVSF usage VS.RAB.SFOccupy VS.RAB.SFOccupy
OVSF usability
ratio
VS.RAB.SFOccupy.Ratio VS.RAB.SFOccupy/256
DCH OVSF ratio DCH_OVSF_Utilization [(<VS.SingleRAB.SF4> + <VS.MultRAB.SF4>)
x 64 + (<VS.MultRAB.SF8> +
<VS.SingleRAB.SF8>) x 32 +
(<VS.MultRAB.SF16> +
<VS.SingleRAB.SF16>) x 16 +
(<VS.SingleRAB.SF32> +
<VS.MultRAB.SF32>) x 8 +
(<VS.MultRAB.SF64> +
<VS.SingleRAB.SF64>) x 4 +
(<VS.SingleRAB.SF128> +
<VS.MultRAB.SF128>) x 2 +
(<VS.SingleRAB.SF256> +
<VS.MultRAB.SF256>)]/256
SPU usage VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN
MPU usage VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN
DPU usage VS.DSP.UsageAvg VS.DSP.UsageAvg
RAN14.0
Capacity Monitoring Guide 5 Counter Definitions

Issue 02 (2012-06-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
39

INT CPU Load

VS.INT.CPULOAD.MEAN

VS.INT.TRANSLOAD.RATIO.MEA
N
VS.INT.CPULOAD.MEAN

VS.INT.TRANSLOAD.RATIO.MEAN
NodeB CPU
usage
VS.BRD.CPULOAD.MEAN VS.BRD.CPULOAD.MEAN
UL_CE_MEAN
_RATIO










VS.NodeB.ULCreditUsed.Mean
VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.Mean
VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.Mean
if VS.NodeB.ULCreditUsed.Mean>0
Sum_AllCells_of_NodeB(VS.NodeB.ULCreditU
sed.Mean /2) / MIN(NodeB License UL CE
Number, NodeB Physical UL CE Capacity)
else
Sum_AllCells_of_NodeB(VS.LC.ULCreditUsed.
Mean/2) / MIN(NodeB License UL CE Number,
NodeB Physical UL CE Capacity)
DL_CE_MEAN
_REMAIN
Sum_AllCells_of_NodeB(VS.LC.DLCreditUsed.
Mean) / MIN(NodeB License DL CE Number,
NodeB Physical DL CE Capacity)