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Title: Chats on Costume
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CHATS ON
COSTUME

UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME
_Fully Illustrated, and with Coloured Frontispieces. 5s. net_
CHATS ON OLD CHINA
By ARTHUR HAYDEN
SECOND EDITION. Revised, with many New Illustrations.
"A handsome handbook that the amateur in doubt will find useful, and
the china-lover will enjoy for its illustrations, and for the author's
obvious love and understanding of his subject."--_St. James's Gazette._
"All lovers of china will find much entertainment in this

volume."--_Daily News._
"It gives in a few pithy chapters just what the beginner wants to know
about the principal varieties of English ware. We can warmly commend
the book to the china collector."--_Pall Mall Gazette._
CHATS ON OLD FURNITURE
By ARTHUR HAYDEN
"The hints to collectors are the best and clearest we have seen; so
that altogether this is a model book of its kind."--_Athenæum._
"A useful and instructive volume."--_Spectator._
"An abundance of illustrations completes a well-written and
well-constructed history."--_Daily News._
"Mr. Hayden's taste is sound and his knowledge thorough."--_Scotsman._
"Should be as indispensable to collectors and lovers of antique
furniture as the author's 'Chats on Old China' is to connoisseurs of
old china."--_Lady's Pictorial._
CHATS ON OLD PRINTS
By ARTHUR HAYDEN
(_In Preparation_)
LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN
[Illustration: MISS ELLEN TERRY as "LADY MACBETH,"
BY J. S. SARGENT, R.A.
(_Reproduced by kind permission of the Artist._)]

CHATS
ON COSTUME
BY
G. WOOLLISCROFT RHEAD, R.E.
AUTHOR OF "THE TREATMENT OF DRAPERY IN ART," "THE
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN," "A HANDBOOK OF ETCHING,"
"STUDIES IN PLANT FORM," ETC., ETC.
WITH 117 ILLUSTRATIONS, INCLUDING 35 LINE DRAWINGS
BY THE AUTHOR
[Illustration]

LONDON
T. FISHER UNWIN
ADELPHI TERRACE
1906
(_All rights reserved._)

PREFACE
Needless to say the present work is far from exhausting the subject
of costume, which extends, indeed, over the whole field of history.
For reasons of space, neither ecclesiastical nor military costume is
touched upon. The book makes no pretensions to being anything more than
what its title suggests--a series of chats upon a subject which fills a
considerable place in the minds of, at any rate, the larger half of the
community.
While many works germane to the subject of costume have, of necessity,
been here largely drawn upon in the way of quotation, there will, at
the same time, be found a certain proportion of what may be described
as fresh material, the result of the author's acquaintance with the
subject in his individual practice as an artist. Indeed, the subject of
dress is, or should be, an artistic matter; it was so in the past, and
it will again, in the very near future, come to be recognised as one of
the Decorative Arts, requiring artistic knowledge, and some perception
of the fundamental laws of Design.
The author's thanks are particularly due to Mr. J. S. Sargent, R.A.,
for his kind permission to reproduce his portrait of Miss Ellen Terry.
[Illustration: WILLIAM, DUKE OF JULIERS AND CLEVES.
_By Aldegrever._]

CONTENTS
PAGE
PREFACE

5

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

9

BIBLIOGRAPHY

15

CHAT
I. A GENERAL SURVEY

17

II. THE TUNIC

59

III. THE MANTLE

81

1836 55 . MOUSTACHIOS. BOOTS. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE CRINOLINE VII. 1439 _Frontispiece_ _Title-page_ PAGE DUKE OF JULIERS AND CLEVES (ALDEGREVER) 6 CHAT I. S. CAPS.IV. 35 Queen Mary 39 Caricature: Pig Walking upon Stilts (Harleian MS.) 43 Duchess of Ancaster (after Hudson) 47 Damask in Silk and Gold (Saracenic) 50 Venetian Fabric (Thirteenth Century) 51 London Promenade Dress. THE KIRTLE OR PETTICOAT VI. HATS. COUNTESS OF ARUNDEL. THE DRESSING OF THE HAIR. SHOES. R. SARGENT. Heading 19 The Comte d'Artois and Mademoiselle Clothilde 21 Charles Howard. THE DOUBLET AND HOSE V.A.--A GENERAL SURVEY. AND BEARD 235 X.) 31 William III. Earl of Nottingham 23 Ludovicus Rex. by J. by Thackeray 27 Travelling in a Horse-litter (from a Fourteenth Century MS. AND BONNETS 109 133 157 179 203 IX. COLLARS AND CUFFS VIII. AND OTHER COVERINGS FOR THE FEET 279 INDEX 302 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PORTRAIT OF MISS ELLEN TERRY AS LADY MACBETH.) 43 Caricature: Winged Devil (Cotton MS. HORNED HEAD-DRESS: BEATRICE.

--THE MANTLE. and Girdle (Jutland) 62 Hunefer and his Wife ("Book of the Dead. Cambridge) 75 Anglo-Saxon Dress (Eighth Century) 76 CHAT III. 1370) 63 A Priest Burning Incense ("Book of the Dead") 65 Plan of the Tunic 66 The Tunic (Hope's "Costume of the Ancients") 67 Greek Figure (Ibid. Petticoat. Tunic. W. Rhead) 116 Knightly Pastimes: Hawking. 1575 119 Sir Thomas Gresham (National Portrait Gallery) 121 . 103 Earl of Rochester (National Portrait Gallery) 105 Duke of Buckingham 107 CHAT IV." _c.CHAT II.) 70 Greek Figure (Ibid.--THE DOUBLET AND HOSE. Perugia 99 Prince Henry.C._ B. Bernard.--THE TUNIC. eldest son of James I. Heading: The Imperial Coronation Mantle at Vienna 83 Plan of the Toga 86 The Toga (Hope's "Costume of the Ancients") 87 Statue of Queen Matilda at Rochester 91 Lord Burleigh (National Portrait Gallery) 93 Lodowick. Heading: Italian Cassone (Fifteenth Century) 111 Figure by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. Duke of Richmond and Lennox 97 Portion of the Picture of the Miracle of St. Perugia 113 Paris on Mount Ida (Hope's "Costume of the Ancients") 115 Anglo-Saxon Retainer (G.) 71 Treuthe's Pilgryme atte Plow (Trinity College.

The Close-fitting Jacket. 1833 155 CHAT VI.Philip II. of Spain (National Portrait Gallery) 123 Henry. Prince of Wales 125 An Exquisite (from Jacquemin) 129 Philippe de Vendôme 131 CHAT V. (from Viollet le Duc) 137 A Lady of Basle (Holbein) 139 The Children of Charles I. Baddeley 173 The Crinoletta Disfigurans (_Punch_) 177 CHAT VII. of France 185 The Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia 187 . and his Queen. 1810 152 Promenade Costume. Otaheite 167 Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley 169 "Don't be afraid. 1833 154 Paris Evening Dress. Henrietta. 143 Miss Lewis 145 The Gamut of Love (Watteau) 147 Madame de Mouchy 151 Walking Dress. _temp._ Edward III.--THE KIRTLE OR PETTICOAT.--THE RISE AND FALL OF THE CRINOLINE. my dear!" 171 King and Mrs. Anne of Denmark 165 Festal Dress.--COLLARS AND CUFFS. Marquise d'Entragues 182 Henry IV. Heading: Figure from Jacquemin 159 Queen Charlotte (after Gainsborough) 161 Queen Elizabeth 163 James I.

) 210 Figure with Long Net-caul (G. mother of Napoleon 228 Anne Day 229 Two of the Wigginses (Gillray) 230 Parisian Head-dresses for 1812 231 Fool's Cap of Leather. Florence 213 Hat (Ibid. Fourteenth Century) 237 Assyrian Bas-relief 238 Bearded Bacchus (Hope's "Costume of the Ancients") 239 Greek Head-dresses (Ibid.--THE DRESSING OF THE HAIR. CAPS. Orcagna. in three views 193 Cravats 199 CHAT VIII. second Earl of Essex 225 Letitia Bonaparte.) 213 Heart-shaped Head-dress 216 Horned Head-dress 216 Francis Bacon 219 Thomas Killigrew 221 The Development of the Pot Hat 223 Robert Devereux. Campo Santo.) 233 CHAT IX. Anne Warren (after Romney) 207 Hunting Hat. MOUSTACHIOS. W.K.Son of the Painter Dirck de Vries 191 Charles I. AND BONNETS. Heading: Comb (Italian.--HATS. Heading: Fools in a Morris Dance 205 Mrs.) 243 Head-dress from Viollet le Duc (Fifteenth Century) 248 . Pisa 210 Hunting Hat (Ibid. Rhead) 212 Hat.M. AND BEARD. Fra Angelico.) 241 Roman Head-dresses (Ibid. German (S.

Egyptian. AND OTHER COVERINGS FOR THE FEET. B. Musée de Cluny) 293 Carved Wooden Shoe. Comte de Soissons. Barclay: Ship of Fools of the World. of Spain 273 CHAT X. The Lady's Absurdity 261 The French Lady in London 263 Head-dress (from Jacquemin) 264 Louis XVI. 1611 297 Top Boot. 1628 298 Bravoes (Martin Schongauer) 299 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.--BOOTS. German (Sixteenth Century) 291 Shoes (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Louis XIII. 1500 (British Museum) 254 Beau Fielding 257 Hyacinthe Rigaud 259 Ridiculous Taste. 1508. French (Seventeenth Century) 294 Shoe. 1697 296 Top Boot. Marie Antoinette. 1662 296 Shoe of a Musketeer. Dutch Officer of Guards. and the Dauphin 269 A Reigning Monarch 272 Philip IV.. . or..C. SHOES. French (Fifteenth and Seventeenth Centuries) 290 Shoes.A Painted Face (Roxburghe Ballads) 251 Wig. Heading: Shoes (Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries) 281 Clog or Patten 282 Roman Sandals (Hope's "Costume of the Ancients") 285 Sandals of Italian Peasantry 286 Lords John and Bernard Stuart 287 Shoes.

Hope. 1371. Humphreys. 1799. T.: Costume of the Ancients. 1579.: The Art of Tying the Cravat. T. Planché: British Costume.. 1874. H. N. Stow. Esq. English Costume from Pocket-books. Roxburghe Ballads. John: Chronicle. 1877. Chaucer. Carlyle.: Monumental Effigies. Statutes: Henry III._ 1660._ Bulwer: Pedigree of the English Gallant. Stothard. 1619. Paris. French Revolution. Fairholt: Costume in England. _c. Lydgate. John de Meun } } Romance of the Rose. Ben: Plays. 1877. Randal: Notes on Dress. Holme. Harding's Chronicle. Stubbes: Anatomy of Abuses. 1615. Matthew. Monk of Bury: Poems. . _c. William de Lorris} Knight of La Tour Landry. Henry VIII. 1842. Cyclopædia of Costume. 1855. Racinet: Costume._ 1686. 1543.. 1896. H. Gosson. Jonson. C. 1828. Gregory of Tours: History of the Franks. Eginhart: Life of Charlemagne. 1812. Stephen: Schoole of Abuse. Caxton: The Four Sons of Aymon. Le Blanc. Strutt: Dress and Habits of the English People. Piers Plowman: Pierce Ploughman's Vision._Bell's Fashionable Magazine. Froissart's Chronicles.: Sartor Resartus. Caxton.

the articulated Word sets all hands in action. J. and bound by invisible bonds to All Men. T. that he can tug them hither and thither. or what make ye of your Nothing can act but where it is? Red has no physical hold of Blue. and (O wonder of wonders!) marches sorrowfully to the gallows. and Rope and Improved-drop perform their work. is nowise in contact with him: neither are those ministering Sheriffs and Lord-Lieutenants and Hangmen and Tipstaves so related to commanding Red. vibrates his hour. Wright. that he wears Clothes. Nevertheless as it is spoken so it is done. which the more I think of it astonishes me the more. that man is a Spirit. 1868. _Sartor Resartus_." CARLYLE. the other in coarse threadbare Blue: Red says to Blue: 'Be hanged and anatomised. whereby all mortals know that he is a Judge?--Society.: Caricature and History of the Georges. squirrel-skins and a plush-gown. Diogenes Teufelsdröckh. William of Malmesbury. whose . one dressed in fine Red. Viollet le Duc: Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier Français. [Illustration] CHATS ON COSTUME I A GENERAL SURVEY That singular clothes-philosopher. "Thinking reader. I A GENERAL SURVEY "You see two individuals.: Plocacosmos. is there noosed-up. Has not your Red hanging-individual a horsehair wig.Stewart. and fit his bones into a skeleton for medical purposes. secondly. 1858-75. or the Whole Art of Hairdressing. the reason seems to me twofold: First. no clutch of him. but each stands distinct within his own skin. How is this. and the surgeons dissect him.' Blue hears with a shudder. 1782. which are the visible emblems of that fact. is founded upon Cloth.

"[3] [Illustration: CHARLES HOWARD. The women sometimes wear small cotton-cloth petticoats (sarongs) purchased from the Malays. EARL OF NOTTINGHAM. Moreover. which gives them a strangely fantastic appearance. thirdly. The uses of clothes. fur. who never withholds a good without affording ample compensation. The Veddas of Ceylon make girdles of leaves. so does the Colour betoken temper and heart. and they sewed fig leaves together. the extent of which._] . flax and cotton into linen of various kinds. for decency. for beauty and adornment. hide. drawn attention. which was their first and apparently only use. The climatic influence on dress is. are worn. and the men occasionally adopt Chinese trousers." [Illustration: THE COMTE D'ARTOIS AND MADEMOISELLE CLOTHILDE."[1] This habit of observance of the decencies of life appears to be common to all nations. amongst other things. indeed. shells. as we may assume that in Eden the sun always shone. but in their native forests. and the skin is decorated by stripes of paint or an extensive series of cicatrices. feather. for decency. has. Climate not only determines the amount or degree of warmth or otherwise. consisting of a little grass-cloth. then. clothes are an index to the character or temper of an individual or nation. the more the man divests himself of raiment. and they knew that they were naked. This is well illustrated by the well-known fable of "The Wind and the Sun. secondly. Bounteous Nature. to the fact that man is the only animal who is not provided with some Nature-made protection against the elements--a protection either of fur. and so restore that balance of endowment without which man would be at the mercy of every wind that blew. and the light gossamer clothing of the countries of the East there is a vast range. for comfort and protection. _Engraved by Thomas Cockson. "What meaning lies in Colour! If the Cut betoken intellect and talent. for comfort and protection. but makes some sort of provision in this respect. however. We learn from the accounts of travellers in Central Africa that "clothing. ornaments of feathers. First." The more boisterously the wind blows.[2] but between the skins of the Laplander. That is sufficiently clearly established if we may accept the Mosaic account of the world's juvenescence: "And the eyes of both of them were opened. or costume--the words may be here taken as synonymous--may be said to be threefold: first. No people or tribe. glass and metal beads." Among the aborigines of the Malay Peninsula (Sakais) "the men wear a strip of bark-cloth twisted round the waist and drawn between the legs. and made themselves aprons". the more fiercely the sun shines.revolutionary theories upon the subject of the "vestural tissue" first burst upon an astonished world some seventy odd years ago. always kind. fashioned by the help of a thorn or a fishbone for a needle. or what not. none of these luxuries are indulged in. is almost boundless. however. and the sinews of the animal for thread. "Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them. though extremely simple. web of worm into silk. as in architecture. has endowed man with that fertile brain and cunning hand whereby he may convert hide into leather. with characteristic emphasis. the more closely the man enwraps himself with his cloak.] Secondly. considerable. influences its character both as to form and colour. but also. however primitive the civilisation. and must necessarily be. wool of sheep into cloth.

and this fact. are always with us. however. while appreciating to the full the great distinctiveness of such periods as the Elizabethan. The Greeks. and. the Stuart. (It is only during the present utilitarian age that the æsthetic principle has been lost sight of. wore trousers. and _trouses_. A fearsome variety of it is to be seen upon the head of Jan Arnolfini in Van Eyck's picture in the National Gallery. very pertinently. would indeed be a Herculean task. "Who ever saw any Lord my-lorded in tattered blanket fastened with a wooden skewer?" His King Toom-tabard (empty gown) reigning over Scotland long after the man John Baliol had gone! His . and asks. it lightens his burden. its origin is lost in the maze of antiquity._. is a little singular. that clothes _have been_ beautiful is a fact which cannot be denied. if one were to march down Piccadilly some fine afternoon crowned in a vermilion pot-hat. and which. is also unquestionable. There is some method in her madness. It is perhaps not generally known that it occurs in the Raphael cartoons ("Paul preaching at Athens")." expecting his tailor. The veracious chronicler may therefore take some comfort from this fact. methinks one would not _altogether_ escape notice. might readily be accepted. To attempt to follow the whims and vagaries of that jade. to have been evident at first sight. presents really less inherent variety than one would suppose. for that matter) who would wield pen or pencil. Had it been black. when one comes to consider it. one would have spotted it at once. through all her endless diversities and constant changes. at any rate--that even Adam and Eve made themselves--ahem!--breeches? As for the pot-hat. certain leading characteristics." since clothes contribute so much to man's dignity. The reason it was not so was on account of its colour (vermilion). Moreover. Nay. waistcoate. It crops up in its various developments at all sorts of odd times and periods. without suffering any loss on the score of utility. historical accuracy is the favourite bugbear of pedants. like the poor. Carlyle finds it difficult to imagine a naked Duke of Windlestraw addressing a naked House of Lords. do we not read in the Old Testament--in _some_ Old Testaments. _i." It might also be written with even a still greater degree of truth. as is well known. "_Clothes_ maketh man. That clothes _should_ be beautiful is an axiom which. Some form of the trouser was worn by the lower classes at most periods of English history. one would think. no. It has been written. woolly. to the careful student of decorative development. Ben Jonson makes Peniboy junior walk in his "gowne. dress. hairy structures. One would have imagined such a singular appearance as a pot-hat. and might well appal the boldest he (or she.) That clothes _might again_ be beautiful. mind_. however. a less capricious person than would appear at first sight. there are certain primitive forms. and makes his task less difficult than it would otherwise be. "Manners maketh man. Fashion. similar decorative _motifs_. It appears in Durer's engravings and woodcuts. There is. for beauty and adornment--and it is with this latter aspect that this work is mainly concerned. Similar types. occasionally of abnormal height. that glorious consummation was reserved for this happy age of ours. in such surroundings. and the Georgian. still another aspect of clothes which remains to be considered.Thirdly. One might hazard the contention that a painter would be perfectly safe in introducing a pot-hat and a pair of trousers at practically any period of the world's history--_not in conjunction. which are common to most periods. appear and reappear through the centuries with the regularity of the changing seasons. as in architectural form. however. since. their symbolism.e. The will-o'-the-wisp of Fashion is.

against excess in apparel and extravagance in dress. cc. 1 and 2 Phil. shall dare to belittle the importance of costume? or to affirm that character can rise superior to its environment? Our subject is one of the most significant which can be presented to the reader's consideration. 3 Edw. the Commons exhibited a complaint in Parliament against the general usage of expensive apparel not suited either to the degree or income of the people. 37 Edw. of the value of six marks the whole piece. 6. Frankish. girdles. IV. IV. 7 Hen. were strictly forbidden to any but the Royal Family. Knights whose income exceeded 200 marks. For the Byzantine. For the Greek and Roman period. Who. reasonably embellished with silver. or squires possessing £200 in lands or tenements. c. It provides one of the most curious and fascinating studies in the world. 1. and embellishments of pearls. c. 8 Eliz. For the Egyptian and Assyrian period we are dependent upon monumental inscriptions and carving. always evaded and even defied. and an Act was passed by which the following regulations were insisted upon: Furs of ermine and lettice. The principal Acts are the following: 2 Edw. 11. however. the forlorn appearance of Ludovicus. and illuminated MSS. 2. All these laws were repealed by an Act of 1 Jac. and habits embroidered with jewellery. but all persons under the rank of knighthood. 1. lined with pure miniver. Rubens. VIII. and other expensive furs. 13. and Gothic periods. 22 Edw. as contrasted with the relatively trivial character of the wearer. The sumptuary laws.. 6 Hen. [Illustration: "LUDOVICUS REX. c. c. first to induce habits of thrift amongst all classes of the people. VIII. pottery." _From "Paris Sketches. excepting for a head-dress. enacted at various periods. 14. and woollen cloth. had a double object in view. It is not until what may be called the age of the _painter_ that we may be said to emerge into the broad light of day. and Mary. c. . and the written description of the more considerable authors. II. upon mosaic. then. c. Cloths of gold and silver. or of less property than the last mentioned. upon sculpture. without haughty looks or scornful gesture. and nobles possessing upwards of £1.quaint conceit of a suit of cast clothes. were permitted to wear cloth of silver with ribands.D. c. monumental effigies. were permitted only to knights and ladies. c."_] The materials upon which we base our knowledge of the dress of the earlier periods of the world's history are necessarily scanty. has been imitated by Thackeray in his amusing illustration of "Ludovicus Rex"--the "silent dignity" of "Rex" as represented by the suit of clothes. 8. VIII. In the thirty-seventh year of the reign of Edward III. 24 Hen. and in them will be found many curious and interesting details. This grandmotherly legislation.000 per annum. whose incomes exceeded 400 marks yearly. 1. and the few papyri which have survived the ravages of time. let in a flood of light on the manners and customs of the times. 14. (A. meekly bearing its honours. which was never effective. 4. and secondly on æsthetic grounds. c. &c. I. III. VIII. 1 Hen." all testify to the great importance and value of costume. 1363). the magnificence of "Ludovicus Rex. and the pencils of Holbein. and Vandyke make things clearer for us.

It was enacted that--"No man not being a banneret. excepting only "gens d'armes quant ils sont armez. which was. or gowns so long as to touch the ground. or were attached to the King's Court or household. let his condition be what it might. Four years afterwards it was ordained that no man. _From the MS. gowns. except they possessed a yearly income to the value of £100.. In the reign of Henry IV. girdles. being under the pain of cursing by the clergy for the latter offence. rose leaves. or to use the furs of ermine. under the penalty of forfeiting the same. 118 Français in the Bibliothèque Nationale (late Fourteenth Century). these laws were so little regarded that it was found necessary to revive them with considerable additions. or figured satin. and simple esquires. and the penalty annexed to the infringement of this statute was the forfeiture of the dress or ornament so made or worn. or jewellery. also girdles of gold. or any counterfeit resembling such stuffs. and were prohibited wearing silks and embroidered garments of any sort. or embellishing their apparel with any ornaments of gold. silver." was permitted to wear cloth of gold. or £20 per annum. cloth of silk of a purple colour. and ribands were forbidden them. mentioned by Monstrelet.were confined to the use of cloth not exceeding four marks the piece. silver. was allowed bolsters or stuffing of wool. or person under the degree of a yeoman. It will readily be seen that these laws were necessarily the cause of great hindrance to trade. not the least of the evils . It was also forbidden to any persons who were not in the enjoyment of £40 yearly income to wear any of the richer furs. cotton. or pikes or poleines to his shoes and boots exceeding two inches in length. indeed. were restricted from the use of velvet. or cloth of velvet. and fur of sables were prohibited to all knights under the estate of lords. and the third to the Chamber of London. and posies of various kinds. lettice. and forfeiture awarded. or gentlemen. unless they were heirs to estates of 50 marks per annum. an Act was promulgated by which cloth of gold. or any such-like devices. No yeoman." Decorations of gold and silver were forbidden to all who possessed less than £200 in goods and chattels. [Illustration: TRAVELLING IN A HORSE LITTER. of crimson. the unfortunate tailor making such short or stuffed dresses. In the third year of the reign of Edward IV. or marten. buckles. or shoemaker manufacturing such long-toed shoes for unprivileged persons. damask._] No one under the estate of a lord was permitted to wear indecently short jackets. &c. or motley velvet. or person of high estate. as well as the forfeit of twenty shillings--one noble to the King. unless they were Knights of the Garter. ouches. should be permitted to wear a gown or garment cut or slashed into pieces in the form of letters. or large hanging sleeves open or closed. or cadis in his purpoint or doublet under a penalty of six shillings and eightpence fine. or to £500 worth of goods and chattels. Bachelor knights were forbidden to wear cloth of velvet upon velvet. and the offending tailor was to be imprisoned during the King's pleasure. Rings. or silver-gilt were forbidden. another to the cordwainers of London.

any lambes wolle. & that no persone. or vii quarters at the leaste wythyn the lystes. & if the clothe be longer in measure than xxiiii yardes & the ynches than the byer therof shall paye to the seller for for as moche as doth excede such measure of xxiiii yardes. & to every yarde an ynche. shall holde & conteyne in lengthe xviii yardes & the ynches. were slightly different. were not the _only_ hindrance to trade.CCCC. evydently shewynge thossens defaulte & falsyte of the maykynge of wollen clothes of this lande. and foreign competition as keen. & kerseys. after the full watering & rackyng. to the greate shame of this lande. whiche shall make or cause to be made any maner wollen clothe to sel after the said feaste shall medle or put in or upon the same cloth. instead of dumping cheap goods into the country at low prices. streynynge or tenturynge therof redye to sale. & in brede one yarde & a nayle. whereas many yeres paste & nowe at this daye. And by reason thereof a great quantite of clothes of other strange landes be brought into this realme. after the measure aforsaid. that every halfe clothe of every of the sayde hole clothes. is had in small reputacyon. 1565 (given in Ellis's "Original Letters. that the sayde clothes in other landes & countreis. hath ordeyned & establysshed. It was enacted in the third year of the reign of Edward IV. Richard Onslow. with a lining of cotton stitched to the slop. The one halfe thereof to be to the Kyng. to be measured by the creste of the same clothe. 1:--"Firste. c." The statutory laws. or at the leaste one yarde within the lystes. which shal be in the yere of our Lorde M. is & hath bene of such fraude disceite & falsite. & to the preferment of such labours & occupacions. And i brede ii yardes. to be made & put to sale after the sayde feaste. who were puzzled to know whether they might "line a slop-hose not cut in panes. to be made & put to sale after the same feaste. that all maner clothes called streytes.LXV. conteynynge the bredthe of a mannes ynche.occasioned by these absurd laws. streytes. that every clothe called kersey. describes an interview which he had with the civic tailors. Also it is ordeyned & establysshed by thauctoritie aforsaid. The remedy was directed to the enforcement of greater honesty in trade dealings. shall kepe his measure in length & brede after the rate fourme & nature of his hole clothe aforsayde. by thaduyse assent & request & auctoritie aforsayd. that every hole wollen clothe called brodclothe. over and besydes the linen lining straight to the leg. upon payne to forfayt xx_s. wherein & wherupon any such lambes wolle. & the other halfe to hym that shall . shall holde & conteyne in lengthe xii yardes & the ynches. Also it is ordeined & establisshed by auctoritie of the sayd lordes. flockes or corke in any maner. the foreign merchants obtaining high prices for their goods. which hath been used by the makynge of the sayde clothes." vol. Recorder of London. & in brede one yarde within the lystes. the workemanshyp of clothes & things requisite to the same._ for every clothe or halfe clothe. shall holde & conteyne in length xxiiii yardes. after the ful waterynge & rackyng straynyng or tenturyng of the same redy to sale. which shal be made & set to sale after the feaste of Saynt Peter called ad vincula. ii. & also it is ordeyned & establysshed. however. nor the wolle. after the full waterynge & rackynge straynynge or tenturynge of the same redy to sale. whereof the sayd clothe shall be made. after the rate of the measure above ordeyned. the conditions. as is aforsayd. flockes or corke shall be put or medled. rather than to fortify themselves behind tariff walls. Our soveraigne lorde the Kynge. for the remedy of the premisses. & here solde at an highe & excessyve pryce. since it would appear that during the Plantagenet period _dishonesty_ in trade was as rife as it is at the present time.). however.

. the sumptuary laws continued to be disregarded as heretofore. might shout himself hoarse. is pleased only with conscience. on her visiting him. evidently lacked the power of repartee of St. or fancied abuse. Dowglas. or the other abuse. Monk Lydgate might rave. and destined to the life of the cloister. St.. that. & how soon again hath the pride of our harts overflowen the chanell!"[4] [Illustration: GUILJELMUS III. purists. excepte that he shall chose to make of lambes wolle by itselfe without mynglyng with any other wolle. aungeles. Bernard upon the subject of finery. and other persons who assumed the character of mentor. the monk of Glastonbury. Excepte also that corke may be used in dyenge upon woded wolle. sette downe the limits of apparell to every degree. Augustine had said that pride could lurk even in rags. G. perhaps with greater candour than politeness. with perles and precious stones":-"Suster." "With _greater_ pride. it is clear. It was to no purpose. so that the same wolle & clothe be perfytly boyled & madered. O Diogenes. whether of horned head-dresses or other extravagances. If a new fashion sprung up." 1371). and solde awey her clothes. that may not fail. and holy seintes. and kepte from the colde?. writing against the extravagances . and levid after an holy lyff. Therefore I trow that as clean a soul may be under those clothes that are arrayed with gold as under thy slight fur-skins. but the women would have their horns.] It was the same with the satirists. The sister of St. St. who. by reson ye shuld beter love youre soule: wene ye not that ye displese God and his aungels to see in you suche pompe and pride to adorn suche a carion as is youre body. & also in dyenge of all suche clothe.leyse the same clothe. And thanne the ladi wepte. "well arraied with riche clothing. nevertheless had a weakness for clothes which seemed too fine and gay for a nun. WILLIAM III. Whi thenke ye not that the pore peple that deyen for hungir and colde. ANGLIÆ. and ventured to upbraid her. The sumptuary laws continued to be enacted against this. Ethelwold. daughter of King Edgar. who. that is onely made of woded wolle. Bernard. whiche is perfectly boyled & madered"--but enough of this. It was indeed inevitable that the vagaries of fashion and the love of fine feathers should become the favourite butt of the satirists. Among the most insistent of these were the priesthood.. yet ye love youre bodi. FRANCIÆ et HIBERNIÆ REX. though brought up in a convent at Wilton. Edith. however. This latter sally calls to mind the story of Diogenes spitting upon the floor of Plato's house and exclaiming. and had love of God.. except also that corke may be put upon clothe." He was reminded also that St. "How often hath her majestie with the grave advice of her honorable Councell. that for the sixte part of youre gay arraye xl persones might be clothed. received this crushing reply: "God's doom. SCOTIÆ. however. a brand new law would be immediately fashioned for the purpose of keeping it within bounds. Bernard thus admonishes his sister. D.. refresshed. "Thus I trample on the pride of Plato. the whiche is beter thanne of the worldely pepille" ("Knight of La Tour Landry. must have shared the opinions of St. & duely prove the same to be made contrarie to this ordinance." was the quiet rejoinder.

over long and large." The authors of the "Roman de la Rose. and so strait waisted. French attires. Your pipes and your smokes. that every year they changed them in diverse shapes and disguisings of clothing. with full sleeves and tapetes of surcoats and hodes. feathers and swerdes. and made Love's baby. Your knees with points hung Like morrice-dance bels And many toyes els. And this is that which now we call a Lady. nor is there one kind of it. a woman is then like a delicate garden. ANGLIÆ. and also buttoned. In Dutch. says: "The English haunted so much unto the foly of strangers. good legs. repair eyebrows. she may vary every hour. Thus was it born. In Masks. and Wyers. G. lay it out. The men also came in for their share. This has been imitated by Ben Jonson. take often counsel of her glass. and were as much the objects of the satirist's wrath as were the women:-"Your ruffs and your bands. show them. and Cuffes.. and choose the best. And your short curtall clokes." . now large. Perriwigs. who in his "Silent Woman" makes Truewit say:-"I love a good dressing before any beauty o' the world. good hair. Rebatos. Spanish. as if for air and convenience. all so ragged and knib on every side. discover it often.which were rife during the latter half of the reign of Edward III. who continued and finished the poem about 1304. a good hand. those having pretty feet are counselled to elevate their robes. who died in 1260. Shapperowns. and John de Meun." Nor was it the fair sex only who were thus lampooned. are amongst the most severe of these satirists.] The author of the "Roxburghe Ballads" ("A Woman's Birth and Education") informs us that when Cupid first beheld a woman-"He prankt it up in Fardingals and Muffs. and another time in short clothes." [Illustration: MARIA D. that I with truth shall say. that all who are passing may see and admire. the author advises the ladies. and all so shattered. Powd'rings. nor their feet small and delicate. now strait. and devest from all honesty of old arraye or good usage. paint. Scarfes. cleanse teeth." William de Lorris. brought forth. In alluding to the unnecessary length of their trains. now wide. and also in their shoying and other arraye than they seemed to be like men. and profess it. wear short clothes. If she have good ears. Italian. to wear long robes trailing on the pavement to hide them. And your cuffs at your hands. FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REGINA. if their legs be not handsome. And their bodkin beards. practise any art to mend breath. QUEEN MARY. In Paintings. and every day clothingges. they seem more like to tormentors or devils in their clothing. Oh. new and destitute. now long. Your wastes a span long. SCOTIÆ.

" The "evelle dedes passed the good.. recounts a story of a knight who." The hermit. by gret auctoryté. the prevailing fashion of the period. as man's apparel in all respects. to . and crowned with the high steeple head-dress which prevailed during the reign of Edward IV. cheapness. this woman had tenne diverse gownes & as mani cotes. as well as that of Elizabeth. of a pig walking upon stilts playing the harp. _Elinor Rummin_. writing towards the close of the fourteenth century.. and made with wings. but it boted not. dreamed that he saw "Seint Michelle & the develle that had her in a balaunce.. the famous monk of Bury. who wrote his "Anatomy of Abuses" in the reign of Elizabeth. A thing contrarye to femynté. Strutt gives a cut from the MS. & the develle cried & sayde. & made moche sorughe & pite . copy of Froissart in the Harleian Library. after many prayers. The Knight of La Tour Landry. Seint Michel. must always prevail--the dress of such a period as that of the Plantagenets. then hornes cast away.. welts." Artists also. so surrounded as we are by commonness. & bare her away. was sumptuous to a degree.. & the most that grevid her was her good & gay clothing. it is difficult for us moderns. egre in ther vyolence. was unwearying in his condemnation of the extravagances of dress. & a develle & alle her evelle dedes in that other balaunce. (Nero. & there the develle toke her. and one of the foremost poets of his time. & caste hem in the balaunce with her evelle dedes. Hornes wer yove to bestys for dyffence. & he toke all her juellys and rynges.." But the most insistent of all the satirists was Philip Stubbes. having lost his wife. & also the false langage that she had saide .. 1625. It must be confessed that the satirists were occasionally a little too severe in their strictures. & putte her clothes & aray brennyng in the flawme on her with the fire of helle.. and vulgarity. .SKELTON. & alle her good dedes in the same balaunce. & weyed downe & overcame her good dedes.." Lydgate. and pinions on the shoulder-points. & furres of gray menivere & letuse. and ageyn concyence Lyst nat of pryde. buttoned up to the breast." he unbosoms himself as follows:-"Clerkys recorde. and although this be a kind of attire proper only to a man. In a "Ditty of Women's Horns. his pet aversion being the horned head-dresses which obtained during the York and Lancastrian period. applied to "an heremyte hys uncle" to know whether she was saved or not and how it "stode with her. & the pore soul cried. In lampooning the feminine habit of aping masculine dress. in order to deter his daughters from extravagance and superfluity of dress. . yet they blush not to wear it. But arche wives. joined in the general chorus of condemnation of the extravagances of fashion. as well as writers. In the Cotton MS. In fact. Fers as tygres for to make affray They have despit. To be maad sturdy of resystence. C4) there is an illustration of a winged devil arrayed in a costume with elongated sleeves tied in knots. . he says: "The women have doublets and jerkins as the men have. & kist her doune into the pitte of helle.. & thou wost welle lesse myghte have suffised her after the lawe of God. for while doubtless extravagance prevailed at most periods--indeed.

Plenty of extravagance there is at the present time. Silk was known under different names at various periods. but on account of their costliness were worn only by a very few. for xix yerds iii qrt of clothe of golde at xxxviij_s._ the yerde. The Princess Mary (afterwards Queen). the golden tissues which formed the shroud were melted. Silk. and of purple. and purple.._ vj_d. regulating and restricting the wearing of this precious fabric to persons of estate. who refers to the importation into the Western world of raw silk. This truly regal fabric has been in use from the earliest periods. thirteen years before she came to the throne. which is upon it._" and for "a yerde & dr qrt of clothe of silver xl_s." The earliest mention of it is in Aristotle. The thin paper which we now know by the name of tissue paper was originally made for the purpose of being placed between the pieces of stuff to prevent tarnishing when laid by. according . either as to invention or material. however. And the curious girdle of the ephod. and serve to show in what high estimation this fabric was held. upon the re-opening of her grave in 1544. shall be of the same. were found numerous strips of pure gold.D. and fine twined linen. and so many other good things comes to us from the "sacred East. xxxvij_li. and fine twined linen. even of gold. pointing to the fact that the body must have been wrapped in a mantle of golden stuff for burial. and scarlet. "And they shall make the ephod of _gold_. of blue. Silken garments were brought to Rome from a very early period. hidden in their walking staves. by far the most sumptuous fabric employed for purposes of adornment in past times is undoubtedly cloth of gold. The raw material. of London. a monopoly of silk weaving was given to the Court. either as regards their dress or their surroundings. The story of the introduction of the silkworm into Constantinople will serve to show how jealously the secret of the rearing of the worm was kept by the peoples of the East. by two Greek monks. About the body of the Frankish King Childeric. had still to be brought from abroad. but no real magnificence. The sumptuary laws which were enacted at various periods of English history. Very soon afterwards the Western world reared its own silk."[5] It is recorded of the wife of the Emperor Honorius. It will readily be imagined that cloth of gold was necessarily costly. [Illustration] With respect to material._ x_s.realise the extreme splendour of the Middle Ages. Heliogabalus was the first Emperor who wore silk for clothing. looms being set up in the imperial palace and worked by women. and tissues were made of silver-gilt or copper-gilt thread. who had lived many years amongst the Chinese and learnt the process of rearing the worm. and amounted in weight to 36 lbs._" In later times the use of the pure gold thread was discontinued except for very costly garments. "Payed to Peycocke. The eggs of the silkworm were brought. of blue. like the sun. and who carried them to Constantinople and presented them to the Emperor. with cunning work. By the revised code of laws issued for the Roman Empire in 533 A. who died about the year 400. have already been referred to. according to the work thereof. of scarlet. when his grave was discovered in 1653.

The beauties of the Court of Charles II. texture." for not having communicated with De la Pole earlier." Cendal was a less costly fabric. in his "Rime of Sire Thopas. Examitum. The history of the art of weaving in China is lost in obscurity. It has always been used. is a six-threaded tissue. and was also used largely in ecclesiastical vestments. and then he saied. sir." The patternings of woven brocades. since its introduction into the West. during the Middle Ages for linings. with silver shredde. The place of its origin is not known. [Illustration: DUCHESS OF ANCASTER (AFTER HUDSON). if it please you to write to him in Duche. for robes of state and for the more sumptuous kind of dress. Satin was also used in the Middle Ages. that most sumptuous material. conveying excuses from some person un-named. and thank him. as he had hoped. Taffeta was a thin transparent textile. to send him news from England. the writer continues:-"For your gown he axked me howe many elles velvet wold serve you.to its colour. 'What lynyng thereunto?' I answerde 'Sarcenet' by cause of the lest coste to helpe it forward. and is mentioned by Chaucer in his "Man of Lawe's Tale. but it probably comes from China. And he saide to me. I doubte not ye shal have hyt.' Soo.] In a letter preserved in the Record Office (_circa_ 1505) to Edmund de la Pole. as well as cendal. and was used both for ecclesiastical purposes and for the more stately dresses of a secular character.. or the purpose for which they were intended to serve as an ornamental adjunct to dress. as pictured by Sir Peter Lely. from his steward Killingworth (De la Pole had been indicted of homicide and murder. 'Wel. and was used. and geve but oon worde therin towching your gown. Samit." but was not brought into general use until later." says:-"Of Brugges were his hosen broun His robe was of ciclatoun. I shal see what I can doo therin. Of samyte white. and by degrees supplanted cendal. "for slaying of a mean person in his rage and fury." and had fled to Flanders). The hand which grasped the sword Excalibur when it was thrown into the lake was clothed in white samite-"Launcelot and the Queen were cledde In robes of a rich wede. Samite. Velvet. or design. are usually clad in satin." Ciclatoun was a substance of light texture. mentioned only as "your friend. I told hym xiiij Englishe yerdis. Earl of Suffolk. damasks and other textiles afford an interest quite apart from mere utility. Sarcenet also is a light webbed silk. and consequently costly. but we . Chaucer. has always been held in high estimation on account of the richness of its texture and fold. since by their means we are able to trace the great ornamental traditions to their original source in the East.

together with an admixture of colour. and so perfumed that The winds were love-sick with them. however. and looms were established at Tours in 1480." &c. occurs the item: "To a mercer in London for a green hanging of wool with figures of Kings and Earls upon it. for the King's service in this hall on solemn feasts at London. After the Saracen conquest. as the Renascence influence began to make itself felt. and rivalling in fineness the work of spiders. and looms were set up in Lucca. however. For the "mantell of the Garter" of Henry VII. The character of their ornamentation betrays their Eastern origin.] The tradition spread to the mainland of Italy. although the earliest ornamental fabrics found in Egypt are of the sixth century A. of tissue. [Illustration: VENETIAN FABRIC IN SILK AND GOLD (THIRTEENTH CENTURY). In the wardrobe accounts of Edward II. Gold thread is lavishly used. intertwined with conventional foliage or ornament of a purely abstract character. and which left a lasting mark upon their art. The patternings are made up of grotesque animals. furniture. hangings. Shakespeare's description of the barge of Cleopatra will be familiar to all-"The barge she sat in. and elsewhere. In later times. ELEVENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURY)." . Venice. the character of the ornamentation gradually changing. The Sicilian brocades of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were the finest in the world. who introduced the art of silk weaving into France. and.. chimeras. dark or light. resultant upon the preaching of Muhammad. Florence. griffins. she did lie In her pavilion--cloth of gold. In England also the art of weaving flourished. like a burnished throne Burned on the water: Purple the sails. we find Arabic inscriptions freely introduced as part of the general decorative motive. and other purposes. usually forms the pattern. as well as for civil dress. upon a coloured ground. Dionysius Periegetes informs us that the Seres "make precious figured garments resembling in colour the flowers of the field. birds.may reasonably infer from our knowledge of the character of its people that neither their methods nor the character of the ornamentation have materially changed during a period of as much as two thousand years. Even the most cursory study of Italian painting will serve to give an idea of the splendour of the dresses of the Italian Gothic and Renascence periods. as the case may be." It is certain that the Egyptians practised the art of weaving from very early times. and we may trace in them the various influences which were brought to bear upon them by their successive conquerors. In 1520 looms were set up in Lyons by Francis I. and was employed for ecclesiastical vestments. &c. [Illustration: DAMASK IN SILK AND GOLD (SARACENIC." &c. Genoa. "a pound and a half of gold of Venys" was employed "aboute the making of a lace and boton. their woven fabrics were exceedingly sumptuous. which followed upon the conquest of the island by Belisarius in 535. The earliest ornamental influence was that of Byzantium.D.] It was Louis XI.

What is the explanation of the wave of Philistinism which swept not only England but the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century? Can it be the rise of science. to the end of sublunary time. the adornment of a "human. which. studded with precious stones." . and beauty has forsaken dress as it has forsaken the rest of the decorative arts. or whether. bringing in its wake the mechanical fiend. And with gold beten full fetously His bodie was clad full richely. . All abowte for pryde. can be done to bring it abreast of modern taste and thought? because we _do_ move . We have forgotten how to dress as we have forgotten how to build. Of late there has been a tendency. and merry of thought. Dress? we don't dress--we simply cover our nakedness--as in architecture we are content if we keep out wind and wet. woven sumptuously. . And in samette. the "too old at twenty" cry is at the bottom of it. "A coronell on hur hedd sett. to affect the knickerbocker. or should be." In the "Romaunt of the Rose" the dress of Mirth is described as follows:-"Full yong he was. peradventure. then. especially amongst middle-aged and elderly men. What. has reduced everything to rule and compass.Instances of the splendour of the costume at the different periods of the past might be multiplied indefinitely. one fears. . as important as the adornment of a brick wall." And now contrast all this with the extreme poverty of the dress of the present day. Dress is. coupled with a natural and pardonable desire to exhibit a well-developed calf. is a question which provides food for reflection. Hur clothys wyth bestes and byrdes wer bete. to say the very least. and turn our thoughts for a moment to those terrible cylindrical enormities the pot-hat and trousers. with birdes wrought." Chaucer describes the King's daughter in the "Squire of Low Degree" as having-"Mantell of ryche degre Purple palle and armyne fre. is. although whether the æsthetic principle is the mainspring of this tendency. in view of this eternity of the trouser. they date from the beginning. one of the decorative arts. . and thus brought about the death of the æsthetic sense? No other period of the world's history but some country forged ahead and kept alight the sacred lamp of beauty. and will endure. The monk of Malmesbury describes the banner under which Harold fought at Hastings as having been "embroidered in gold with the figure of a man in the act of fighting. * * * * * Trousers are apparently eternal." assuming that Nature's marvel must be covered.

as a certain degree of looseness is necessary at that point in order to allow of the free movement of the limb. then the Sunne. but. regulating the delicate and subtle curves of the brim of a pot-hat or the turn of a coat collar? Perhaps the _Tailor and Cutter_ knows. Philistine man. 1887. By the way. since. These. upon the principle that knowledge is power. and of wax flowers under glass--we could not possibly strike a lower depth. The knee is the natural place for the garment to be drawn in. or festooned. whatever changes the immediate future may have in store for us." The _Tailor and Cutter_--delightfully fascinating print!--has thrown out many dark hints lately of impending startling changes in men's attire. shining with his hoat beames began to warme this gentleman. the antimacassar. decides otherwise. and that singular invention the trouser-stretcher--true emblem of the modern spirit of incongruity--is called into play. . but I cannot remember any sculptor who has been bold enough to give a life statue of any English notability in the evening dress of the period. Speaking as a designer. I am taxing my memory. and does her level best to produce variety of fold.] In all seriousness. which with great blastes and blustering striving to vnloose it. then. however." [Illustration: LONDON PROMENADE DRESS. to undo during the night Nature's doings of the previous day. as the late Mr. and even emphasised_. which makes for beauty. [2] This fable is so quaintly told in Lyly's "Euphues" (1580). having recently emerged from that bottomless pit of all that is æsthetically terrible--the Victorian era: the era of the crinoline. declines to say. Dresses seem to have been selected by the existing English generation with a special desire to flout and gibe at and repudiate all possibility of compliance with any sense of beauty. although almost imperceptibly. anyway. the Winde thought to blowe of(f) his cloake. issuing their fateful decrees. FOOTNOTES: [1] Gen. 1836. The late Lord Salisbury. The shafts might be fluted. Gladstone would have said. A man cannot sit down without first hitching himself up at the knee. we may take comfort from the fact that they must necessarily be in the direction of betterment. that it may be worth while to repeat it. _who_ are the Rhadamanthine spirits who sit mysteriously in judgment upon these high matters. There is. I am quite sure that if that man exists he must be strongly tempted to commit suicide the moment his work appears. 7. as in the "Prentice pillar. Bell-bottoms may at once be ruled out of the running. who waxing som(e)what faint in this faire weather. since they have become so identified with the coster fraternity that no man of fashion would dream of adopting them. 21. for the more the winde encreased the closer his cloake clapt to his body. however. as in the Corinthian Order. however. in his speech at the Royal Academy Banquet on April 30. is reported as saying: "Then consider the costume of the period. it seems only possible to develop the trouser in one of two different directions--that of the peg-top or the bell-bottom. "A gentleman walking abroard. a third and middle course--_their columnar character might be retained. the trouser is an absurdity even from the point of view of mere comfort. Nature herself rebels against the trouser. made it to stick faster to his backe. iii. are the two extremes or opposite poles.in matters of taste.

" [3] Carlyle. works of Sidonian women. Such a primitive garment has been worn in varying forms at all periods of the world's history. PETTICOAT AND GIRDLE. but the greater number are dressed in short chequered tunics with a long fringe attached to the girdle. which the Wynde perceiuing. which god-like Paris himself brought from Sidon. II THE TUNIC "Where were the variegated robes. more or less closely fitting to the body and of varying length. The coat of many colours which Israel made for his son Joseph was unquestionably an embroidered tunic. yeelded the conquest to the Sunne. along the course by which he conveyed high-born Helen?"--_Iliad_. and is in use at the present time in the form of the ordinary singlet. the simple. says "many are represented naked. 289. vi. the bodies having been buried completely dressed. and brought to him from year to year. Sir Henry Layard. primeval type of the tunic. An illustration is given of a simple woollen tunic with short sleeves and a petticoat with girdle." [5] Exodus xxviii. This was found at Borum." [4] Stephen Gosson. BRONZE AGE. was doubtless a simple bag. was doubtless of the same character. The little coat which the mother of Samuel made for her child when he was dedicated to the priesthood. in the . II THE TUNIC The earliest made-up garment. The dresses were found in coffins made of an oak-tree split in two and hollowed out. in fact._] Some remarkable discoveries have been made during the last thirty years in different portions of Scandinavia." [Illustration: TUNIC. 6-8. with holes for the arms and an opening for the neck.did not on(e)ly put of(f) his cloake but his coate. sailing over the wide sea. which serve to give us a very clear idea of the dress of both men and women of the remote period of the Bronze Age. "Sartor Resartus. although probably made loose and ample. describing the dresses of the Assyrians. The modern singlet is. that in which the art of the tailor was called into play. "The School of Abuse. _From "Industrial Arts of Old Denmark" (Worsaae).

and sufficiently long to allow of its being gathered up about the waist and breasts." c. leaving the pattern in the original colour of the fabric." in the British Museum. and may be said to have formed their principal garment. B. suspended round the chest and back and secured at the shoulders by means of fibulæ or buttons. It was kept in its place by various means. which was weighted with little pellets of lead in order to ensure a better falling of the folds. so as to allow the garment to fall in regular zigzag folds. 1370. The "reserve" was then removed by a second bath. King of Egypt about B. probably tied in with a band underneath the breasts. and papyri. Upper Egypt. [Illustration: THE TUNIC. "overseer of the palace of the lord of two lands. or "Book of the Dead. In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a child's tunic. and again drawn round the waist.. open at the two ends. The second illustration shows a priest wearing nothing but a loin cloth and a leopard skin. over the shoulders. ending in a point. 1370._] With the Greeks the tunic was the principal article of attire. or "Book of the Dead. [Illustration: _From the Papyrus of Hunefer. looped at the back. a lady of the college of the god Amen-Rā at Thebes. it is not clear in the drawing. discovered in a tomb at Alkmîm (Panopolis). In some cases the bib was made deeper under the arms. B._] The tunic was worn by the Egyptians. in the attitude of adoration. In the earlier time it was composed of wool. 1370). with a pattern produced by means of what is called "a reserve.C." the design being first stamped on the fabric by means of a waxy substance which protected those portions of the dress from the dye into which it was afterwards dipped. semi-transparent. This was a kind of bib or super-tunic." c. The material is of a light tissue. It was worn next to the skin. His wife also wears a long tunic with sleeves.C. paintings. either by a simple girdle round the waist or by cords drawn crosswise between the breasts. intended to afford additional protection to the upper part of the body. Men-maât-Rā (Seti I. [Illustration: HUNEFER AND HIS WIFE IN ATTITUDE OF ADORATION. It was a simple square bag. and was composed of a square or rather oblong piece of stuff. or by an arrangement of cords or ribbons drawn over each shoulder and attached to the girdle. Over the tunic was a second garment. ornamented at the throat and neck.C. dyed blue. and in the latest periods it was either of flax mixed with silk or of pure silk. made sufficiently wide to admit of the folds being ample. The first cut discovers Hunefer. the royal scribe. and was of a light tissue." and his wife Nasha. The illustrations given are taken from the papyrus of Hunefer. It is seen in their sculptures. and overseer of the cattle of the lord of the two lands. after the mere loin cloth. in later periods of flax. The illustration given will serve to show its construction. or "Book of the Dead. _From the Papyrus of Hunefer.neighbourhood of Aarhus. Hunefer wears a long tunic with sleeves. with a broad sash around the waist. Jutland.] . It is of unbleached linen.

varied. it was made of linen. with the exception of that worn by the Lacedemonian girls. as its name implies. and also divided at the sides so as to show their thighs. Planché ("Cyclopædia of Costume") says: "That in this chequered cloth we see the original _breacan feile_. there can be no doubt. however. classic dress consisted of but two elements--the tunic and mantle. In the winter he added the mantle and the _thorax_. and over it a shorter garment open on the bosom. both Gaul. Her yellow hair floated in the wind. Goth. I believe. still the national dress of the Scotch Highlanders. the leg bandages. and "this indecency. from the Roman period to the time of Charlemagne. though now abandoned by all their descendants except the hardy and unsophisticated Gaelic mountaineers. Get thee fleeces from famous Luceria.[6] Another French writer quoted by Strutt mentions stockings and _trowsers_. but ornamented with precious . according to the custom of the time. and upon her shoulders was a mantle fastened by a fibula. both being worn of a thicker material during cold weather. and that it was at this time the common habit of every Keltic tribe. in his twenty-fifth Ode. It was made of otter's skin. It was the _short_ tunic. was countenanced by the laws of Lycurgus." Dion Cassius has given us an account of the dress of Boadicea. which was. the drawers. a writer of the ninth century."_] Horace. addressing an old woman affecting youth--"flaunting wife of the indigent Ibycus"--exclaims-"What becomes thee best is a warm woollen dress. Queen of the Iceni. It consisted of the following parts: The shirt. by every antiquary who has made public his opinion on the subject. the latter of linen. This was the dress which was common to all nations. was often ornamented with rich borders and diapered with sprigs. red and blue. The tunic of the Roman women reached to the feet. &c. the stockings. _From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. in fact. And left alone my tunic. Visigoth. the fates have cheated me. and sword.The tunic. has left us a detailed description of the dress of Charlemagne." Broadly speaking. His tunic was ornamented with a _border of silk_. as the historian positively asserts that he wore the longer tunic but twice in his life. the garb of old Gaul. stars." says Strutt. spots." Eginhart. and was probably worn underneath the tunic. and ornamented in the manner peculiar to the particular country. It was. as no pictured or other representation of this garment is available. Ulysses exclaims. [Illustration: THE TUNIC. the sword-belt. He says she wore a tunic woven chequerwise in purple. and Vandal. The material of the tunic itself is not mentioned. the shoes. the tunic. a covering for the chest and throat. according to climatic conditions. is admitted. but Strutt thinks that. Mr. a variation of the Roman dress of tunic and mantle or toga. as well as the super-tunic. in the "Odyssey"-"I have no cloak. which was short.

embroidery as forming part of the dress of the Franks. obtained until the Norman Conquest." Both Strutt and some other writers on the subject of costume appear to . as any mylke. The long flowing embroidered mantle is fastened by a gold fibula at the throat. [Illustration: GREEK FIGURE. Hosys they had uppon. must necessarily be more eloquent and convincing than any written description can possibly be. amethysts and rubies vie with each other in their brilliance. The dress of the twenty young squires chosen by Guy of Warwick is thus described:-"Kyrtyls they had oon of sylke Also whyte. As a matter of fact. Tyrwhitt describes it as "a tunic or waistcoat. the _gunna_ or gown. The sleeves are long and ample. Barefote they were everychone. reaching almost to the ground. in which emeralds. the edges serrated in the form of leaves.e.workmanship. which is surmounted by a crown of exquisite workmanship." In the "Romaunt of the Rose" the "damoselles right young" are arrayed-"In kirtles and noon other wede. with variations. and the kirtle. _From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. There was a short tunic." evidently here intended for a long gown or tunic. The long loose gown is variously described in documents of the period by the names of the tunic. had not come into being. The pencil. worn underneath. and other records which have come down to us."_] Fortunately. This costume. with tight sleeves. Of gode sylke and of purpull palle Mantels above they caste all. and there was a long tunic. such as we are familiarised with in the dress of a later period. _From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. The general appearance of the Queen may. Her flaxen hair falls in two long double plaits in front of her person. _i._. with sleeves reaching only to the elbows. and each pair bound together by a lighter ribbon. or the sculptor's chisel. with sleeves added. we are able to form a very complete idea of Frankish dress from the sculptured effigies of Clovis and his Queen Clothilde on the façade of the Cathedral of Chartres. reaching to the ground. the term "kirtle" is indiscriminately used in the description of various garments. be described as follows: She wears a long loose tunic of soft material. confined by a falling girdle with an oval clasp in front. and confined at the waist by a girdle. at the time of the dismemberment of the Roman Empire in 395. A thin gauze veil covers the head. elaborately ornamented in the rich diapered patterns peculiar to that period and nation."_] The dress of the Byzantine women. [Illustration: GREEK FIGURE. when costume began to be more complex. The kirtle. the plaits being first bound singly by a dark ribbon. was still the loose or semi-loose tunic. however. but no schone.

was not in the least so. were celebrated for their skill in spinning. and from the context we imagine it was used by way of compliment. the wife of Edward the Confessor. and was either a long loose outer garment. and the colour of the hair and beard.' but we incline. It assumed a variety of forms. and usually trimmed with miniver or other fur. but even the flowing locks of Eve are painted blue in one MS." This. R._] A development of the super-tunic was the surcoat. as any _educated_ artist knows (artists are not _all_ educated). and embroidering. Shee wears blewe haire her ears above. or. ourselves." _From the MS. who was inveigled into marriage with the daughter of old Hengist":-"Rowena is my ladye-love. This colouring is amusingly parodied by Mr. They remark the curious circumstance of the hair and beard being painted _blue_. was worn by the nobility only. The explanation is. with respect to the colour of the hair and beard. perhaps. principally. however. red. the Anglo-Saxon women being famous for their skill with the needle. but also in regard to the various details of costume.. and Editha. Her robe itte is a gunna. The surcoat. accordingly as the exigencies of the general colour scheme demanded. closely-fitting jacket or coat with sleeves. This fact should always be kept in mind in considering the colour of any illuminated MS. that with the old illuminator _the decoration of the page_ was his first consideration--rightly so. and may have arisen from the idleness of the illuminator. would incline to either blue. variously shaped and sleeveless. to think it was a bit of Saxon slang. [Illustration: ANGLO-SAXON DRESS (EIGHTH CENTURY). which was worn by either sex during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. worn in travelling . "commonly believed to have been written by King Vortigern. or super-tunic. and the heads of youth and age exhibit the same cerulean tint. We learn from Eginhart that the four Princesses." [Illustration: "TREUTHE'S PILGRYME ATTE PLOW. Punch in his book of British costumes (1860). of silk or of finest linen. and sisters to Æthelstan. As a matter of fact.] A somewhat remarkable feature of Anglo-Saxon dress of the eighth century was the long super-tunic with long sleeves. O is shee notte a stunna!" He adds: "Critics disagree as to the meaning of the word 'stunna. "In representations of old men this might be considered only to indicate _grey hair_. who daubed it. was a shorter. or yellow. Cambridge. 3. with the nearest colour at hand. during the Anglo-Saxon period. however. daughters of Edward the Elder. He gives a fragment of a love song. A writer who quotes Strutt says: "The hair being painted sometimes _green_ and _orange_ is in favour of this argument. 14 in the Library of Trinity College." Strutt argues from this that some art of tinting or dyeing was practised. but such instances are very rare. weaving. and was therefore made of the most costly material.be puzzled by the _colouring_ of the earlier illuminators. as during the reign of Richard II. together with the precise tint of the gown.. and often richly embroidered. was a perfect mistress of the needle. embroidery always forms a conspicuous element in Anglo-Saxon dress.

however. An important adjunct of the tunic was the girdle. a girdle of gold about his middle. or of different cloths." _Ywaine and Gawin. it served a double purpose. and perled with latoun. It is recorded that upon the return of Henry VI. richly embroidered and studded with jewels. * * * * * Some few years ago a movement. The tunic." Numerous fine examples of the girdle occur among the early brasses. the tunic proper may be said to have disappeared with the general change which came about in costume immediately after the Norman Conquest. The term "tunic" is also applied to the military surcoat of the present time. above all places. and bodice or stomacher. bearing no sort of affinity to the original tunic. either a simple thong or ornamented in various ways. as Strutt observes. and clasped by means of a heavy gilt buckle._ The Imperial girdle of the Holy Roman Empire was woven in silk and gold. The girdle of Charlemagne was composed of gold and silver. to England after his coronation in France in 1432 the Lord Mayor of London rode to meet him at Eltham. or of metal. was instituted for the purpose . The sleeves worn by the Chinese mandarins at the present time are identical with the long sleeves of the Anglo-Saxon period.or during cold weather. having its origin. by which the garment was looped up and confined within reasonable limits. may be said to have finally disappeared by the time of the Tudors. as it was the only form of pocket-"And by his gurdil hyng a purs of lethir._ The name "cut-purse" applied to thieves is derived from the circumstance of the leather thongs which attached the pouch to the girdle being slit with a knife. Girdles were of various kinds--a sash of silk or other materials. Indeed. that of confining the tunic. "being arrayed in crimson velvet. and supporting the sword. but reach considerably below the tips of the fingers. the Saxon word "gunna" and the Norman "surcoat" better describing the dresses of that period. in the United States. Tassid with silk. and a baldrick of gold about his neck trailing down behind him. when a woman's dress consisted of kirtle or petticoat. so far as women's dress is concerned. In the case of the men. having a woven inscription upon the narrow border. or formed of leather." _Miller's Tale. The sleeves not only cover the hands. "A girdel ful riche for the nanes Of perry and of precious stanes. singularly enough. this article of military costume. It was used also by both sexes for the purpose of suspending or sustaining the pouch or purse which was invariably worn during the Middle Ages. a great velvet hat furred.

of Mulhausen.--_Daily Paper. and only immoral persons would regard this as immoral. This remark was greeted with a storm of applause. and certain pieces of valuable silk have been extracted in order that they may be examined and photographed. and temper of a people. who probably regarded their would-be instructors as harmless lunatics. "School-Inspector Muller urged the necessity of reform of children's clothes. such sentimental movements are predestined to failure. _deplored the fact of people becoming so greatly estranged from art. It is as impossible to bring about a sudden change in dress as it is to create a new style of architecture. Medical men who have examined these bones say that the Emperor was a man of huge proportions. of Spandau. The great Frankish Emperor's bones were wrapped in these costly cloths._ . it is the natural outcome of the general habits. stating _that the human body is a most magnificent work of art which is frequently maltreated with corsets and other tightly fitting garments_. The remedy. and she argued that much can be done by a careful selection of pictures on the class-room walls.of inducing the modern Greeks to adopt the ancient costume of their forefathers. One of them is ancient Constantinople work. both resulting from industrialism_. The italics are ours. some interesting papers were read which are germane to this subject of costume. and represents a brilliantly coloured surface with elephants embroidered in circles. which are in another part of the Cathedral. The Kaiser is greatly interested in the preparation of this work on ancient tissues. with the exception of the skull and one arm. The result was. the sarcophagus at Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral in which the remains of Charlemagne rest has been opened. A national costume is of slow growth. and it was his Majesty who induced the Archbishop of Cologne to consent to the opening of the sarcophagus. and which serve to show that some of the continental peoples are more alive to the importance of this subject than we are." FOOTNOTES: [6] With the object of making more complete a work on ancient textile fabrics which the Prussian Government is issuing. a circumstance which she ascribed to the degradation of work and the severance from nature. We give a short _résumé_ which appeared in the pages of the _Daily Chronicle_ a short while ago. The only result of the movement was to create a diversion amongst the inhabitants. Charlemagne's bones are still intact. During gymnastic exercises children must be naked. she considers. inevitable. "Fraulein Bertha Jordan. said a return must be made to the pure art of the ancient Greeks. mode of thought. * * * * * At the annual congress of Prussian female elementary school teachers held recently at Altona. the production of the celebrated Imperial Byzantine workshops. with a design of birds and hares. lies with schools and school education. several prominent Americans masquerading in the streets of Athens in tunic and peplum. by awakening faculties of observation in children and arousing their interest in nature which surrounds them. "Fraulein Lischnevska. The other piece is believed to be of Sicilian origin. indeed.

and wrapped it together. . and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." And again. and went back. small voice. and the horsemen thereof. and stood by the bank of Jordan. which came after the fire. _Preserved in the Imperial Treasury in Vienna. Elijah passed by him and _cast his mantle upon him_. the chariot of Israel. one of the first which will occur to the mind is that of Elijah. that. on the shores of Jordan. And afterwards. and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord. "Elijah took his mantle. and horses of fire. _The Knight's Tale_. "And it came to pass as they still went on._] III THE MANTLE Of the famous mantles recorded in history. My father." "He took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him. . and heard the still. and parted them both asunder. . CHAUCER. which came after the great strong wind which rent the mountains. And he saw him no more. and they were divided hither and thither." . . which came after the earthquake. there appeared a chariot of fire. my father. in which he hid his face when he stood in the cave at Horeb. and he cried. and talked." . and smote the waters. [Illustration: THE CORONATION MANTLE.III THE MANTLE The gret Emetreus the Kyng of Ynde Uppon a steede bay trapped in steel Covered with cloth and of gold dyapred wel Cam rydyng lyk the god of armes mars His coote armour was a cloth of Tars Cowched of perlys whyte round and grete His sadil was of brend gold newe bete A mantelet upon his schuldre hangyng Bret-ful of Rubies reed and fir sparclyng His crispe her lik rynges was i-ronne And that was yalwe and gliteryng as the sonne. and he took hold of his own clothes. behold. when he "found Elisha the son of Shaphat who was plowing with twelve yoke of oxen before him. and he with the twelfth. so that they two went over on dry ground. and rent them in two pieces." "And Elisha saw it.

dividing his mantle with the beggar at the gates of Amiens. the toga assumed the form of two semicircles--a larger and a smaller one. a mantle. and just where the young gentleman stood. is one of many similar stories in the earlier history of the Christian Church. . and embarked in her barge without saying a word. And they came to meet him. spots. possessing in themselves so much variety and interest. called chlamys. It is a variation of the story of St." St. and also in times of mourning. As she hesitated to pass on. The peplum was often diapered with sprigs. It will readily be understood that the natural foldings of drapery. The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. and blushed in her turn. In rainy or cold weather it was pulled over the head. as occasion demanded. and was more ample. the gallant. hastily passed on. stars. Martin. worn by both sexes. The legend recounts that Christ appeared to him the following night covered with the half of his mantle. in fact. and was occasionally very long. nodded her head. The Greeks also occasionally wore a shorter and simpler cloak. passing twice round the body. and a blush that overspread his whole countenance. a semicircle and the smaller segment of a circle. The Queen was confused."[7] The mantle is the cloak or outermost covering to the body. when thrown over a form so beautifully proportioned as is the human figure. a small quantity of mud interrupted the Queen's passage. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.. The peplum had no clasps or fastenings of any sort. and was occasionally richly bordered. but was kept in its place by its own involutions. or other patternings. who accompanied this act of devoted courtesy with a profound reverence. more correctly speaking. first underneath the arms and then over the shoulder. but differed from it in shape. and was originally worn either when the weather was unpropitious. such a short mantle is the one which we see upon the shoulders of the Apollo Belvidere. The peplum of the Greeks was. Christopher. and bowed themselves to the ground before him. Elizabeth looked at the young man. One end of the toga was then placed upon the left . . . which was doubled over the semicircle before adjustment. . What schoolboy but does not remember the story of Raleigh's mantle. or. in lieu of the more ample peplum. "And when the sons of the prophets which were to view at Jericho saw him. or.] The Roman toga corresponded to the Greek peplum. and this fact makes it all the more surprising that the natural foldings of drapery are not taken greater advantage of in modern dress. Bishop of Tours. of which the combinations were almost endless. or rather oblong. which he cast into the mire in order that Queen Elizabeth's feet might not be soiled? "The night had been rainy. for while the peplum was square. [Illustration: PLAN OF THE TOGA. and is intended as a lesson in charity. so as to ensure her stepping over it dryshod. they said. soldier of God. laid it on the miry spot. gave the utmost grace of line and form.

and flung again over the left shoulder. an archdruid is represented with a long mantle reaching to the ground. either thrown loosely over the shoulders as was the peplum. the simple square or oblong cloak which was derived from the Greek peplum--was worn in different ways from the Roman period onwards. twice three cubits wide. underneath the right arm. In a bas-relief found at Autun and engraved in Montfaucon." _The Tale of Beryn. I shall delyver unto hym the foure sones of Aymon. One of the gifts which the five maidens present to Beryn from Duke Isope is a purple mantle-"The thirde had a mantell of lusty fressh coloure The uttir part of purpell i-furred with peloure. I promyse hym that afore ten dayes ben paste. summons his secretary--"Come forth. the loose tunic and mantle. The design.shoulder in such a position that the end or point just touched the ground." [Illustration: THE TOGA. or fastened at the shoulder or breast by means of fibulæ. a sort of loop or bag was then drawn out at the waist in front and served as a pocket. thus satirises an upstart:-"Mark._ The mantle was a distinguishing feature of the costume of the Franks. which is divided in the middle by a representation of a palm tree. and write a letter from me to the Kinge Charlemagne. or three times the height of a man. Byzantine influences. the rest of the garment drawn round the back of the figure.e. in his fourth Epode. with the addition of hose or leg covering with cross gartering. the ends drawn through a ring upon the left shoulder. richly embroidered in gold thread. in fact. both tunic and mantle were often elaborately bordered in a style of ornament which strongly betrayed. figures on either side a lion springing upon a camel. and yf he wyll leve me my londe in peas. _From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. was a development of. Horace. is semicircular in shape. and he shall fynde theym in the playne of . after much sorrow. The large coronation mantle of the Holy Roman Empire. in the earlier time and for the common people. the outlines emphasised by rows of seed pearls. The mantle--that is. or cords. of red silk. and is treated with that noble convention characteristic of early Sicilian design. which was a variation of Roman or classic dress. syre Peter. Puffing thy toga. stating that the robe was worked in the Royal factory at Palermo in 1134. On the border of the curved edge is worked an Arabic inscription (common in earlier Sicilian fabrics). The toga measured 18 feet from tip to tip. _i. rings. as I shall telle you: It is that I sende hym salutacyon wyth goode love. as along the Sacred Way thou flauntest. King John of Gascogny having been counselled by his barons to yield up to Charlemagne the four sons of Aymon. preserved in the Imperial Treasury at Vienna. It was worn always over the tunic--at any rate during the later Roman time. coloured or bordered according to the rank or station of the wearer."_] The material of the toga was wool. afterwards silk and other materials were used._.

shows a mantle embroidered with a "powdering" of gold crescents. The ordinary mantles of this period were often provided with a "capa" or cowl." Charlemagne calls then his chamberlain--"Make a lettre to Kyng Yon of Gascoyne in my behalve. The two lower corners are plainly shown in the statue folded over each other. according to an early French writer quoted by Strutt. and there they shall be hanged. which was lined with black sables with white spots. During the reign of Henry III. Editha.Valcolours clothed with scarlette furred wyth ermynes.] In the effigies of the Plantagenet Kings." The effigy of Eleanor of Castile. The Queen has a more formal mantle. It was quadrangular in its form. however. underwent little change. or in front. William of Malmesbury mentions a mantle presented to Henry I. by means of fibulæ or pins of an ornamental character. by Robert Bloet. The mantle. the King is represented in a long dalmatic. during the Norman period. with a loose mantle thrown over his left arm. for to clothe wythall the traytoures. his Queen. In the earliest sculptured effigies of English Sovereigns which we possess. That of Cœur de Lion. a large sum in those days. introduced a shorter mantle (cloak of Anjou). Henry II. and ridynge upon mewles. Bishop of Lincoln. and that I sende hym four mauntelles of scarlette furred wyth ermynes. of a grey or blue colour.. berynge in theyr handes flowres and roses for a token. either upon one of the shoulders. exhibits a loose plain . the system of fastening of which is hidden by the two long plaits of hair which fall down on either side. those of Henry I. and therof I gyve hym for surete our lorde and saynte Denys of Fraunce. The effigy of this monarch. when they shall goo to the playne of Valcoloures. It was fastened. the mantles are generally of the long flowing character above described. and so doubled that when placed upon the shoulders it hung down as low as the feet before and behind. Wryte that I sende hym salutacyon and goode love. varied by rich borderings or embroiderings. bycause that men shall better knowe them. but on the sides it scarcely reached to the knees. I shall encrease his royame wyth fourtene goode castelles. from which circumstance he obtained the sobriquet of "Curt manteau. the mantle is a simple square with a border on the outer side. has a square-bordered mantle fastened at the breast by a fibula at the upper corners. however. [Illustration: STATUE OF QUEEN MATILDA AT ROCHESTER."[8] The Venetian mantle which Charlemagne wore was. yf God wyll. which was drawn over the head and frequently used in lieu of a hat. It is an instance of a very decorative effect being produced by simple means. and that yf he dooth for me as he sayth. and cost £100. in the Abbey of Fontevraud in Normandy. generally the right. in the same Abbey. In the Anglo-Saxon dress of the earlier period. resting upon either shoulder. costume generally increased in splendour. but which was probably some kind of ornamental strap. the two upper corners being gathered together at the shoulders and fastened with brooches connected by a chain. The coronation mantle of Edward the Confessor was richly embroidered by his Queen. and his Queen Matilda at the west door of Rochester Cathedral.

90 for an earl. they do not want a use: of these are made gloves. an English version of which is included in Mr. then it is squared. of blue woollen cloth. Argent. in the reign of Edward III. on the surcoat and hood of Henry VI. Germans. When at length winter returns._] The vestments of the most noble Order of the Garter. 1520-1598. If there remain any morsels of the cloth or skin which is cut. the collar is cut off.. after a little space this is transformed into the other: Thus ye change bodies. founded. the mantle having one larger than the rest on the left shoulder." They were changed again to white in the first year of Henry V. another change to scarlet in the reign of Henry VI. The cloth. Addressing the tailors. why should I omit the service which should be said on festival days? Gods certainly ye are. The vestments of this Order have been constantly altered during different periods. the skin and the cloth being both new. it is laid up in a box. the knights differing only from the monarchs in respect of the tunic being lined with miniver instead of ermine. All three garments were closely diapered or powdered with garters of gold. French." published by the Camden Society. English. as every student of history knows. after being squared it is rounded. they all make one robe out of another.[9] consisted originally of a mantle. Wright's "Political Songs. with scarcely an exception. cut to the fashion of the period. with the cross of St. it commences:-"I have said ye are gods. the folds of the mantle hanging in a series of regular festoons over the front of the figure. is made either a cape or mantle. enclosing a shield. George.. is a satirical Latin "Song upon the Tailors" of this reign (Henry III._ _Photo by Emery Walker." [Illustration: LORD BURLEIGH. the fur begins to be worn off. When it becomes old. This is the general manner." in the eleventh year white. The King's was unlimited. lined with white damask or satin. while fresh and new. and the thread of the seams broken.mantle. The number of embroidered garters on the coat and chaperon were in this reign limited to 120 for a duke. there were 173. decreasing in the same ratio to 60 in the case of a knight bachelor.). in order that nothing may be lost. fastened by a fibula on the right shoulder. but. and Normans. In the Harleian MSS. when deprived of the collar it is made a mantle: Thus in the manner of Proteus are garments changed.. 110 for a marquis. . In the seventh year of Richard II. many engraft immediately upon the cape a capuce. and capuchon. it is given to the servant for his wages. The material of the mantle was changed to velvet during this reign. first it is a cape. when. and in the twelfth and nineteenth of "long blue cloth. the fur is clipped and placed on a new mantle. and so it becomes an amice. and afterwards back again to white. a tunic. Thus _cape_ is declined. until at last. the surcoat or tunic was of "violet in grain. Gules. who can transform an old garment into the shape of a new one. _National Portrait Gallery. but _mantel_ otherwise: in the first year while it is fresh. however. in order of time.

As at present worn. viz. upon their fingers. and called the _humerale_. suspended upon the breast by either a gold chain or riband. and Scotland. so familiar in Holbein's portraits. Their breasts were adorned with fibulæ. such as emeralds. though it would excite his astonishment. the mantle is of purple velvet lined with taffetas. Matthew Paris. sometimes they appeared in green. which latter was _black_. The surcoat.. ostrich or heron plumes appear in the cap. or the wills of the ladies to whom they had dedicated their amorous vows. and their shoulders with precious stones of great magnitude. sapphires. that of the _collar_. is made of the same velvet as the surcoat. The lesser _George_. sister of Henry III. or short gown without sleeves. still worn hung or depending upon the shoulder. Both hat and surcoat were of crimson velvet. varying the colours according to their fancies. During the reign of Charles II. In the reign of Elizabeth. kirtle. but no other alteration of the habit was made. like the mantle. is made of crimson velvet. George and enriched with the garter and motto. was introduced during this reign. multitudes of the nobility of England. or jewel of the Order. and lined with the same material. The flat velvet hat or cap. The Statutes of the Order were reformed by Henry VIII. sometimes in blue. bearing on the left shoulder the badge of the Order. The Barons and the Knights were habited in robes of divers colours. and their wimples . curiously wrought in embroidery. the whole of them pompously adorned with garments of silk. lined. pearls. and other rich ornaments.In the reign of Henry VII. with crowds of Knights and military Officers. who also altered the dress to the fashion of the period. their heads were adorned with elegant crests or garlands. and so transformed with excess of Ornaments that it would be impossible to describe their dresses without being tiresome to the reader. The hood. worn on the right shoulder of the mantle. a silver escutcheon charged with the red cross of St. and afterwards in scarlet. Upwards of one thousand Knights on the part of the King of England attended the nuptials in vestments of silk. and these vestments on the morrow were laid aside.. In chapters it is worn over the uniform or Court dress. The whole habit sent to the King of Castile in the twenty-seventh year of this reign consisted of mantle. an important addition was made to the insignia of this Order. The nobles of Scotland and of France did not fall a whit below those of England in their show and parade. hood and _collar_. rubies. says:-"There were great abundance of people of all ranks. superseded the chaperon or hood. and the broad blue riband was worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.. however. The ladies who attended had rings of gold. with white taffetas silk. and was of purple velvet lined with silk or sarcenet. being more in keeping with the fashion of the time. jacinths. or brooches of gold. the flat hat gives place to one with a higher crown. then again in grey. the embroidered garters entirely disappearing. and the same Knights appeared in new robes of still more magnificent decoration. describing the solemnisation of the marriage of Alexander III. of Scotland with the Princess Margaret. which was. France. set with topaz stones and diamonds.

and were slain upon the edge of the sword._ x_s. _Engraved by J. and Siward. which King Malcolm of Scotland and his sister Margaret gave to the Conqueror in 1074. A farewell letter of Bishop Ridley (Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"). The mantle is buttoned upon . embroidered with pure gold. mention is made of _heukes_ of scarlet cloth and camlet. and embellished with the rarest jewellery. describing the sufferings of Christ's true soldiers._ 1185. In Michel's "Chroniques Anglo-Normandes. The modern word _pelisse_ used to describe a child's coat is derived from the same source.were composed of the richest stuffs. a young man is wearing a short cloak or mantle. bestes. some wandered to and fro in sheep's pilches. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions the great gifts and many treasures of skins decked with purple. and _pilches_ of grey fur. in goats' pilches.[10] "After grete hete comith colde.. and ermine skin. taken in 1423 at his decease." The cost of these furs is also given--"iii pares de foyns. which continued at intervals and under various forms until the universal adoption of coats at the close of the reign of Charles II." CHAUCER. pelisses of marten skin. _By Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. During the general change which came about in costume in the reign of Richard II. forsaken." [Illustration: LODOWICK. Barrà. "gounes de noier damask. DUKE OF RICHMOND AND LENNOX. oppressed. In the tempera painting of the miracle of St. fell. and worn by all classes._ xii_li." _c." [Illustration: PORTION OF THE PICTURE OF THE MIRACLE OF ST. hanging in very formal folds from the shoulder and reaching a little below the middle. is described a meeting on a little bridge near Westminster between Tosti. Perugia. Bernard by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo in the Pinacoteca at Perugia. Pinacoteca. The word _pilche_ is a corruption of the Latin _pelliceus_. chascun cont' c._] In an inventory of the wardrobe and jewels of Henry V._. pris le pec' x_d. Earl of Huntingdon. Earl of Northumberland._] In the inventory above referred to are mentioned. weasel skin." This evidently referring to a long mantle or cloak. says:-"They were stoned. BERNARD. The pylce was in common use during the Anglo-Saxon period. furrez de sides de foynes et marterons. No man cast his pilche away. or the Saxon _pylce_. tempted. The foyne appears to have been the same as the polecat or fitchet. afflicted. "The said Earl approached so near to Siward on the bridge that he dirtied his pelisse (_pelles_) with his miry feet. and represented a coat of fur worn during cold weather. a shorter mantle or cloak began to be worn." the marteron being more costly. hewn asunder. for it was then customary for noblemen to use skins without cloth.

thus repeating the principle of the Roman toga. Two other figures in the picture above mentioned are habited in long cloaks reaching to the feet. (long cloakes being now . 1660. On October 7th (Lord's Day) of the same year. which appears to be a favourite enrichment with Benozzo. In the portrait of Prince Henry. calling at my father's to change my long black cloake for a short one. The dress is confined by a rich girdle. and a silk suit. in the Convent of San Marco at Florence. eldest son of James I. or cape cloak. however. _The Devil is an Ass_. It has a collar. It was customary to wrap it around the left arm to serve as a shield in duels. with gold buttons. and I pray God to make me able to pay for it. was provided with a collar.the right shoulder. which cost me much money. came into fashion. "Here is a cloke cost fifty pound. it was that the right arm is the sword-arm. but. Which I can sell for thirty when I have seen All London in't. 1660. These long robes with ample sleeves constantly occur in Benozzo Gozzoli's frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa. the Prince is figured as wearing a long mantle reaching to the knees. and had plain but very good cloaths on his back" (Bunyan. The Puritan cloak did not differ materially in shape from that worn by the Cavaliers. often extremely rich. the cloak of the dark figure lined and bordered with miniver. in the British Museum. A similar short cloak is figured in a copy of Froissart's Chronicles in the Harleian MSS. and generally lined and bordered with miniver. This. and is lined with silk damask. continued to be worn. a richly jewelled border. and was lined with silk or satin of a different colour to the outside." BEN JONSON. to pass through." About this time a shorter cloak. "Life of Mr. 1659-69. like the rest of Puritan dress. either flowing loosely or confined by a girdle. having openings for the sleeves of the under garment. reaching to a little below the waist. 103). The Spanish cloak was thrown loosely over the shoulders somewhat after the manner of the toga. There are a number of references to dress in Pepys's "Diary. and the other of a different fur. which is the last garment that a man would fight in. Under date July 1. with full sleeves. wife. It reached scarcely below the waistbelt. which are of a different material. In a small but extremely elaborate and beautiful picture by Fra Angelico. does not apply to the toga. was entirely bare of ornament:-"He was tall and fair. During the reign of Elizabeth the short cloak. he writes: "This morning came home my fine camlett cloak. which leaves the right arm free. which was often deep. a figure appears habited in one of these long robes. There was a reason for the mantle being fastened upon the right shoulder. These garments are worn usually by more elderly persons." which covers a period of ten years. occurs the entry: "To Whitehall on foot. and London has seen me. Badman"). (p.

a fop. when long cloaks were worn. and pride and conceit._ 1768:-"A coxcomb. On the 29th of the following month (the Queen had recovered and was about again) he dons his best black cloth suit. that it is difficult to see how it could possibly provide material for satire. beauty of material. and this fashion continued for nearly a century.] Under date October 22. excellence of workmanship. The Queen was ill of the spotted fever. the long skirted coats of the men. It is. together with muffs. finicking. Muffs were at this period worn as commonly by men as by women. rendered any outer clothing unnecessary. _Kneller. so entirely reasonable a garment both for men and women. which altogether is very noble. upon hearing that she had grown worse. Looks just like a doll for a milliner's shop. ELDEST SON OF JAMES I. A minnikin. but he being gone to church. I could not get one.quite out). very neat. in fact. except for the coldest weather. A thing full of prate. French powder-puff!" [Illustration: EARL OF ROCHESTER. occurs an entry which refers to the _material_ of the cloak. trimmed with scarlet ribbon. referred to the lining of the cloak. or other interest in a particular part of his work and allows nothing to detract from it. 1663. certainly plain if worn loosely. he sends to his tailor to stop the making of his velvet cloak (presumably coloured) "till I see whether she lives or dies. _c. . it should be of a good character. this defeats its own purpose. therefore. as a painter focusses light." [Illustration: PRINCE HENRY. there are three conditions necessary to beautiful dress. although in the rich brocades of the fine periods the foldings of the material give an added richness and variety to the patterning. except for occasions of high ceremony. no weight. 1641-1711. and. and employed rather in accordance with those well understood laws of contrast than an indiscriminate covering of the whole field. The mantle. and his "cloak lined with velvet. If ornament be introduced. plain spaces are best adapted for ornamentation. however. National Portrait Gallery." by Isaac Bickerstaff. As a general rule. essenc'd and dizen'd from bottom to top. Who. The beau with his muff is thus satirised in the comic opera "Lionel and Clarissa._] The mantle does not appear to have particularly excited the wrath of the satirists. which was often richer than the outside. is usually bare of ornament or simply bordered. colour. Broadly speaking. by the beaux. and variety of fold. All fashion. namely. and carries a muff. as richness of effect depends upon concentration. indeed." The velvet. Who shrugs and takes snuff. with waistcoats reaching to the knees. a dainty milk-sop." In the reign of William III. and a new beaver._ _Photo by Walker & Cockerell.

as serving two purposes. as absolute. _French Revolution_. fights a duel in consequence. 'four tall lackeys." [8] "The Four Sons of Aymon.] FOOTNOTES: [7] Scott's "Kenilworth. as in any other of the ornamental arts. He has breeches of a kind new in this world. IV THE DOUBLET AND HOSE "Monsieur. first as a decorative enrichment to the limb. 'hold him in the air. Monseigneur d'Artois pulls the mask from a fair impertinent. but even contemplated the revival of the Round Table. [Illustration: ITALIAN CASSONE (FIFTEENTH CENTURY). Chap. [10] Pilch or pilcher. alluded to in the above quotation. is commonly suggestive of the modern spirit in dress. [Illustration: DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. the decorative conditions of dress are as well defined. have to deliver him at night. and with more effort. _South Kensington Museum. the fact that the limb is clothed.and many foldings ensue.'"--CARLYLE. Book II.--a fabulous kind. and any richness of ornament is confined to the more closely fitting portions of the dress. and so reducing the wrinkles and folds to a minimum. and leans towards the Philosophe side. There are.--almost drawing blood.." which are made of some material possessing elasticity. such things as "fleshings._] IV THE DOUBLET AND HOSE The absence of wrinkle or fold.' says Mercier. the King's elder brother. but if there is one thing more . The first thing an artist does in painting a figure in hose is to indicate the little wrinkles or folds at the knee and ankle. however. that he may fall into the garment without vestige of wrinkle. a _covering_ for the sword. and secondly as indicating. I. together with the colour of the material. has set up for a kind of wit. [9] This chivalrous monarch not only founded the Order of the Garter. a scabbard. as if he had seen it. from which rigorous encasement the same four. In a word." Caxton's version. in the same way. This.

the jagged edgings of the sleeves. [Illustration: FIGURE FROM THE MIRACLE OF ST. An illustration is given. when dress generally assumed a more formal character. which were divided at the elbow and shoulder. the rest of the costume." HARDING'S _Chronicle_. as well as other ornamental devices. that is. In the reign of Edward IV. being buttoned all the way up the legs and arms." The "cut work" above alluded to was extremely fantastic." of Paris on Mount Ida. Bothe in men's hoodes and also in their gownes. which often extended the whole length of the . in which he is figured as wearing a closely fitting garment which covers the whole body and limbs. either by edgings of fur or by embroidery. doublets. the more or less tightly fitting nether garments. it is its _folds_--their constant and endless change varying with every movement. in strange and fantastic shapes. or pourpoints. Pinacoteca. is referred to under the "shoe. Broudur[11] and furre and goldsmith's worke all newe In many a wyse each day they did renewe. have been worn from a very early period. and other nations. were provided with closely fitting sleeves. The tight sleeves of the reigns of the three Edwards had given place to a sleeve of more ample proportions. indeed. allowing the shirt or under-garment to appear as puffing. BERNARD. for whatever was stolen could be popped into them. The cross-gartering. worn by the Amazonian women. In the reign of Richard II. and laced underneath up the whole length of the arm. hosen. Long before this. the short jackets. which lasted for a long period. from Hope's "Costume of the Ancients._] Another development of the sleeve. the sleeves had developed in various ways. being worn over this dress. the rest of the sleeve hanging down. a short tunic. worn by the Goths. _By Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. to eliminate as far as possible the foldings of drapery with their infinite variety and almost endless play of light and shade. Perugia. Hose." of which it usually formed a part. Anglo-Saxons. The ideal of modern tailoring appears to be something which shall have as near as possible the appearance of a deal board. stockings. This was ornamented in a variety of ways. however. or bandages was invariably worn underneath the gartering. was the addition of an outer sleeve with a slit in the middle to allow of the arm with its tight sleeve being passed through. be they breche. Some kind of hose. A similar tightly fitting dress was. or what not. With the doublet and hose we deal with a comparatively recent period. The monk of Evesham speaks of "pokys" shaped like a bagpipe: "The devil's receptacles. in fact. tied with ribbons at these points. taking the shape of the serrations of leaves.than another which is characteristic of clothing or drapery. and the loose tunic gave place to the more closely fitting doublet.-"Cut worke was great both in Court and townes. also buttoned up the front. and. Franks.

in which another or third colour was introduced. horizontally." At the beginning of the sixteenth century a new development appears." which were puffed. this was the precursor of the _breeches_. "The red side of a gentleman. [Illustration: PARIS ON MOUNT IDA. The parti-coloured hose of the Plantagenet period and later called forth many strictures from the satirists and moralists. or tunic and trouser in one. slashed. dark and light alternately. The legs were either plain. . and presented little variation except in the matter of colour and material. and embroidered in various ways."_] From the Norman period onwards. in fact. or the parti-colouring would assume various forms. The puffing was also of a different material." which may be regarded as ornament _in relief_. there's reason there should be some difference in my legs. on account of the apparent difficulty of putting it on. 116). or hose being of a different hue to the upper. _From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. upon the principle of what is known in ornament as counterchange. Variety of colour was arrived at either by the under-garment. or calf. "Indeed. or grey. chiefly clerical. red.leg. or one leg was striped in various ways. the leg was regarded as a field for the dress designer to exercise his ingenuity in the matter of contrast. which by the end of the century had developed to such enormous proportions. or both. black and red. upper stocks. they declared.] This parti-colouring presented many variations. The short trouser of the Normans. the metal plates or pieces of leather which serve as armour are added to the front of the dress only. The garment was either slashed downwards. of various colours. or a variation of one colour. one of the characters exclaims. The cross-gartering in this instance would probably not reach above the knees. In the illustration given of a similar dress (p. is a garment which has puzzled many writers. while the upper or slashing was of cloth or velvet. It appears to have been put on from below upwards. as a zig-zag on the thigh. and afterwards putting the arms in the sleeves. or by a system of puffing. presented as many variations as did the flat ornament of the earlier period on the plain surface of the leg. Numerous examples of the "slashed" period will be found in the drawings by Holbein and Durer. either of silk or other light material. or that he and his dress were afflicted by _St. for one cost me twenty pounds more than the other. also at this period called hose. Anthony's fire_!"[12] [Illustration: ANGLO-SAXON RETAINER. gave them the idea of his having been half roasted. of which so many examples occur in the Bayeux tapestry. The "slashings. which began as an upper garment reaching only to the knees. stocking. This cross-gartering probably originated with the practice among the peasants of enswathing the legs with hay-bands. with short sleeves attached. black and yellow. In Field's play of "A Woman is a Weathercock. or diagonally. by being drawn on the thighs. or trunk-hose. of the time. and occasionally slashed to such an extent that it appeared merely as a system of ribbons. as the case may be. yellow." 1612. and "trawses. and the engravings by Hans Burgkmair. tight hose continued to be worn.

] The trunk-hose are. together with the sleeves. and it seems. which hang loose from the shoulder to the elbow. indeed. The Venetian hosen reach beneath the knee to the gartering-place of the leg._. stockings of silk. however. or body garment. the Gallic. it is . forty pounds. so that it is a small matter to bestow twenty nobles. in the reign of Edward VI." CHAUCER. upon one pair of breeches. In two female portraits. a little curious that at present. or _vice versâ_. with _canions_ adjoined. no doubt. the sleeve being slashed on the same principle. the slashings on the body usually appearing diagonally on either side. and other precious stuffs besides. being not past a quarter of a yard on the side. the common sort contain length. whereof some be paned or striped. 1575. and laid on also with rows or gardes. satin. However this may be. and they are made very round. twenty pounds. reaching down to the knees only. _i. considered as a gift worthy of a king's acceptance. yea.. cut and drawn out with costly ornaments. This article of costume was. and sideness sufficient. "The Gallic hosen are made very large and wide. were also cut and slashed on the same principle as the lower garment. ornate._ Elizabeth and James I. velvet. according to Stubbes ("Anatomy of Abuse"). reaching down beneath the knees." and in which the middle of the body appears inflated like a balloon. Their gipcieres are well in evidence in each instance. And yet notwithstanding. breadth. when all sorts of devices are employed for the purpose of producing variety. nor sideness proportionable.It was an exceedingly rich. as the other before. an hundred pounds.e. except they be made of silk. it would be impossible to carry the principle farther. which stream loosely from the shoulder. the "bombasting" of the breeches being carried to its utmost limit. the most extreme development of the slash. The greatest richness of slashing always appears in the sleeve. however. were unknown in England prior to the middle of the sixteenth century.. It represents. and fantastic period. and yet this is thought no abuse neither. the slashings appear perpendicularly underneath the breast. and the Venetian hosen. the other sort contain neither length." the outer sleeve is simply cut to ribbons. by Holbein at Basle. the _jerkin_. ten pounds. a common form being to slash the sleeve in ribbons. 1575. In the instances of several of the foot soldiers in Hans Burgkmair's "Triumphs of Maximilian. where they are tied finely with silken points. We now arrive at the period of the enormous trunk-hose. breadth. with three or four gardes apiece laid down along the thigh of either hose. all this is not sufficient. silk stockings were. _temp. of three kinds--the French. that some fashion of this sort has not been adopted for women. of which an example of their highest development appears in the illustration of "Knightly Pastimes--Hawking." It has been stated by various writers that silk hose. [Illustration: KNIGHTLY PASTIMES: HAWKING. but was afterwards generally used as a pocket or pouch-"An anlas and a gipser al of silke Heng at his gerdul white as morne mylke. originally a game bag. damask. The French hose "are of two divers making.

wool. one pair of hose. falls upon my embossed girdle--I had thrown off the hangers a little before. the brims of which were thick embroidered with gold twist and spangles. it being Spanish leather." . which cost three pounds at the Exchange. says: "Let me see. one pair of hose of white silk and gold knit. caught his trunk-hose in a nail. "Every Man out of his Humour. taken after his decease.--some ten or eleven pounds will do it all. and lined with blue silver sarsenet. and let out the bran. appears: "One pair of short hose. the Queen's silk-woman. making a reverse blow. I had an Italian cut-work band. National Portrait Gallery. and rends me two pairs of stockings. 121) presented this monarch with a pair of long Spanish silk hose. cuts off two panes of embroidered pearls." The "bombasting" of the trunk-hose (the word is usually applied to the doublet. and skips the flesh. hat. and even bran. reckoning up the price of Fastidio's dress. woven like unto a cawl. that I had put on being a raw morning--a peach-colour and another. taken from these extensive receptacles. six pair of black silk hose knit. and apparently rather excited conversation with several ladies. of massie goldsmith's work. which I wore about a murrey French hat. one of the rowels catched hold of the ruffle of my boot. enters the lining." We learn from Stow that Mistress Montague. tow. which pleased her so well. but may be applied equally well to the trunk-hose) was effected by means of a stuffing of rags.recorded that Sir Thomas Gresham (whose portrait appears on p. strikes off a skirt of a thick satin doublet I had. [Illustration: PHILIP II. wrought at Milan. the hose collapsing suddenly.. _National Portrait Gallery._ _Photo by Emery Walker. of black silk and gold woven together. to the consternation of their wearer and the corresponding amusement of the ladies. OF SPAIN.. ornamented with pearls." The name trunk-hose would seem a peculiarly appropriate one! The story is probably apocryphal (although quite plausible) of the young man who.. and band. Fungoso. Holinshed relates a story of a man "who is said to have exhibited the whole of his bed and table furniture. of purple silk and Venice gold. presented Elizabeth with "a pair of black knit silk stockings. the doublet--say fifty shillings the doublet--and between three and four pounds the hose._] In the inventory of the wardrobe of Henry VIII. then new come up. 1519-1579. and not having leisure to put off my silver spurs. overthrows me. He._] Ben Jonson. edged with a passemain of purple silk and of gold. engaged in animated. bought of Christopher Millener. rends through the drawings out of tissue." In the same play. _Sir Antonio More.. lined with four taffataes. hair._ _Photo by Emery Walker. that she would never wear any cloth hose afterwards. [Illustration: SIR THOMAS GRESHAM.--then the boots. and subject to tear. 1527-1598." thus recounts a misfortune which happened to Fastidio in a duel: "I had on a gold cable hatband.

Charles was a man of cultivated taste. Prince of Wales. with large loose sleeves. and hung down for some distance. 1661. rather time than matter would be wanting. or six pounde of bombast at the least. On September 13. and the costume of this period is strikingly picturesque. With the reign of the "martyr King" Charles. with the doublet still pointed at the waist. gold. 1612. taffata. exhibit him in long. The earliest engraved portraits. or velvet. [Illustration: ILLUSTRISSIMI GENEROSISSIMIQUE PRI. fringed or pointed. This shape was emphasised. Punch. slashed up the front. and a Spanish rapier. silk. as I have said. the Duke of Gloucester died of the small-pox "by the great negligence of the doctors. and stuffed with four or five. of all which. We must again turn to our old "anatomist" Stubbes: "Certain I am there was never any kind of apparel invented that could more disproportion the body of a man than their doublets with great bellies do. HENRY. Mr. The hose consists of a series of richly embroidered straps discovering the silk or velvet trunk in the narrow intervals between. grograine. he undoubtedly influenced the costume of his time. some of satin. The more familiar costume of this monarch is. I say nothing of what their doublets be made. hung from a magnificent baldrick or sword-belt. who describes with great unction the various changes and details of his costume. by Francis Delaram and William Hole. that which is seen in the various portraits by Vandyke. The costume of the Cavaliers is well described in a little book on British costume published in the "Library of Entertaining Knowledge" in 1834: "It consisted of a doublet of silk. however. HENRICI MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ ET HYBERNIÆ PRINCIPIS. with a rich hatband and plume of feathers. the occasion of the King's going from the Tower to ." He was buried on the 21st at Westminster.By the year 1583 the trunks are rifled of their contents in order to provide stuffing for the doublet. met the tops of the wide boots. carved. and handsome to boot. with that peculiar edging now called Vandyke. It will be noticed in the cut of knightly pastimes that the girdle meets at a point in front. satin." We now arrive at the period of the dandiacal Pepys. chamlet. which were also ruffled with lace or lawn. The long breeches." On April 23. cut. jagged. slashed. 1660. Vera Effigies. was set on one side of the head. both peas-cod bellied doublets and trunk-hose disappear. the doublet protruded in front. a short cloak was worn carelessly on one shoulder. and on the 22nd our chronicler "purchased a pair of short black stockings to wear over a pair of silk ones for mourning. hanging down beneath the groin. silver. PRINCE OF WALES. and the peas-cod bellied doublet was developed. and what not._] An excellent example of the trunk-hose of the latter part of the reign of James I. loose breeches reaching to the knees. and laced with all kinds of costly lace of divers and sundry colours. if I could stand upon particularly. pinched. worn sashwise over the right shoulder. covered by a falling band of the richest point lace. the collar. as we have already mentioned." The peas-cod bellied doublet is still perpetuated in the person of our esteemed contemporary. _Engraved by Simon Passe. A broad-leafed Flemish beaver hat. appears in the engraved portrait of Henry.

" where he saw the King." The costume of the masses during the Commonwealth and Restoration. Then. And my grandfather's dugen and dagger. which it was said was out of fashion. which hung drooping below the knee. made himself as fine as he could. is figured in Heath's Chronicle." _c. and the shirt hanging out over them. which is an extremely picturesque and even reasonable costume. that the gentleman possesses a sufficiency of frill! [Illustration: AN EXQUISITE.Whitehall. 1662. and became the vogue at the Court of Charles II. was the well-known knee breeches and stockings. waistcoat. And a vlanting pair of garters. _From Jacquemin. and put on his velvet coat._] Petticoat breeches had disappeared by the end of the reign of Charles II. and half their breadth upon the thigh._--This day I put on my half cloth black stockings. In a poem called "Wit Restored." The long laced coats. and my new coate of the fashion. and we have now to deal with another distinct change in the national costume. is described the holiday dress of a countryman when courting:-"And first chill put on my Zunday parell That's lac't about the Quarters. "though made half a year ago. And a peacock's veather in my capp. Randal Holme. and in which Charles II. however. had already come into vogue. It must be confessed. In an inventory of apparel of Charles II. how I shall swagger!" About the year 1658 petticoat breeches crossed the silver streak from Versailles." The petticoat breeches were not ridiculous in themselves--the modern Scotch kilt. which pleases me well.. as we were all invited. and consisting of _coat_. which made the costume a banality. familiar during the latter part of the reign of the "Merry Monarch" and the succeeding reign. With a sword tide vast to my side. it was the absurd lace ruffles. the breeches are ornamented with ribands up to the pocket. 1662. and "walked in the parke. On May 11. is made upon precisely the same principle. but without the ruffles or frills at the knees. and with my beaver I was (after office was done) ready to go to my Lord Mayor's feast. "now out of mourning in a suit laced with gold and silver. William III. which were worn with the petticoats during the earlier period. the lining being lower than the breeches and tied above the knees. is figured in 1694 in a long laced coat with enormous sleeve cuffs. with doublet or jerkin. the nether . the waistcoat almost as long as the coat. writing in 1659. with large flaps and pockets also richly laced. he rose with the lark. Pepys repaired in the afternoon to Whitehall. The figure of the exquisite of 1670 from Jacquemin wears the petticoat breeches. With a pair of buckram slopps. and breeches." "_September 29th. in 1679 appears a suit of clothes of one material. the waistband is set about with ribands. describes the dress as follows:--"A short-waisted doublet and petticoat breeches. the first day that he put it on. 1661. oh._ 1658.

Well. but the modern coat is. indeed._] The fop of the day is thus ridiculed by Diana in the play of "Lionel and Clarissa. GRAND PRIEUR DE FRANCE. fundamentally. do you think. Lionel should be a parson. and the fall of his shoulders. with variations. Lord! they'll quite spoil his shape. the large Kevenhuller hat has given place to one of much more moderate proportions. Lionel's a clergyman. I'll clap a hat on. Madam." V THE KIRTLE . While his foretop's so high. the hat cocked according to the fancy of the wearer. and made to stand out stiffly by being lined with buckram. existed up to the present time. his hat. the rows of buttons down the front. which now serve no purpose other than an ornamental one. The gold lacings. if I was a lady of large fortune. _From an old print in the British Museum. And call myself a man. Then his waist so long and taper 'Tis an absolute thread-paper: Maids. This coat. Six yards of ribbon bind His hair en baton behind. club my hair.garments being knee breeches and stockings with buckled shoes. I'll be hanged if Mr. resist him. The two buttons at the back. the huge cuffs. That in the crown he may vie With the tufted cockatoo." FOOTNOTES: [11] Embroidery. when Mr. has. Odd's life." by Isaac Bickerstaff. [12] Fairholt. you that can. if I could help it. Towards the middle of the eighteenth century the coat fits tightly to the body. for it is the sweetest colour! and your great pudding-sleeves. indeed. and constitute the last remains of the coat's former glories. the same as its earliest prototype. once buttoned up the flaps." The short hair and large bishop's sleeves of the clergy are satirised in the same play:-"Lauk! Madam. "Costume in England. [Illustration: PHILIPPE DE VENDÔME. pray admire a figure. he'll be obliged to cut off his hair? I'm sure it will be a thousand pities. if this is all th' affair. in size no bigger Than a Chinese woman's shoe. 1768:-"Ladies. First. the skirts being long and ample. have vanished. Fait selon le dernier gout.

as thou hast done in a woman's petticoat? "_Feeble. and brunette. sir. either had an extraordinary attachment at the wrist in the form of a bag or pouch. The first item of the habit of the Order of the Garter is successively described as tunic. minivers. John de Meun relates the story of Pygmalion. which . more or less formal._ A woman's tailor. Master Shallow. cendal. sir? "_Falstaff. courageous Feeble! Thou wilt be as valiant as the wrathful dove." written at the close of the thirteenth century. Then. mallebruns. mallequins._ What trade art thou. diaper. with long draperies. therefore. or most magnanimous mouse--Prick the woman's tailor well. "_Shallow. ornamented with the richest skins of ermines._ Shall I prick him." V THE KIRTLE OR PETTICOAT The kirtle or petticoat is in reality a development of the tunic._ You may. Master Shallow. she resembled a little angel. although close fitting along the whole length of the arm. satins. the principal change being in the remarkable development of the sleeves. of the finest silk and woollen cloths. The names of the different portions of dress have at different periods varied almost indefinitely. other robes were tried upon her. however._ I will do my good will. It is the tunic which has become a closely fitting bodice. but if he had been a man's tailor he would have pricked you--Wilt thou make as many holes in an enemy's battle. made with great skill. representing him as adorning the statue he had created with a succession of the garments of the fashion of the period of the poem. takes up the story of costume from the time when the loose tunic gave place to a more formal attire--broadly speaking. with the purpose of discovering which became her best:--"He clothed her in many guises.OR PETTICOAT "_Falstaff._ Well said. from the Norman Conquest. her countenance was so modest. green. During the eleventh century. he put a wimple upon her head. given in the introductory chat of this work. again. you can have no more. Thus decorated. which. Feeble? "_Feeble. and all of divers colours. and over that a coverchief. The kirtle. good woman's tailor! well said. and greys: these being taken off. deep. and camelot. This fashion is satirised in the figure of the devil from the Cotton MSS. woman's dress was still the loose tunic. in robes. and _kirtle_.. sir. coat. azure. In the "Romaunt of the Rose. attached. surcoat. "_Falstaff. of silk. or were abnormally extended and widened at the wrist and tied in knots to avoid treading on them.

[Illustration: THE CLOSE FITTING JACKET. the sleeves furred at the elbows. part sleeve and part cloak. Queen of Henry IV. or small purse. in contrast to the rich ornaments of the upper surface. with richly embroidered petticoat. ample and flowing. but which fashion obtained to some extent elsewhere. disclosing a pink bodice also richly embroidered. open at the neck. the sleeves either tight or provided with an upper sleeve with long tippets or streamers from the elbow. of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The era of petticoat inflation began about this time. was worn. ornamented with gold embroidery. The waist is still high and narrow.concealed the wimple. Later a kind of "spencer"[13] jacket. with great precision. EDWARD III. She wears a black dress with stiffened collar behind. which lasted for a considerable time--to the time of Charles I. a crestine. faced and bordered with miniver or other fur. enriched with precious stones of various sizes. The illustration which forms the heading of Chat IV. and to it was attached an aulmoniere. with threads of silk and gold adorned with little pearls. These "spencer"-like jackets lasted for a considerable period. the gown long. All these garments were then laid aside for gowns. with the girdle over the hips. a good deal of the grace of these things is due. An interesting portrait of Queen Mary (Red Mary) by Lucas de Heere. Her girdle was exceedingly rich.. either by woven patterns or embroidery. of great value. The waist suddenly drops. in fact. to the fine convention adopted in the work of this period. the stomacher appears. in the possession of Sir William Quilter.. a crown or circle of gold. it was such a remarkable development that the consideration of it is reserved for a separate chat. and blue. and her necklace was confined to her neck by two clasps of gold. upon which was placed. At the commencement of the Tudor period the costume of the ladies is still that of the period of high head-dresses of the middle of the century. together with the bell-shaped open gown. however. was recently shown at the exhibition at the Guildhall of the works of Flemish painters." "Makbeth" is . will serve to give some idea of this dress. or marriage chests. An example appears in the effigy of Joan of Navarre. but hid not her face. furnish us with many examples of graceful dresses of a character peculiar to that period and nation. or waistcoat. the richest ornaments being reserved for the petticoat. In Holinshed's Chronicle.] The Italian _cassone_. often edged with fur. A similar jacket again appears in the reign of Henry VI. A feature of this dress is the long wide sleeves streaming from the shoulders. red. and with fur collar and cuffs. and over the crestine. By the end of the reign of Henry VIII. Her little ears were decorated with two beautiful pendants of gold. Both cut gown and inner petticoat were ornamented. green. yellow. appears an amusing cut of "Makbeth and Banquho" met by "the iij weird Sisters or Feiries. costume had undergone a marked change. the turnovers or "collars" of the skirts being plain. 1577. however." In the reign of Edward III. and her hair was handsomely disposed in small braids. the close-fitting bodice appears. TEMP.

whom I found Attended by an endless troop of taylors. They first of all tucked up their garments to the elbow. mantles. each sleeve tied with aglets of gold." They affected a mean between dress and nakedness. Scarfs. one pair of crimson satin sleeves. Mercers. I told your wants. "Amongst the inventories of this reign we find: three pair of purple satin sleeves for women. muffs. with panniers. writing in the _Spectator_. one pair of sleeves of purple gold tissue damask wire. petticoats. with a remarkable peaked turban with streamer on her head. It was to a certain extent a return to the simplicity of Nature! "If. Embroider'd waste coats. And through the room new fashions flew like flies. we see them clothed down to the very wrists. and. monkies. Which still with art she piec'd again. quilted with black silk. fumers. Pride waiting on her. "we survey the pictures of our great-grandmothers in Queen Elizabeth's time. It is thus satirised by Beaumont and Fletcher in "Four Plays in One. and injuries of the weather. and wrought with flowers between the panes and at the hands. smocks seamed through with cut-work. seven yards of purple cloth-of-gold damask is apportioned for a kirtle for Catherine of Arragon. one pair of linen sleeves._] The dress of the Tudor period was magnificent beyond description." This extravagance was more than continued during the reign of Elizabeth. and in every button nine pearls. And busily surveying all the breaches Time and decaying nature had wrought in her. That serve to rig the body out with bravery. in one instance. which occasioned the publication of a book entitled "A Just and Seasonable Reprehension of Naked Breasts and Shoulders. paned with gold over the arm. paintings.figured as wearing an astonishing Life Guard helmet and plume. parrots. notwithstanding the tenderness of the sex. puffed sleeves and shoulders. and." "I went then to Vanity." The beauties of the Court of the Merry Monarch are made familiar to us by the pencil of Sir Peter Lely. In a wardrobe account of Henry VIII. feather-makers. All occupations opening like a mart._ . and strengthened.. _Holbein." with a preface by Richard Baxter. and up to the very chin. [Illustration: A LADY OF BASLE. were content for the information of mankind to expose their arms to the coldness of the air. the sleeves were invariably the richest portion of women's dress. embroiderers. The following age of females made larger discoveries of their complexion. four buttons of gold being set on each sleeve. powders. As in the case of the men. Dogs." says Addison. she shew'd me gowns and headtires. _temp. In thousand gaudy shapes. all of which seem'd to show me The way her money went. "The iij weird Feiries" are fascinating creatures.[14] The age was distinguished in the case of the women not so much for the magnificence of its costume as for the scantiness of it. gaily dressed in ornamented kirtles. The hands and face were the only samples they gave of their beautiful persons.

though the day was very lowering. A careless shoe-string. by Addison. and she would have me put on my fine suit--which I did"(!).(!) having made myself a velvet cloak. and later. very handsome... now laced exceeding pretty. trimmed with gold buttons and twist. than when art Is too precise in every part. "_March 2nd. which was chiefly worn for riding. in whose tie I see a wild civility. which here and there Enthrals the crimson stomacher._--With my wife._] His wife's dressmaker's bill is apparently a much less serious item than his own dress expenses. for her about £12. but also for walking. "_April 15th. two new cloth skirts. Laced and buttoned coats and waistcoats were worn._--To my great sorrow find myself £43 worse than I was the last month. where we saw some new-fashion petticoats of sarcanett with a black broad lace printed round the bottom and before. and indeed was fine all over. although he displays perhaps less interest in his wife's dresses than in his own. to the new Exchange. Engraved by Sir Robert Strange. which is perhaps the reverse of the present order of things. A cuff neglected. A certain affectation by the ladies of male costume made its appearance towards the close of the century. _After Vandyck. An erring lace. and my wife had a mind to one of them. A lawn about the shoulders thrown Into a fine distraction." The remarks of our diarist Pepys on the subject of dress are always entertaining. 1662. But it hath chiefly arisen from my layings-out in clothes for myself and wife. 1663. deserving note In the tempestuous petticoat.Charles II. being resolved. We picture Die Vernon in a habit of this kind. called a Sac. "_October 30th. henceforward. and for myself £55--or thereabouts.. and was satirised by Stubbes." May Day of the same year: "My wife extraordinary fine with her flowered tabby gown that she made two years ago. and silk tops for my legs._--My wife this day put on her first French gown. 1669. together with a smartly cocked hat surmounted with a feather. during the reign of Elizabeth. viz. It also appeared earlier. Herrick's lines may be said to foreshadow the period:-"A sweet disorder in the dress Kindles in clothes a wantonness. in the _Spectator_. and thereby Ribbons to flow confusedly. Fielding describes the . And mighty earnest to go.. A winning wave. with a new hat. to go like myself"(!!). and many other things. by coach.-Do more bewitch me." [Illustration: THE CHILDREN OF CHARLES I. a new shag gown. to buy her some things. which becomes her very well.

The fashionable luxuries of the latter half of the eighteenth century are thus commented upon in the _London Magazine_ of February. all rather smaller than nature. round which twined nastersians. 1741. it was a development of the dress of an earlier period._] The rigidity of the bodice at the commencement of the Hanoverian period was an echo of an earlier time. Their heads are adorned with Dresden and Mechlin lace._] The quilted petticoat with figured panniers which is associated with the name of Dolly Varden is a charming dress of the rustic or idyllic sort. when Good Queen Bess strutted it in wheeled farthingale. and which is sufficiently indicative of the generally prevailing taste: "The Duchess of Queensberry's clothes pleased me best. broken and ragged and worked with brown chenille. and every breadth had an old stump of a tree that ran up almost to the top of the petticoat. 1773:-"The modes of dress. which spread and covered the petticoat. it was. and all sorts of twining flowers. Mrs. the robings and facings were little green banks with all sorts of weeds. _From an engraving after Watteau. It was strongly fortified with whalebone strips. How brilliant are their diamond necklaces and stomachers. [Illustration: MISS LEWIS. twining branches of the same sort as those on the petticoat. . at Upsala. which makes them look very light. was propounding his botanical system. and formed a V in front. Many of the leaves were finished with gold. as well as those of house-keeping. gold and silver stuffs. enriched with jewels of immense value: large estates hang upon their ears. One of the chief characteristics of the dresses of this period was the naturalistic floral patternings. High Life Above Stairs. _Engraved by James Macardell. which were seen everywhere." [Illustration: THE GAMUT OF LOVE. honeysuckles. vines with the leaves variegated as you have seen them by the sun.appearance of Sophia Western at the inn at Upton in a similar habit. Like the rigid bodice." by David Garrick. whose waistcoats were gay with embroidered flowers. or. The birthday suit is never worn a second time. periwinkles. their watches. autumn and winter silks. brocades. Delany thus describes a dress which she saw at Court in February. some of which are bought at the enormous price of thirty guineas a yard. Here the ladies are beyond description extravagant. This floral patterning was the outward and visible sign of the general interest which was then taken in natural form. ivy. and even invaded the dress of the men. Linnæus. gardening was generally popular. in fact. and the sleeves and the rest of the gown loose. are articles of incredible expense." A character in "Bon Ton. and other trinkets!--their very buckles are set with pearls and precious stones. and part of the stumps of the trees looked like the gilding of the sun. convolvuluses. the stiff outer kirtle of the Elizabethan and Stuart periods looped up in folds. "They have spring and summer. they were white satin embroidered--the bottom of the petticoat brown hills covered with all sorts of weeds.

plate. mainly represented in this country by the work of the brothers Adam. to ease my conscience. give infinite charms to the whole. It is drawn up in the front. or silk. what dangers are in this town at every step! O." The French Revolution was productive of many things--not the least of which was the change it brought in the matter of dress. and is said to be the universal rage. exclaims:-"This fellow would turn rake and maccaroni if he was to stay here a week longer--bless me. her sweeping tresses snooded by glittering antique fillet. "The Banks of Banna"--expresses the disappearance of that portion of the body. however. that I were once settled safe again at Trotley-place!--nothing to save my country would bring me back again: my niece. made of lighter materials. such Greek as painter David could teach. was an echo of the earlier classic revival in architecture. The sleeves are wide and short. in costume of the ancient Greeks. and fastened with tassels of silver. with mere sandals and winding strings of riband--defying the . as well as architecture. saucy words. but sallow looks. the following announcement of fashionable dress at Paris is given:-"The Queen of France has appeared at Versailles in a morning dress that has totally eclipsed the levée robe. is so be-fashioned and be-devilled. sit up all night. The _merveilleuses_ appeared in gossamer gowns. and if they talk. their heads are all feather. as is the bottom of the robe. according to the taste of the wearer. chiefly white. I have lost my waist. finishes the dress. 1782. but gently swerved. and this discloses a puckered petticoat of gauze or sarsenet. Lucretia. and round their necks are twisted rattlesnake tippets--O tempora. I must try. slit from the hips and buttoned at the knees after the fashion of the Macedonian girls alluded to in a previous chat. bright-dyed tunic of the Greek woman. that beautiful citoyenne. drawn up near the shoulder with small tassels. but what can be expected from the young women of these times. and loose morals!--they lie a-bed all day. or an embroidered one. the legs encased in fleshings. A round pasteboard hat. round. and that they may look what they are. which was to a great extent due to the influence of the painter David. wild schemes. O mores!" In the _Lady's Magazine_ for April. under sleeves of the finest cambrick. The robe is made of plain sattin. The ample flowered skirts of the middle of the century gave place to light gauze clinging coverings which exhibited as much of Nature's form as was--desirable. on one side. can save her. if they are silent they are gaming. worn without a hoop. full plaited. will be worn through the summer. and trimmed at the elbow with Brussels or point. or knots of diamonds.1775. and without any other ornaments than a diamond buckle. her little feet naked as in antique statues. Have ye seen my body?" a parody on a popular song. of a different colour. and trimmed with narrow fur. that nothing. which had previously been absurdly long. The oft-quoted couplet-"Shepherds. and even a sedan chair for Queen Charlotte. which. The fastening of the waist is not straight down the stays. carriages. and a long train. 'tis either scandal or infidelity. covered with the same sattin. gold. The revival of classicism in costume during the Empire. who designed. "Behold her. I fear. it is said. furniture. With the advent of the Revolution the fashion suddenly changes.

there is a charm and piquancy of manner quite apart from the dress itself. I have known a Frenchwoman. who. which gives each portion of the dress its due importance. indebted to Nature for no one thing but a pair of decent eyes. The really fashionable people are those who are not in the fashion. Dress should "express" the wearer and provide an index as to character. IN BALL DRESS. 1810. as would satisfy three dozen of our first-rate toasts. marquisses. which distinguishes the fascinating woman." [Illustration: PARIS EVENING DRESS."[15] [Illustration: MADAME DE MOUCHY. as the spectacle of a woman or a man following blindly the dictates of fashion is sufficient evidence that he or she possesses no character at all. if for no other reason than the difficulty of knowing where to place their arms. It lasted practically until the advent of the crinoline in the forties. on the strict understanding that no others are to be made like them (_vide_ daily paper). reckon in her suit as many counts. 1810. which weaves every detail into one design and impresses the beholder as a masterpiece. 1833. when it finally disappeared.frost. and dancing men are apparently a necessity. A character in "The Belle's Stratagem" exclaims--with what degree of truth the reader himself must determine: "Pho! thou hast no taste! English beauty! 'tis insipidity: it wants the zest. and imparts a harmony to the whole._] "English Costume from Pocket-books. I have known an Italian marquizina make ten conquests in stepping from her carriage. There is also a manner of dressing and of wearing." 1799. _Engraved by Pierre-Louis Surugue. under the impression that from her nakedness she must be a pauper! [Illustration: WALKING DRESS. offered a woman of fashion a penny. _This_ is the genuine woman of fashion. The people who are "in the fashion" are the sheep. This may at first sight seem a paradox. Frank! Why." In other words. "Bell-wether takes the leap and they all jump over. Indeed. having been accustomed at home to estimate the rank of a lady by the _warmth_ of her clothing. [Illustration: PROMENADE COSTUME.] The Empire gown is figured in the illustration of a walking dress. or even the personal beauty of the wearer. There has been recent talk of its revival. but dancing men are found to be opposed to it. The Empress of Germany gives an order to her dressmaker for four dresses. in Bond Street. there can be no really beautiful dress unless the spirit of individualism is fostered. tells of a Russian officer. it wants poignancy. a certain elegance that distinguishes people of taste from the vulgar. and petits maîtres. but a moment's consideration will be sufficiently convincing. 1833.] Moreover.] . and carry her slaves from one city to another. as in the composition of a picture. whose real intrinsic beauty would have yielded to half the little grisettes that pace your Mall on a Sunday. it does.

rising from thy fragrant bed. in which he lost his coat-tails during a hunt. her birthday.FOOTNOTES: [13] The term "spencer" is a modern one. and colours contend with sweets which shall ravish her most. the blooming maid. tune your melodious throats to celebrate her appearance. I will have my fine cassockes and my round verdingale. in loose attire._ George III._] VI THE RISE AND FALL OF THE CRINOLINE Fielding. mount the western sky and lead on those delicious gales. May the heathen ruler of the winds confine in iron chains the boisterous limbs of noisy Boreas. with an elevation of style. [14] "This day I did first see the Duke of York's room of pictures of some Maids of Honour. and all the other circumstances proper to raise the veneration of the reader": "Hushed be every ruder breath._ [15] Carlyle." &c. where every flower rises to do her homage. done by Lilly. introduces his heroine "with the utmost solemnity. the charms of which call forth the lovely Flora from her chamber. and is said to originate from an accident to Lord Spencer._ [Illustration: THE CRINOLINE. feeling his subject to be more than ordinarily sublime. but not like. "So charming may she now appear. when on the first of June. and to love it returns. good. _temp. _From Jacquemin. perfumed with pearly dews. _From love proceeds your music. sweet Zephyrus. and you. gently trips it over the verdant mead. VI THE RISE AND FALL OF THE CRINOLINE "For I will goe frocked and in a French hood."--_Pepys's Diary. . Do thou. whose sweetest notes not even Handel can excel. therefore. the feathered choristers of nature. and the sharp-pointed nose of bitter-biting Eurus._ Awake. until the whole field becomes enamelled." _Booke of Robin Conscience. in his description of the beauty and many graces of Sophia Western.

expanding like wings on either side of the head. but with none of the glory of the preceding day. She carries the ball and sceptre in her hands. with. as Walpole observes." The earlier portraits of Elizabeth exhibit her in a dress similar to that of her sister and predecessor. which followed. A similar petticoat or kirtle. be it known. [Illustration: QUEEN ELIZABETH. Queen of Scots. she also wears a long light mantle edged with lace. is an exception to every law of development. Whose Scepters rule fame's loud-voyc'd trumpet lawdeth Into the eares of every forraigne nation. is first identified with the august person of the "Maiden Queen. with Darnley (p." or perhaps. like Topsy in "Uncle Tom's Cabin. also edged with lace. and in an interesting portrait of Catherine Parr at Glendon Hall. which bursts in the morning suddenly in its full refulgence._] In the charming passage from Fielding above quoted. 169). and in its turn is again obscured. the interminable stomacher. neither infancy nor adolescence." it never was born. The crinoline. widened a little at the hips. Or. It has been said that Milton was a man from his birth.If one were fortunate enough to possess the power of description and imagination of a Fielding. is obscured for a time by clouds. it will be seen. and the enormous wheel farthingale. Cannopey'd under powerfull angells winges To her Immortall praise sweete Science singes. like Milton. It is said to have been originally invented for the purpose of concealing the illicit amours of a Princess of Spain. Love. [Illustration: QUEEN CHARLOTTE. but only to reappear in glorious sunset. for. Northamptonshire. but just "growed"--and it grew--like a mushroom (which indeed in form it somewhat resembles). to blaze again in unabated splendour. It had. but sprang full armed._] The legend at the foot of the plate runs as follows:-"The admired Empresse through the worlde applauded For supreme virtues rarest imitation. and in a sort of contradictory spirit. figures as the presiding spirit. methinks the crinoline would provide a sufficiently inspiring theme. this Queen appears in a richly embroidered petticoat widened at the base. is shown in the portrait of Mary. she is figured in the great ruff with which she is most identified. _Dan Cupid begat the crinoline_. The crinoletta. and almost as evanescent. like Milton." . however. like "Athene from the brain of Zeus. "a bushel of pearls bestrewed over the entire figure". _After Gainsborough. like the sun. This is peculiarly appropriate to the present subject. in a night. In the famous print by William Rogers. tender as the blush on a maiden's cheek. to adopt yet another comparison. a portentous collar. _From an engraving by William Rogers. may be described as the twilight or sweet afterglow--beautiful. of which a reproduction is given. The hooped petticoat or _vardingale_. but singularly enough. appears only in the later portraits of Elizabeth.

The great wheel farthingale was worn by the nobility during the latter
half of the reign of Elizabeth, and during the whole of the succeeding
reign. The engraving by Renold Elstracke of James I. and his Queen,
Anne of Denmark, shows the latter in a farthingale, which in size and
general structure is identical with that worn by Elizabeth. It is,
however, box pleated round the top of the drum, the farthingale being
divided in front and discovering the kirtle underneath.
The following story is told by Bulwer in his "Pedigree of the English
Gallant": "When Sir Peter Wych was sent ambassador to the Grand Seignor
from James I., his lady accompanied him to Constantinople, and the
Sultaness having heard much of her, desired to see her; whereupon Lady
Wych, attended by her waiting women, all of them dressed in their great
vardingales, which was the Court-dress of the English ladies at that
time, waited upon her highness. The Sultaness received her visitor with
great respect, but, struck with the extraordinary extension of the hips
of the whole party, seriously inquired if that shape was peculiar to
the natural formation of English women, and Lady Wych was obliged to
explain the whole mystery of the dress, in order to convince her that
she and her companions were not really so deformed as they appeared to
be."
[Illustration: JAMES I. AND HIS QUEEN, ANNE OF DENMARK.
_From an engraving by R. Elstracke._]
In the reign of Charles I. the farthingale, although still worn by the
lower gentry and citizens' wives, is discarded by the upper classes,
and disappears entirely; and it is not until the latter part of the
reign of Queen Anne that it rises again, like the Phœnix from its
own ashes, but in another form, however, that of the enormous hoop,
which grew to such portentous proportions during the reigns of George
I. and II., the outstanding steel or whalebone foundation being
mainly at the bottom of the skirt instead of at the hips. Sir Roger
de Coverley thus expresses the difference between the earlier hooped
petticoats and those of the era of the _Spectator_: "You see, sir, my
great-great-grandmother has on the new-fashioned petticoat, except that
the modern is gathered at the waist; my grandmother appears as if she
stood in a large drum, whereas the ladies now walk as if they were in a
go-cart."
[Illustration: FESTAL DRESS, OTAHEITE.]
It is surprising to find in dress, as in ornamental design, the same
ideas, the same ornamental _motifs_, occurring to the people of
countries widely separate. There is a curious dress appropriated to the
young women of Otaheite who are appointed to make presents from persons
of rank to each other; one of these was deputed to present cloths to
Captain Cook on his last voyage. A representation of the dress is
given in the engraving, which is from Cook's Geography, 1801. The
proportions of the drum exceed even that of Queen Elizabeth; in general
shape, however, it is similar. It is decorated round the uppermost edge
with ornamental festoons of feathers, &c., and constitutes the complete
dress of the lady, with the exception of a sort of chemise which
appears underneath the breasts, and, presumably, covers the loins and a
portion of the lower limbs.
The hoop petticoat now approaches its highest meridian; its
re-appearance was duly announced by Addison, who, in No. 129 of the

_Spectator_, relates an adventure which happened in a little country
church in Cornwall: "As we were in the midst of service, a lady, who
is the chief woman of the place, and had passed the winter at London
with her husband, entered the congregation in a little head-dress and a
hooped petticoat. The people, who were wonderfully startled at such a
sight, all of them rose up. Some stared at the prodigious bottom, and
some at the little top, of this strange dress. In the meantime the lady
of the manor _filled the area of the church_ and walked up to the pew
with an unspeakable satisfaction, amid the whispers, conjectures, and
astonishments of the whole congregation."
Between 1740 and 1745 the hoops spread out at the sides extensively in
oblong fashion, resembling a donkey carrying its panniers. Indeed, the
simile of the donkey was a favourite one with the caricaturists. In
1860 _Punch_ adopts the idea, and issues a warning to ladies who would
ride in crinolines on donkeys, and gives a cut of a lady in an enormous
crinoline riding on a donkey, with nothing but the donkey's hind legs
seen below.
[Illustration: PORTRAITS OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS, AND DARNLEY.
_From an engraving by R. Elstracke._]
A poetic description of ladies' dresses in 1773 directs:
"Make your petticoats short, that a hoop eight yards wide
May decently show how your garters are tied."
Indeed, the hoop of this period had attained to such enormous
proportions that, as Fairholt observes, the figure of a lady was
considerable; for they were now not only the better, but the larger,
half of creation, and half a dozen men might be accommodated in the
space occupied by a single lady.[16]
In a print entitled "The Review," of the latter part of the reign of
George II., the inconveniences of the hoop petticoat are exhibited in
a variety of ways, and various methods for their remedy are suggested.
One of the most ingenious is that of a coach with a moveable roof and
a frame with pulleys to drop the ladies in from the top, in order to
avoid the disarranging of their hoops which would necessarily attend
their entrance by the door.
Hoop petticoats disappeared early in the reign of George III., and the
genius of extravagance then turned its attention to the head-dress.
[Illustration: "DON'T BE AFRAID, MY DEAR."
_Engraved by Isidore-Stanilas Helman._]
In the expiring years of the fifties of the last century the crinoline
_proper_ appeared. There had been hints of it earlier, not to say
threats, in the bell-shaped skirts which obtained in about 1835, of
which the charming creature in the London promenade dress (p. 55)
provides an example.
The chief satirist of the crinoline is _Punch_, although, amongst
others, an amusing skit on the difficulties and dangers of the
crinoline appeared about 1870, with a number of coloured illustrations
by "Quiz," now very rare.

_Punch_ appears to have been particularly impressed by the "roomy"
character of the crinoline, as, in an amusing if somewhat laboured skit
in the early days of 1860, he unbosoms himself as follows:
"Among the million objections to the use of the wide petticoats not
the least well-founded is the fact that they are used for purposes of
shoplifting. This has many times been proved at the bar of the police
courts, and we wonder that more notice has not been attracted to it.
For ourselves, the fact is so impressed upon our mind, that when we
ever come in contact with a Crinoline which seems more than usually
wide, we immediately put down the wearer as a pick-pocket, and prepare
ourselves at once to see her taken up. Viewing Crinoline, indeed, as an
incentive to bad conduct, we forbid our wives and daughters to wear it
when out shopping, for fear that it may tempt them to commit some act
of theft. A wide petticoat is so convenient a hiding-place for stowing
away almost any amount of stolen goods, that we cannot be surprised
at finding it so used, and for the mere sake of keeping them from
roguery, the fewer women have it at their fingers' ends the better.
Some ladies have a monomania for thievery, and when they go on a day's
shopping can hardly keep their hands off what does not belong to them.
Having a commodious receptacle in reach, wherein they may deposit
whatever they may sack, they are naturally tempted to indulge in their
propensity, by the chances being lessened that they will be found out.
[Illustration: KING AND MRS. BADDELEY.]
"As an instance of how largely the large petticoats are used in acts
of petty larceny, we may mention a small fact which has come within
our knowledge, and which it may be to the interest of shopkeepers to
know. Concealed beneath the skirts of a fashionably dressed female
were, the other day, discovered by a vigilant detective the following
choice proofs of her propensity to plunder: viz., twenty-three shawls,
eleven dozen handkerchiefs, sixteen pairs of boots (fifteen of them
made up with the military heel), a case of eau-de-Cologne, a ditto
of black hair-dye, thirty pairs of stays, twenty-six chemises, five
dozen cambric handkerchiefs, and eleven ditto silk, nineteen muslin
collars, and four-and-forty crochet ones, a dressing case, five hair
brushes (three of them made with tortoiseshell and two with ivory
gilt backs), a pair of curling irons, eight bonnets without trimmings
and nine-and-twenty with them, a hundred rolls of ribbon, half a
hundredweight of worsted, ten dozen white kid gloves and twenty dozen
coloured ones, forty balls of cotton, nine-and-ninety skeins of silk,
a gridiron, two coal-scuttles, three packets of ham sandwiches,
twenty-five mince pies, half a leg of mutton, six boxes of French
plums, ten ditto of bonbons, nine pâtés de foie gras, a dozen cakes
of chocolate and nine of portable hare soup, a warming pan, five
bracelets, a brace of large brass birdcages, sixteen bowls of goldfish,
half a score of lapdogs, fourteen dozen lever watches, and an eight-day
kitchen clock.
"After this discovery, who will venture to deny that Crinoline with
shoplifters is comparable to charity, inasmuch as it may cover a
multitude of sins?"
A curious advertisement in the _Illustrated London News_ of October
10, 1863, announces that--"Ondina, or waved Jupons, do away with
the unsightly results of the ordinary hoops, and so perfect are the
wave-like bands that a lady may ascend a steep stair, lean against a
table, throw herself into an armchair, pass to a stall in the opera, or
occupy a fourth seat in a carriage without inconvenience to herself or

and Lord Palmerston kippered him in a speech full of good fun. As previously hinted." May. Punch must avow that he prefers keeping the diviner images. is only a repetition of his satire on the crinoline in his "Essence of Parliament. One well remembers--shall we. naturally. took the same really indelicate view of the case. encircled by the framework of an enormous crinoline. Harry--ease. cutting graceful figures upon the ice and exclaiming. The memory of it will outlive the ages. Lord Haddock. then. however. Punch! Must we. as the wearer moved. and Bailey's Eve at the Fountain.'" [Illustration: THE CRINOLETTA DISFIGURANS. "Entirely my own idea. wagging and swaying from side to side like the tail of a dragon. who would not wear a crinoline? In the new year of 1860 _Punch_ gives a cut ("Some good account at last") of a skater in pot-hat and pegtops. It was a cylindrical contrivance. or worn underneath the dress like a big bustle. Spooner. Mr. _By Linley Sambourne ("Punch"). 'Nude. and even hanging in bundles at the doors. AN OLD PARASITE IN A NEW FORM. and gradually extended its proportions. and somehow getting rid of the coarser ones. . elegance.to others. the crinoletta was only a faint echo of the glories of its earlier prototype. and safety combined--I call it the skater's friend. and the Venus of Milo dons the crinoletta! This. Illustrations free. can hold Haddock and Spooner. The crinoline rests upon the shoulders of the statue like a huge extinguisher. and has so earnest a love for Greek Art that he actually favoured Russia because she has a Greek Church. Price 21s. ought to have cured his Haddock of such nonsense. "Hang out our banners on the outward walls. Pam wanted to know whether the latter would like to stick crinoline on the models. made up of steels or whalebones. indeed." With all these advantages. thus modifying in an important degree all those peculiarities tending to destroy the modesty of English women." "Some good account at last"? Unkind Mr. or some such name. Sir George Lewis expressed his lofty contempt for the Haddock. with more truth than politeness. indeed! I knewed Addock was a Nass. and lastly. who was called Athenian Aberdeen. either covered with a series of flounces._] An illustration is appended to the article of a figure resembling a fish in the act of adjusting a crinoline on the Venus de Medici. measure the value of everything in this world by its bare utility? The crinoline will endure as a sweet solace to senses tired by the ennui of this dull earth. it allows the dress to fall into graceful folds. or provoking rude remarks of the observers. The other Wiscount observed. In the early seventies we find our old friend _Punch_ again upon the warpath. His father. made a supremely ridiculous speech upon the impropriety of allowing money to any school of Art in which the undraped she-model was studied from. In fact. 1860:-"Lord Aberdeen's son. It is impossible that the same country which contains Macdowell's Eve. it began as a bustle. ever forget?--these singular "contraptions" displayed unblushingly in drapers' shops. or would be content with African garb. Poor old Mr.

"born thrall of Cedric the Saxon. to trim them and to trick them. "Costume in England. [Illustration: HENRIETTA. A "collar" is simply a neck-band. VII COLLARS AND CUFFS It is to be understood that the terms "collar" and "cuff" are here only intended to refer to those of linen. and who. Collars are of a comparatively modern origin. MARQUISE D'ENTRAGUES." have they. Some. says a writer on Roman antiquities (the Rev. _Anatomy of Abuses_. ." it was of iron. for either the same starching or else they have their other chambers same use. 'They come. The Romans made use of chin-cloths for the protection of the neck and throat. contributed in no small degree to render the fashion of chin-cloths general. made use of a handkerchief (sudarium) for this purpose.'" FOOTNOTES: [16] Fairholt. which is in many countries called neck-handkerchief. or similar material." TENNYSON. doubtless. although some form of covering for the neck has been employed from a very early period. Father Adam). marry houses do serve the turn. as well as to starch them in? "_Amphilogus. This is probably the origin of the cravat. _Last Tournament_." These were worn by public orators. and secret closets to the cartwheeles of the divels to the dungeon of hell._ Have they not also houses to set their ruffes in. wherein they tricke up these charet of pride. in the case of Gurth. all for thee. which our King Hath newly founded. who from professional considerations were fearful of taking cold. my soul. The term "collar" is also applied to certain articles of jewellery-"The collar of some order. and was the symbol of his servitude. which are more or less separate from the rest of the costume. lace. and may be of any material. leading the direct way STUBBES.The cry is still._ Yea." VII COLLARS AND CUFFS "_Theodorus. which were termed "focalia.

could not be worn after being washed. and is quite probably due to Holbein's influence. as the starched linen. several drawings for which are in the Basle Museum. The "curious wives" subsequently made themselves ruffs of lawn. set up as a clear starcher in London. and ruffled at the hand with strawberry leaves and flowers of gold. occurs the item. . OF FRANCE. and one pound for the art of seething starch. In the inventory of the apparel of Henry VIII. and often delicately embroidered. the "camise" appearing at the V-shaped junction of the bodice. must have been an expensive luxury. these personages being represented upon the Great Seal of England in 1554 with small ruffs on the necks and wrists. hailed from Flanders._] The thorax. and it is known that he designed dresses for the ladies of the court. In 1564. to hide a wen which grew upon her neck. imported from Flanders. both at the wrists and at the neck. the neck being ornamented with jewellery. In many portraits by this master. of otter's skin. who. quilted with black silk. This black embroidering was very generally employed during the reign of Henry VIII. Its first appearance in England was about the time of the marriage of Queen Mary with Philip of Spain. has already been referred to in a previous chat. the lawn or cambric shirt appears at the neck with the edges ruffled. During the greater part of the period of York and Lancaster necks were worn bare. is noticed under head-coverings. whereof one is perled with gold._Engraved by Wierix. as her name suggests. therefore. In the inventory of apparel belonging to Henry VIII. and which was worn for such an extended period from the Norman Conquest onwards. moreover. Her terms were four or five pounds for teaching "the most curious wives"[17] to starch. and the ornament adjoined to the wristband of the shirt was known by the denomination of "ruffle. which was a development of the Roman chin-cloth. which is dated 1543. and is. the year before the painter's death. worn by Charlemagne during the colder months. The ruff appears in none of the portraits by Holbein. the edges emphasised by a narrow embroidered border in black silk. by a Spanish lady of quality. passed over the arms with gold and silver. The influence of his artistic personality would be considerable. There can be no reasonable doubt that this great painter influenced the dress of his time. with the exception of one at Antwerp." and was originally called the hand-ruff. and appears to have made the trade of clear starching an extremely lucrative one. "4 shirts with bands of silver and ruffles to the same. one Madame Dinghen. ruffs. also. embroidered with black silk." The ruff is said to have been first invented in the reign of Henry VI. The wimple. [Illustration: HENRY IV. Shirt-bands were originally connected with neck-ruffs. whereupon arose the general scoffing by-word that they would shortly make their ruffs of spider's web." Starching at this period had not reached England. such a ruffle appears at the neck and also at the wrists. a doubtful work. It appears in a number of Holbein's portraits. appears: "One payer of sleves. and at present in the National Gallery. In the well-known portrait of the Duchess of Milan belonging to the Duke of Norfolk. however.

_From an engraving by Goltzius._]
A certain Richard Young, described as a justice, for a long time held
the monopoly of the manufacture of starch in this country. From the
Elizabethan State Papers we learn that in 1589 there was a prosecution
against an infringer of the patent, to wit, Charles Glead, a gentleman
of Kent, who declared to the Queen's messengers that he would make
starch in the face of any patent or warrant yet granted, unless set
down by Act of Parliament.
Setting-sticks, strutts, and poking-sticks were the tools
process of starching; the first made of wood or bone, and
of iron, which was heated in the fire. It was this heated
produced that beautiful regularity characteristic of this
attire.

used in the
the latter
tool which
article of

"They be made of yron or steele, and some of brass kept as bright as
silver, yea, and some of silver itselfe; and it is well if in processe
of time they grow not to be gold. The fashion whereafter they be made,
I cannot resemble to anything so well as to a squirt, or a squibbe,
which little children used, to squirt out water withall; and when
they come to starching and setting of their ruffes, then must this
instrument be heated in the fire, the better to stiffen the ruffe ...
and if you woulde know the name of this goodly toole, forsooth, the
devill hath given it to name a putter, or else a putting sticke, as I
heare say" (Stubbes, "Anatomy of Abuses").
Upon the introduction of these tools, together with starch, ruffs
rapidly increased in their proportions.
[Illustration: THE INFANTA ISABELLA CLARA EUGENIA.
_Engraved by Jan Muller._]
"They became," says Stow, "intolerably large," and were known in
London as the "French fashion," in Paris as the "English monster."
The greatest gallant was he who possessed the longest rapier and the
deepest ruff. It became necessary to apply one of the usual remedies
against these and other extravagances of dress--a proclamation, or
an Act of Parliament; in this instance a proclamation. Citizens were
compelled to reduce their rapiers to a yard in length and their ruffs
to "a nail of a yard" in depth.
The unfinished engraving of the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia,
Archduchess of Austria,[18] will serve to give a very good idea of the
dimensions and general appearance of these articles of attire.
Thus friend Philip Stubbes:--"They have now newly found out a more
monstrous kind of ruff, of twelve, yea, sixteen lengths apiece, set
three or four times double, and it is of some, fitly called, 'three
steps and an half to the gallows.'"
The "divells cartwheele" attained its greatest circumference in 1582,
when that love of change, inherent in the feminine breast, or possibly
the grave and reverend appearance of the ruff, occasioned a revolt
amongst the younger women, who were disinclined to hide the beauties
of their swan-like necks and throats. The ruff was therefore opened in
front and elevated behind. This was the gorget or whisk, which was used
both plain and laced.

A curious advertisement appears in the _Mercurius Publicus_, of May 8,
1662:-"A cambric whisk, with Flanders lace, about a quarter of a yard broad,
and a lace turning up about an inch broad, with a stock in the neck and
strap hangers down before, was lost between New Palace and Whitehall.
Reward, twenty shillings."
These whisks appear to have had a special proclivity for getting lost.
Planché ("Cyclopedia of Costume") gives a similar advertisement:-"'Lost, a tiffany whisk, with a great lace down and a little one up,
large flowers, with a rail for the head and peak' (_The Newes_, June
20, 1664)."
On account of the weight of the "whisk"--it was formed of a wire
framework covered with point lace--the "piccadilly" or stiffened collar
was devised.
Hone in his "Everyday Book" writes-"The picadil was the round hem, or the piece set about the edge or
skirt of a garment, whether at top or bottom; also a kind of stiff
collar, made in fashion of a band, that went about the neck and round
about the shoulders: hence the term 'wooden picadilloes' (meaning the
pillory) in Hudibras. At the time that ruffs and picadils were much
in fashion, there was a celebrated ordinary near St. James's, called
Piccadilly, because, as some say, it was the outmost or skirt house,
situate at the end of the town; but it more probably took its name from
one Higgins, a tailor, who made a fortune by picadils, and built this
with a few adjoining houses. The name has by a few been derived from a
much frequented house for the sale of these articles; but this probably
took its rise from the circumstance of Higgins having built houses
there, which, however, were not for selling ruffs."
Picardil is the diminutive of "picca," a pike or spear head, and was
given to this article of attire from the resemblance of its stiffened
edges to the points of spears. Philips ("World of Words," 1693) defines
pickardil as the "hem about the skirt of a garment--the extremity or
utmost end of everything." Whether the collar gave the name to the
district or the district to the collar is a matter of some uncertainty;
probably, however, the former. The thoroughfare which we now know as
Piccadilly certainly did not exist at the time the picadil was first
worn, and the district was then "the utmost end of everything"--that
is, beyond the confines of the town.
Piccadilly as a place, or thoroughfare, is mentioned in "The
Rehearsal," by George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, produced in
the winter of 1671:-"His servants he into the country sent,
And he himself to Piccadillé went."
A pickadil is mentioned in the old comedy of "Northward Ho" as part of
a woman's dress.
On the visit of James I. to Cambridge in 1615, the Vice-Chancellor of
the University thought fit to issue an order prohibiting "the fearful
enormity and excess of apparel seen in all degrees, as, namely,

_strange piccadilloes_, vast bands, huge cuffs, shoe-roses, tufts,
locks and tops of hair, unbeseeming that modesty and carriage of
students in so renowned a university."
The Church was still more fierce in its denunciation of these articles
of attire. Hall, Bishop of Exeter, in a sermon, after having severely
censured ruffs, farthingales, feathers, and paint, concludes with these
words, which more than equal anything in Stubbes: "Hear this, ye
popinjays of our time: hear this, ye plaster-faced Jezabels: God will
one day wash them with fire and with brimstone."
[Illustration: SON OF THE PAINTER DIRCK DE VRIES.
_Engraved by Goltzius._]
There appears to be considerable contradiction of terms, as applied
to the different collars, both with the writers of the time and with
subsequent writers. Barnabe Rich, in his "Honesty of the Age," says:
"The body is still pampered up in the very dropsy of excess.... He
that some forty years sithence should have asked after a pickadilly,
I wonder who should have understood him or could have told what a
pickadilly had been, either fish or flesh."
There was, however, the small ruff, such as is seen in the portraits of
Sir Thomas Gresham and Philip II. of Spain (pp. 121-123). There was the
large formal ruff which appears in the portrait of Lord Burleigh (p.
93), and the still larger ruff of the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia
(p. 187). There was the less formal ruff which fell upon the shoulders,
which is seen in many portraits by Franz Hals. There was the high
standing pointed collar, such as appears in William Rogers's print of
Queen Elizabeth. There was a plain high-standing collar without lace,
which went round the back of the head. There was the plain collar of
the Cromwellians, which covered the shoulders, and there was also the
rich lace collar of the latter part of the reign of Charles I. The
plaits of the ruff were occasionally pinned, the rows being sometimes
two and three deep. In the "Antiquary," a comedy by Shakerley Marmion,
1641, quoted by Strutt, a lover says to his mistress: "Do you not
remember what taskes you were wont to put upon me when I bestowed
you gowns and petticoats: and you in return gave me bracelets and
shoe-ties? How you fool'd me, and set me sometimes to pin pleats in
your ruff two hours together?"
[Illustration: CHARLES I. (IN THREE VIEWS).
_After Vandyck. Engraved by W. Sharp._]
In an old play called "Lingua; or, the Combat of the Tongue and the
Five Senses for Superiority," 1607, one of the characters remarks:-"It is five hours ago since I set a dozen maids to attire a boy like a
nice gentlewoman; but there is such doing with their looking-glasses;
pinning, unpinning, setting, unsetting, formings and conformings;
painting of blue veins, and rosy cheeks; such a stir with combs,
cascanets, purls, falls, squares, busks, bodices, scarfs, necklaces,
carkonels, rabatoes, borders, tires, fans, palisadoes, puffs, ruffs,
cuffs, muffs, pustles, fusles, partlets, frislets, bandlets, fillets,
corslets, pendulets, amulets, annulets, bracelets, and so many lets
that the poor lady of the toilet is scarce dressed to the girdle.
And now there is such calling for fardingales, kirtles, busk-points,
shoe-ties and the like, that seven pedlars' shops, nay, all Stourbridge

Esq. High Life Below Stairs. figured." 1775)." 1604. it would appear that there are no less than two-and-thirty different styles of tying the cravat. Le Blanc. both ruff and whisk give place to the falling band. which succeeded the ruff and band. and thrust through his gold button-hole. A character in the "Malecontent. indeed. in an irreproachable cravat. on account of the monstrous size of the periwigs. with the ends richly laced. it will be said--'This man has critically and deeply studied the thirty-two lessons on the Art of Tying the Cravat. appeared earlier. "One of the knots of his tye hanging down his left shoulder. whether his coat be of the reigning fashion or not will be unnoticed by the assembly--all eyes will be occupied in examining the folds of the fatal Cravat. together with portrait of the author. It had. with illustrations. but that the most critical and scrutinising examination will be made on the _set_ of his Cravat. and no one will move on his entrance. which was worn both plain and laced. "His reception will in the future be cold. and his fringed cravat nicely twisted down his breast. A ship is sooner rigged by far than a nice gentlewoman made ready.fair. as a matter of course. These are demonstrated in sixteen lessons. published in 1828.' But again reverse the picture--it will be found that the unfortunate individual who is not aware of the existence of this justly celebrated work--however well informed he may be on other subjects--will be . The laced ends of the cravat afterwards increased in size. but if his Cravat is _savamment_ and elegantly formed--although his coat may not be of the last _cut_--every one will rise to receive him with the most distinguished marks of respect. will scarcely furnish.. There was a variety of the neckcloth which was twisted like a corkscrew." Towards the latter part of the reign of Charles I. will cheerfully resign their seats to him. or neckcloth. "Bon Ton. he will discover that his coat will attract only a slight degree of attention. indeed. and the usual compliments have passed on both sides. who could not find time to arrange their cravats. the ends being drawn through a ring. and adopted the readier means of twisting them in a knot. The trouble occasioned by the ruff and whisk appears to have been a factor of their downfall. It formed a large bow at the chin. by H. "When a man of rank makes his _entrée_ into a circle distinguished for taste and elegance. This was called a "Steinkirk. which looked exactly like my little Barbet's head in his gold collar" (David Garrick." The cravat. exclaims: "There is such a deal of pinning these ruffles when a fine cleane _fall_ is worth all. even in the latter years of Elizabeth. some similar form of neck covering became a necessity. but was not in general use until the time of Charles. and were drawn through the button-hole of the waistcoat. and the delighted eyes of all will be fixed on that part of his person which separates the shoulders from the chin--let him speak down-right nonsense he will be applauded to the skies. or." from the circumstance of the French officers at the battle of that name in 1692. Should this unfortunately not be correctly and elegantly put on--no further notice will be taken of him. From a singular little pocket-manual upon the art of tying the cravat. did not come into general use until the latter part of the reign of the Merry Monarch.

a single illustration will probably suffice. "the sovereign of cravat ties. Whether it be plain or coloured is apparently of little moment. and folding. ironing. and. merely because his Cravat is not correctly disposed--he will moreover be obliged to hear in silence. however. and does not in the least affect its formation. "And last. which you repass to the left Y. 4. without leaving point K.'" The reader will not expect. It shall be. place a pin at the point of junction H. and raise it (second time). "_The slightest error in the first fold of this tie will render all succeeding efforts. as the set of the cravat and neatness of the tie _entirely depends upon this_. and moderately warm)." Having accomplished the knot. and adopted the shorter and easier method of cutting it with his sword. was still unable to comprehend the theory of its construction. and to approve (under pain of being considered unacquainted with the common rules of politeness) all the remarks which he will thus subject himself to--occasionally relieved by hearing a whisper of. Lower point K on the tie. He can only tell us (what he believes is generally known) that Alexander the Great. It now becomes necessary to meditate deeply and seriously upon the five following directions:-1. in the case of the juvenile). with the same handkerchief. apparently. defied the most laborious researches on the part of the author. like a youthful character in the works of the immortal Dickens. pass it on the inside of point Z. 5. although he could conquer a whole world. made expressly for the purpose. now half formed O (third time). Then. the ends left hanging (first time). 3. in the tie now formed. and will be compelled to suffer the impertinence of the fop._"[19] . with a handle. who will treat him with disdain. bend it inside and draw it between the point Z. however.' the origin of which is lost in the obscurity of antiquity. 'He cannot even put on a Cravat properly. possibly will experience little desire. you lower the points K Z. or with the iron (a small iron is recommended.considered as an ignorant pretender." The discovery of the name of the brilliant genius to whom the honour of this invention is due has. to be taken through the whole of the two-and-thirty lessons in the art of tying the cravat. Having carefully chosen the cravat. but a stout one is recommended as offering more facilities to the daring fingers of the tyro who would accomplish this _chef-d'œuvre_. thus accomplishing the formation of the knot. it must be placed on the neck. Take point K. flattened it with thumb and fore-finger. Y O. _sigh for more_ (soup. the 'Nœud Gordien. "Attention!" Cravats when sent from the laundress should undergo a careful examination as to the washing. entirely useless--we have said it. cross them. 2. at once solving the problem which defied the greatest of the world's conquerors.

it is.Although. were wrought upon collarettes. were generally worn. finding employment for large numbers of women and girls in the counties of Donegal. as it were. at the time of our author's writing (1828). [Illustration: DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE TYING OF THE "NŒUD GORDIEN. often displaying considerable taste in design and a high degree of technical skill. in fact. It is universally allowed that the least constraint on the body has a corresponding effect on the mind." This must be worn by none but those who would mount the topmost slopes of Parnassus. as previously intimated. be patronised even by the most agreeable.[20] Our author does not. whom Nature has not gifted with eyes of fire--with complexions rivalling the rose and lily. The Cravat folded. cuffs." A. therefore. although the day previous he appeared in his black cravat. it was chiefly produced in the north of Ireland. then. and coloured silk handkerchiefs occasionally patronised. indeed. Tyrone. In the late thirties and early forties Dame Fashion turned her attention in the direction of embroidered muslin. Our author.. lent itself insensibly to a . contrary to his usual custom. whose faces do not possess that sympathetic charm which. &c." &c.] "The Cravat Sentimentale. you. as its name implies. after that age it cannot. would be somewhat inconvenient. it is not proposed to wander through the labyrinth of the whole of the two-and-thirty lessons. should only be adopted by those whose physiognomy inspires the tender passion." Black silk cravats. pause before adopting the cravat sentimentale--avoid it. say so. to whom she has denied pearly teeth and coral lips--a gift which. The delicacy of the material and the absence of colour. a tight cravat. only "when accommodating himself to the _bienséances_ of society. in our opinion. It appears that Napoleon invariably wore a black silk cravat. and drink deeply of the Castalian spring. and Down. two others may with advantage be referred to." and explains the fact that "whenever he is painted in the ardour of composition his neck is always free from the trammels of the neckcloth. is distinctly entertaining." "You. he wore a white neckerchief with a flowing bow. The Cravat à la Byron. Delicate floral patterns." This is the reason why Lord Byron submitted to the inconveniences of a cravat. but at Waterloo it was observed that. and an extensive trade arose. with propriety.. chemisettes. The superstitiously inclined will note this fact. in a moment--at a glance--spreads confusion o'er the senses. though somewhat facetious. The Cravat Sentimentale. S. however. but the fact is sufficiently evident. It may be worn from the age of "seventeen to twenty-seven. in fact. B. leave it to more highly favoured mortals. suffocate the thoughts." This. "The Cravat à la Byron. you. will "cramp the imagination and. extremely unlikely that the change influenced in the slightest degree the result of the battle.

Visit either you like._ [Illustration: FOOLS IN A MORRIS DANCE. 'lives a March Hare. Besides. [20] The Castalian spring is at the _foot_ of the mountain. 'lives a Hatter. (free rendering). . where the tired and thirsty traveller would be most likely to need it. in the form of embroidered handkerchiefs. [18] This lady. they're both mad. but it should have been at the top. for which there is even now a demand._] VIII HATS. _Bodleian MS. Joseph Chamberlain). CAPS. It still survives.'" _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The siege lasted three years and three months." VIII HATS. in 1601." which was fashionable in France for over a century. I have said" (the Right Hon.' waving the other paw. [19] "What I have said. "Couleur Isabella. not more so than the rest of us--until they adopted the pot of the chimney as a model.naturalistic treatment. the art only lasted for a comparatively brief period.' the Cat said. however. As is usual with the caprices of fashion. CAPS. It provided a name for a stuff. registered a vow not to change her linen until the town of Ostend was taken. AND BONNETS "'In _that_ direction. waving his right paw round. AND BONNETS Mad as a hatter? How comes an honest craft to be thus maligned? Hatters were never mad--that is. FOOTNOTES: [17] Stow. and in _that_ direction. Hats are not really a necessity. by which time her under-clothing had attained a colour which is perhaps easier to imagine than to describe. it is not to be expected that we could reverse the order of the paragraph--"_we have said it_.[21] Nature has provided in the hair a natural covering for the head.

but ordinarily the hygienically superior soft hat should be worn. that drink. or even of a particular shape. generally worn at the present day in most parts of the Continent of Europe. and more porous than the usually almost waterproof and exceedingly absurd male head-coverings.. Is artistic invention so utterly dead that it cannot devise a head-gear which shall fit in with its surroundings on such occasions as call for more dignity and impressiveness in the matter of costume? It is. not only upon its artistic side. is to blame for it. however. While rejecting the theory that the competition of the beard is precarious to the hair of the head. soft hats cannot be worn in all cases--on ceremonial occasions the hard hat may be chosen. and forms an extremely reasonable and convenient article of attire. even religion--sooner than in clothes. that the unnatural custom of cutting men's hair. and which. There is absolutely no reason why a hat of a particular density." "The best head-covering would certainly be--none at all.. . that "revolutions are practicable in everything--in manners. ANNE WARREN. from which the cherry gum used in the case of the soft hats is comparatively free. dissolute habits. abstracting from the latter its due nourishment. The Romans had a hooded cloak (cucullus) which was worn by the commoner people. now in such general use.".Dr." Why. Moreover. in this connection it may be very pertinently asked." It is universally admitted that modern dress is intolerably ugly. [Illustration: MRS. however. or heredity is the cause--he finds that a far more probable cause is the difference between the male and female head-covering. as in the case of the Greeks and Romans. but the shellac used in stiffening them has an injurious effect. and high hats. But usage. but also upon the score of utility." He adds: "Of course. such as the stiff felt hats. on occasions of ceremony? Was ceremonial non-existent before the advent of the nineteenth century? It would rather appear that if the nineteenth century is conspicuous for anything it is for its _absence_ of ceremonial. in fact. yet every suggestion for its improvement is always met by a flat _non possumus_. should be necessary to occasions of high ceremonial. "which latter is. more airy._] Some form of hood was. morals. It is. and in many cases weather conditions. as a rule. government. formed by the drawing of the pallium or toga over the head to serve as protection during inclement weather. injurious on account of the pores of the material being closed. with the strip of leather which encircles the forehead and effectually retains the perspiration. first adopted when nature was abandoned in favour of the fashions of civilisation. _After Romney. or. either as a separately made-up article. as a well-known present-day writer has pointed out. an incontrovertible fact. impeding the passage of the exhalation from the head. doubtless. in some form or another. Jaeger ("Health Culture") discusses the probable reasons for the greater prevalence of baldness among men than among women. that it fails. lighter. render this impracticable. the earliest covering for the head. and that sumptuary laws are the only laws that have always failed of being obeyed. "Not only are the hard hats. and pointing out that the long beards and luxuriant heads of hair of our ancestors refute this theory that the more strenuous head-work which falls to the share of the male sex is responsible for the loss of hair. has been in use during all subsequent periods.

the whole presenting a very fantastic appearance. wound round and round the head--the edges cut. by being moved up underneath the chin. _Orcagna. Pisa. the other end hanging down in front of the body. as the case may be. no doubt. Dante is usually represented in such a hood." It occurred to some ingenious soul to insert his head in the oval opening in the hood made for the face. Planché has shown by means of two diagrams in his "Encylopedia of Costume. kept the hat in its place on the head. Campo Santa. the strings were secured at the breast by means of a moveable ring. more or less the form of the Phrygian cap. however." The men's turbaned head-dress of the reign of Richard II.The hood formed the principal covering for the head of both sexes during the twelfth. with the addition of the cock's comb. _c. which. and has been published in the "Vetusta Monumenta" of the . Such a hat was figured on the wall of the old Palace at Westminster. or tail. for making a doublet of worsted. longer or shorter according to the fancy or caprice of the wearer. the painter appears wearing a hood with a tippet reaching a little below the middle. was afterwards developed to a considerable length. with long tippet._ 1300. This fashion or device was continued during the Middle Ages._] The Greeks. Pisa. occurs--"Item. The hood (chaperon) was a separate article of dress as distinct from the cowl (capuchon). the pair of ass's ears and the bells. The hood assumed. and the hat was often worn over the hood (although this would seem a superfluity). in the first instance. occasionally. not ungraceful. in the thirteenth century reaching almost to the ground. and later is sufficiently remarkable to warrant a description. [Illustration: HUNTING HAT. when travelling. The cap or hood worn by "fools" was simply the hood of the fashion of the particular period. and allowed to hang on the back when not required on the head. Later. and assumed a more complex character. [Illustration: HUNTING HAT. and often parti-coloured. In the wardrobe accounts of Henry VIII. for making of a coat and cap of green cloth fringed with red crule and lined with frize for our said fool. tied underneath the chin. lined with canvass and cotton. and part of the fourteenth centuries. protected their heads from the heat or the wet by means of a flat broad-brimmed hat. and to bind it in position by winding the long tippet round the head and tucking in the end of it. and in the portrait of Cimabue by Simon Memmi. thirteenth. for William Som'ar. occasionally worn all together. as Mr._] The beginning of this head-dress was simply a different way of wearing the hood. to gather up in the form of a fan the portion which covered the shoulders. although the two terms are indiscriminately used by the earlier writers. Campo Santa. item. _Orcagna. which was attached to and formed part of the cloak or other article of dress. the head-dress was formally made up by the hatter or tailor. clipped and jagged in various ways--one end of which either stood up on the top of the head or was allowed to fall over the side of the turban. The tippet. It was a long cloth. our fool.

often extending almost to the feet. and adds: "I know not whether they call gibbets or corbels that which sustains their horns. In Red Scarlet her Rod i-rybaunt with gold. Pisa) on the opposite page. tied at intervals. when I have seen a lady so closely tied up.. Purfylet with pelure the ricchest uppon eorthe. however. or the net-bag above alluded to was elongated so as to form a long pigtail. that prince wered evere." attributed to Leonardo da Vinci in the Brera at Milan. and so excited the wrath of the satirists of the time. [Illustration: _From Fra Angelico. It either enclosed the hair as within a bag or pouch. that her neck-cloth was nailed to her chin. I-crouned with a coroune. as in the so-called "Beatrice d'Este. or that she had the pins hooked into her flesh. crespine. Florence. Ther nis no Qweene qweyntore. During the greater part of the Norman and Plantagenet period the _wimple_ or neck-cloth was common. and Edward I._] The hair was now wound up on either side of the head. which they consider so fine. that quik is alyve.Society of Antiquaries. creton. the King hath no bettre. Elizabeth is not in Paradise for having carried such baubles. well into the sixteenth century. worn either with or without the wimple and veil." [Illustration: FIGURE WITH LONG NET-CAUL. John de Meun. It was often richly ornamented with jewels-"Their heads were dight well withal. or assumed the form of a netted cap. It was a development of the Anglo-Saxon veil or head-cloth (couvre-chef). Florence. _Description of Meed_ (Bribery)." Such a wimple is figured from Orcagna (Campo Santo. Everich had on a jolyf coronal With sixty gems and mo. who completed "The Romaunt of the Rose. and lasted. "Thenne was I war of a wommon wonderliche clothed. as in the marriage scene in the fresco by Pinturicchio in the Piccolomini Library at Siena. It is thus referred to by John de Meun: "Par Dieu! I have often thought in my heart. in its varying forms._] . This marked the commencement of those horned head-dresses which were speedily developed to such an extravagant degree." PIERS PLOWMAN. refers to the chaplet or garland commonly worn by the ladies of the fourteenth century." observes that these horns appear to be designed to wound the men. The golden net-caul (crestine. the veil or curtain being extended at the sides. crespinette) appeared during the reigns of Henry III. but I venture to say that St.] This. Alle hir fyve fyngres weore frettet with rynges." [Illustration: _From Fra Angelico. Of the preciousest perre. and an echo of the mailed coif of the period. the coils either worn without any covering or enclosed within a caul.

of the beginning of the fourteenth century. there was also the remarkable arrangement of the veil. in the Bibliothèque Royale at Paris. or was looped at some point at the back. There was also a veil which was attached to the lower border of the steeple at its point of contact with the head.In a volume entitled "Jougleurs et Trouvères."[22] The preaching in the Middle Ages appears to have been remarkably effective. and which was called the "hennin. The sides were then turned up sharply in the shape of a V.] A variation of the "hennin" was the "butterfly. or hanging down. the latter appearing "like a forest of cedars with their heads reaching to the clouds." by M. that all that sawe her come ranne towardes her to wonder lik as on a wilde beaste. however. as soon as his back was turned the horns again began to grow: "The women that. and the head-dress heightened. He frequently had an audience of 20. at the back. which was often jewelled. There was a veil thrown over the whole. and which completely shrouded the head. This was developed in a variety of ways. it varied. "If we do not get out of the way of the women we shall be killed. who attacked the steeple head-dresses with great zeal and resolution. the hair being worn in coils above the ears. which was built up on a system of wires. had drawn in their horns. or decorated with simple bands or ribbons wound crosswise. with the sides slightly turned up.000 people. Monstrelet. and that he make hem bowe doun the hede for ferde of the holy water." from a MS. under the title of "Des Cornetes. The steeple head-dress varied in its height--from a matter of 18 inches or less. to 3 feet--in its ornamentation and colour. for she was atyred with highe longe pynnes lyke a jebet. a preaching friar. enclosed in a silken net." This same sermon is quaintly referred to by the Knight of la Tour-Landry in his advice to his daughters: "He said that the women that were so horned were lyche to be horned snails and hertis and unicornes. chiefly in the veiling. the veil was attached to the summit of the steeple and allowed either to hang loose. and falling over the sides of the face." "I doute that the develle sitte not betwene her hornes." Also the good knight told how there was "onis a gentille woman that come to a fest so straungely atyred and queintly arraied to haue the lokes of the pepille. In this poem it appears that the Bishop of Paris had preached a sermon directed against extravagance in women's dress. and so she was scorned of alle the company." [Illustration: HEART-SHAPED HEAD-DRESS. is a satire on horned head-dresses." in which the steeple . His eloquence was such that the women flung down their head-dresses in the middle of his sermon and made a bonfire of them within sight of the pulpit. shot them out again as soon as the danger was over. however." The horn-shaped head-dress appears in no pictorial documents or monuments older than the reign of Henry IV. and saide she bare a galous on her hede. Jubinal." The impression he created was. their horns and the bareness of their necks. the men ranging themselves on one side of the pulpit and the women on the other. for they carry horns with which to kill men. in his Chronicles. The heart-shaped head-dress began with a flat pad on the top of the head. not a lasting one. it was either plain. front and back. or. as the case may be. like snails in a fright. relates a story of one Thomas Conecte.

_] This flat cap appears in a number of portraits by Holbein. It was a dignified. and even ugliness. [Illustration: FRANCIS BACON. The material is most certainly velvet. who simply echo their sentiments without bringing any independent judgment to bear upon the matter. and who often possess no artistic knowledge or even perception. who invariably describe it as harsh and ugly. hearts. steeples. and butterflies suddenly disappeared. This. as a matter of fact. the long tapering toes. The Tudor period brought about a complete change in the head-dresses of both men and women. [Illustration: HORNED HEAD-DRESS. which in its earlier stage was invariably richly ornamented. with the view of encouraging English manufactures. as it must be remembered that the gowns and trains were correspondingly long. offering no particular variety in its form. extravagance there was. but even the high steeple was not out of proportion. An excellent example of the beautiful flat cap or bonnet worn generally during the Tudor period is to be seen in the portrait of William. is tilted to one side of the head. with bands at intervals. these head-dresses are often extremely piquant and quaint. and plumed. 6).] There was also the "balloon" or turban. and sometimes a hood. it is to be found in the remarks of the various lay writers on costume. were occasionally provided with an outer hanging sleeve. if any confirmation of this statement were needed. which is that most generally used by the nobility. it developed a second roll around the forehead. instead of being worn flat on the top. Horns. except only the nobility and persons of degree. continued to the Tudor period. and exceedingly beautiful head-dress. _Engraved by W. this. who doubtless materially influenced the costume of this period. As a matter of fact. it is jewelled at intervals along the brim. The cap was invariably richly jewelled and embroidered. which formed its constructive elements. thus balancing the high tapering steeple. It consisted of a cap and coverchief. the close-fitting sleeves (which. worn both . Twenty-six years afterwards this law was repealed. but. like the heart-shaped head-dress. in this instance. should on Sabbaths and holydays wear caps of wool.which formed the base of the head-dress was reduced to a comparatively short "caul. Marshall. in a slightly different form. the coverchief being generally allowed to fall down on the right side. of English manufacture. however. Notwithstanding the strictures passed upon these head-dresses by contemporary moralists or purists and by subsequent writers. dress generally of this period assumed a graver character. Good examples may be seen in the drawing of the Lady Vaux at Windsor and the portrait of Jane Seymour at Vienna. commenced with a flat pad." and the veil extended itself on either side like the wings of an insect. the high tapering head-dress. in 1571. like a cake. the whole dress was in keeping. also long). when it became round. by Aldegrever (p. Duke of Juliers and Cleves. restrained. and the head-dress of the ladies of the Court assumed that diamond-shaped form with which we are familiar in the portraits by Holbein. it was by Parliament enacted that all persons above the age of six years. forming an _ensemble_ which would compare favourably with the dress of any period. The cap. doubtless.

The horse is similarly plumed. but they are for the most part vulgar productions. rather. but rather detracts from it. like the scale of tones in music. Mantalini would say. which must be considered. The hat can scarcely be said to be a thing of beauty. or it was doubled.tilted on one side and flat on the top of the head. and had not taken the trouble. A cap of this kind might very well be worn by men at the present day. The scale of decorative development is. in the instance of the portrait above-mentioned. however. with three ostrich feathers and three other pointed ones. Many examples of the latter may be seen in Hans Burgkmair's "Triumphs of Maximilian. The simple flat cap above mentioned was developed in various ways during the Tudor period. indifferently made. as a matter of fact. or even taste. and puffed in various ways. _merely as diagrams_. It has not been a continuous development. elemental forms to work with. _Engraved by William Faithorne. and sold cheaply. the two primal. without appearing startlingly obtrusive. both for men and for women. Similar shaped headgear has. and would be a great improvement on the caps which are at present in use. It could be made in any cloth. [Illustration: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHIMNEY-POT HAT. to the quality of the workmanship. then._] The centenary of the modern pot-hat was celebrated in Paris only last year. the brim was either divided in two or more parts. of the Tudor cap is due to the material. and may be applied to any "demned thing. It is the principle upon which Nature herself works. the . been recently adopted by girls. as illustrated in a well-known weekly magazine. but plumed. one must either retrace one's steps or start upon a new track. minus. In point of fact. and not in any sense as representing the limits of the artist's power of realism." On looking at the various developments during the century. an oscillation backwards and forwards. the contour of the pot-hat has changed perhaps less than one might suppose. possibly had not considered it advisable. 23). For women and for the military. and afford abundant evidence of the fact that the milliner possessed no artistic knowledge. and this principle may be as well illustrated by means of the pot-hat as by anything else. a number of caustic remarks were made by Madame Sarah Bernhardt and others on the subject of "man's cylindrical attire. as will be seen by a reference to the accompanying diagrams. and. slashed. of course. as the principle holds good. amid much jubilation. the puffing being of a different material and colour to the rest of the hat. the plume and jewels. to the rich jewels which adorn it. and adds nothing to the decorative beauty of the plate. a continuous development was impossible without taking leave of the pot-hat altogether. [Illustration: THOMAS KILLEGREW. and." as Mr. Earl of Nottingham (p. be it understood. but. differing very little as to shape from that at present in use. The extreme refinement. even with the addition of its ostrich plume. _absolute_.] We have. we get the pot-hat proper (Elizabethan version). to refer to fine examples." In the equestrian portrait of Charles Howard. large plumes of ostrich feathers were added.

represents the quaint extinguisher hats which have been worn at various periods.straight line and the curved. second Earl of Essex (Elizabeth's Essex). he will at once perceive the principle--the degree of curvature is carried as far as is consonant with dignity or propriety. such vagaries could not by any possibility be entertained in a work of such gravity and seriousness as the present. he may well lend thee his rounde broocke to weare. 5 represents the high-crowned hat of the reign of James I.. I send thee a faire table dyamont." It was customary to wear jewels either in front of the hat or upon the brim when turned up. having a broad brim. it were fit for an admiral to weare. and the mirroure of Fraunce. my sweete gossippe. and which are still worn by the Welsh peasantry. in which state it stands in the same relation to headgear generally as did Millbank Prison to architecture. was worn during the greater part of the Stuart period. and yett he shall have jewells to weare in his hatte for three great dayes. It only remains to develop the hat by means of reducing the width of its crown at the top. with a little blakke feather". "for youre wearing. SECOND EARL OF ESSEX. If my Babie will not spaire the anker from his mistresse.. as the article must conform itself to the human cranium..) to his son. Fig. the three bretheren that ye knowe full well. we get a hint of those delicate and subtle curves for which the pot-hat is famous. a further narrowing of the top of the crown. who thought herself wondrous pretty. and to Buckingham he says. quiche I wolde once have givin thee before if thou wolde have taken it. in this instance. with the pendant dyamont. In the next figure. 6. Sir!" _Roxburghe Ballads. the fellow of the Portugall dyamont. and if my Babie will spaire thee the two long dyamonts in forme of an anker. "As to thee. the hat. intending to live in the City. 1 represents the pot-hat in what may be called its primordial state. and which._ . to carry it further would be to border upon buffoonery. it would not be possible to produce less variety except by reducing its height and making its shape an exact parallelogram. 1685. Her Petticoat serge._] To return to our diagrams. by substituting the curved line for the straight lines of the sides and brim." writes the King (James I.. No. [Illustration: ROBERT DEVEREUX. _Engraved by William Rogers. was seldom yet seen so fair a young maid for the street. In Fig. Sir. and I have hung a faire pearle to it for wearing on thy hatte or quhaire thou plaisis. In a steeple-crown Hat and a Paragon Gown. "I send you. in fact. The same may be said of development in the direction of _height_. quiche I wolde wishe you to weare alone in your hatte. Such a pearl may be seen in William Rogers's portrait of Robert Devereux. Often a single pearl was depended over the edge of the brim. It is at this point that we take an affectionate and regretful leave of the pot-hat proper. since the dimension AA is absolute. And under it all. Fig. her Smock cut out of a sheet. "There came up a Lass from a country town. which for present purposes is a fixed quantity. her Stockings were green. 4--not to weary the gentle reader with a long dissertation. but newlie sette. in 1623.

and pulled over the head by means of a string.] With the advent of the French Revolution in 1789 the three-cornered cocked hat disappears. MOTHER OF NAPOLEON. thus forming the three-cornered hat. No. of a very ungraceful form. probably of straw.. the patient is incurable." _Art of Dressing the Hair.." "When Anna ruled. (1760) "a hat worn upon an average six inches and three-fifths broad in the brim. and finally turned up at the back. and in this stage decorated with feathers. The slouch hat turned up on one side. indeed. Such turning up of the brim was called "cocking" the hat. The most distinguishing features were the coverings of the head. made of a framework of whalebone hoops. A gold button and loop to a plain hat distinguishes a person to be a little lunatic. and the edges trimmed with lace. taken from a caricature entitled 'Two of the Wigginses--Tops and Bottoms of 1803. between beaver and eyebrows. the military cock and the mercantile cock. and cocked between Quaker and Kevenhuller. and Kevenhuller fought. the feathers disappearing. A man with a hat larger than common represents the fable of the mountain in labour.By lowering the crown and widening the brim we arrive at the sombrero. which is. owing to the shallowness of their crowns. It was afterwards turned up on two sides. Others do not above half cover their heads. The hat its title from the Hero caught. which looks like a sandy road in a surveyor's plan. and upon the accession of George III. according to the fancy of the wearer. of the Stuart period. and in 1803 we find a noticeable change in costume. "Works of Gillray")." after the unfortunate Duke of that name. these are the Gawkies. which lasted for a century." which came in at the Battle of Ramillies in 1706. in the one sex of an enormous military cap. resembling the hood of a carriage (_calèche_). They are represented in the accompanying cut. there was the "Monmouth cock." . The different modes of cocking the hat were almost innumerable--in fact._ From a chapter on hats in the _London Chronicle_ for 1762 we learn that--"Some wear their hats with the corner that should come over their foreheads high in the air. "The French anticipated this invasion by sending over the most unsightly fashions that have ever appeared. which consisted. [Illustration: ANNE DAY. _Engraved by James Macardell. historically and decoratively." [Illustration: LETITIA BONAPARTE. and if a tassel is added. the "Ramillie cock. 7. of the three-cornered hat of the period of the House of Orange. 1770. was the precursor.' published on the 2nd of July in that year" (Thomas Wright. expose a blank forehead. [Illustration: "TWO OF THE WIGGINSES--TOPS AND BOTTOMS OF 1803.. and the hats edged round with a gold binding belong to brothers of the turf. and in the other of a bonnet._] In 1765 a large hood appeared called calash. It is said to have been introduced into England by the Duchess of Bedford. a gold band round it shows the owner to be very dangerously infected. but.

_Gillray. It has. destitute of taste. and reasonable. however." It has always been. on this occasion. would be too powerful an antagonist for the opposite sex. "If I were a poet I might observe. The action is a most graceful one. and is still. The panama hat is certainly the most satisfactory male headgear. they appear better dressed than the women of any European country." says: "Foreigners observe that there are no ladies in the world more beautiful or more ill-dressed than those of England._] He adds. On the comparatively rare occasions when English women rely upon their own invention. but the draperies thrown out by some empty pretender. 1812. English women under these circumstances. Commerce. a stock saying with foreigners that English women are ill-dressed. set off with all the advantages of dress. however. to the chimney-pot. and judgment. and therefore it was wisely ordered that our ladies should want taste. and finally. three years before the Battle of Waterloo? Goldsmith. both as regards appearance. who has established a precedent by appearing at Buckingham Palace in this form of head-covering for the purpose of receiving his seals of office. where there are said to . in a short essay "on the ladies' passion for levelling all distinction of dress. if the above statement as to their personality be true. as is also the habit of Spanish women of carrying fans. Such a rigid enforcement is quite unknown in Rome itself. must necessarily be the most charming creatures in the world. Our countrywomen have been compared to those pictures where the face is the work of a Raphael. which are usually attached to the waist. therefore. durability._] What shall we say to the page of Parisian head-dresses from _Bell's Fashionable Magazine_ for April. To return once again. and serve also the purpose of sunshades. and the convenience is obvious. and Art:-"An amusing sidelight of the Exhibition is the unprecedented stimulus to the sale of stovepipe hats occasioned by a rigid regulation excluding every other kind from the inaugural function. that so much beauty. being held up to the head on the sunny side of the street. taste. The "bowler" can scarcely be said to be a thing of beauty. Amongst modern head-dresses the Spanish mantilla undoubtedly stands out in pleasant relief from the general rule of the commonplace which obtains at present. since the majority of English fashions still come from abroad. been rendered historic by the Right Honourable John Burns. 1812. _Bell's Fashionable Magazine. lest their admirers should entirely want reason. by way of compensation to the ladies. Milan has just recently inaugurated her third International Exposition of Industries. health. and comfort. but the saying has little point in it." [Illustration: PARISIAN HEAD-DRESSES FOR APRIL. It is an entirely becoming head-dress. and entirely unacquainted with design.

_South Kensington Museum. and therefore she had wel her part beholdyng and lokyng.' said the good lady._ And the unconscionable knave held her in compliment an hour with that reversed face.. that she may do things securely. [Illustration: FOOL'S CAP OF LEATHER. The story is told that several provincial Deputies who were invited to Milan were so fearful of mishap that they bought tall hats _for their wives as well as themselves_" (_Vide_ daily paper). _natter_ in German. thou shouldst have relieved her. faith. is apparently somewhat obscure. Thenne said the good ladyes to her. Act I. for haste. 'My frende. Worn by the court fool of an Elector of Mayence (seventeenth century). MOUSTACHIOS. and put it on the wrong way. if you please. 'As ferre as I me remembre of it. The word "adder" is _atter_ in Saxon. Senators. after the makynge and maner of a gybet or galhows. and Deputies who are innocent of ever having donned one.be Cabinet Ministers. "_Truewit. We give here Caxton's version:--"For her clothyng and araye was different and no thyng lyke to theyr._] FOOTNOTES: [21] It would appear to be a corruption of "mad as an atter (adder)".' 'God bless us. where the poor madam. 'the name of hit is not faire. how ye name that aray that ye have on your heed?' She answerde and saide. FOURTEENTH CENTURY). 'hit was highe culewed with longe pynnes of sylver uppon her hede. I once followed a rude fellow into a chamber. [22] The above story was told to the knight by a lady of his acquaintance who was an eye-witness of the event. "_Clerimont._ O prodigy! "_Truewit. and pass to another._ A wise lady will keep guard always upon the place. as we'll let this argument.' continued the knight's informant. and troubled. when I still looked when she should talk from the other side._ No.'." BEN JONSON. _The Silent Woman_.'" IX THE DRESSING OF THE HAIR. snatched at her peruke to cover her baldness. sc. right straunge and merveylous to se. 'The galhows aray. Its origin. yf it please yow. 1.] . "_Clerimont. GERMAN.. [Illustration: COMB (ITALIAN. I let her alone. AND BEARD "_Truewit. however. telle ye us._ Why.

as in more recent days. t e fat e f Alexande. is pedeesss. the hair and beard were plaited in a series of symmetrical curls and ringlets." and received an intimation of an unpleasant character. though till then they used to shave. the powder. however. commanded the Macedonians to be shaven. He adds. owing to the national custom of shaving the heads of their children at a very early age. as well as Amyas and A elus. Ntwit standing t is statement. weve. MOUSTACHIOS. Herodotus assures us that the skulls of the Egyptians were much harder than those of the Persians. . in Egypt they have it shaved. and the Greeks of the earlier period. who. AND BEARD There was nothing new. that heated irons were employed from a very early period for the purpose of curling the hair and beard. as was the custom. were certainly curled in such wise. who waged a long and bloody war with the Persians. let the hair grow both on the head and face. declaring them infidels. hair powder. curling irons. and probably dyed and powdered. The Kings of Egypt had their beards interwoven with gold thread.IX THE DRESSING OF THE HAIR. As a matter of fact. With other men it is customary in mourning for the nearest relations to have their heads shorn. though in other respects of the same faith as themselves. gold was employed in various ways as an enrichment to the hair. wigs. [Illustration: BEARDED BACCHUS. P ilip. the Egyptians. "In other countries the priests of the gods wear long hair." The ceremonies and customs relating to the beard are innumerable. We have abundant evidence. Both with the Assyrians. ae epesented wit ut beads. because they refused to cast their whiskers after the mode or rite of the Tartars. even in the days of Solomon. and turned-up moustachios being no exception to the rule. _Layard's "Nineveh. fearful lest the length of their beards should prove a handle to their enemies."_] The hair and beard of Belshazzar when he "made a great feast to a thousand of his lords. displaying the utmost degree of formality in their arrangement. both from the concurring testimony of authors and from the actual works which have come down to us. on occasions of death. _Hope's "Costume of the Ancients. conveyed to him in an unusual manner. The management of the beard formed a considerable part of the religion of the Tartars. [Illustration: ASSYRIAN BAS-RELIEF. being gold instead of flour. and the first who shaved at Athens ever after bore the addition of χοροης (s aven) n medals."_] It has been recorded that the Greeks wore their beards until the time of Alexander.

Let us listen t t e sty in t e quaint. f iding t e sas n is fae. 19). Ppe Anitus is suppsed t ave been t e fist t fbid t e legy t wea lng ai. _Hpe's "Cstume f t e Anients. t e piest d abitually ndemned lng ai as being innsistent wit t e saed  aate f t e piest's ffie. and t edue im t t e nditin f a subjet. Wulstan. like t e fx f Æsp. a pf f t e existene f t e ustm being seen in t e seven lks f Samsn:-"And s e made im sleep upn e knees. "t at went dwn t t e skits f is gaments. is sn mu s te. "T e Hly Pelate. vi. It beame t e ustm t ave visits f eemny at t e utting f t e bead f t e fist time. wit t e exeptin f T ep ilus. t e Rmans did nt begin t s ave until t e yea f Rme 454. eveybdy else was plled. and s e began t afflit im. afte t e manne f all t e t e Empes f t e East. atfully dessed and uled. nne at all.Ading t Pliny. weve. is t at it was kept elabately dessed. aving suvived t e expeiene f a tap by t e saifie f is tail. as a sign f infeiity and bediene. xvi. tell us t at C alemagne we is ai s t. and endeavued t pesuade t em t ut ff t eis als. and s e alled f a man." T e Nazaite as been egaded as a nque w  subdued is temptatins. w . aangued t e t e fxes n t e innveniene f tails in geneal. t e ai being wn _ug _ as a ptest against fppey. Titinius bug t ve a stk f babes fm Siily." t e Nazaite law. [Illustatin: GREEK HEAD-DRESSES. and t e eputed lng ai f t e funde f C istianity. enjined all is subjets t s ave t ei eads. "He s all be ly. 1-21: "All t e days f t e vw f is sepaatin s all n az me upn is ead". T ut ff t e ai f a sn f Fane unde t e fist ae f Kings was t exlude im fm t e ig t f suessin t t e wn."[23] T e Nazaite vw is an at f saifie in adane wit t e tems f t e law laid dwn in Num. weve. and is stengt went fm im" (Judg. silvey musi f C aue:-"T is Sampsn neyt e sise dnk ne wyn . w en P. Ant e view. Gd Luitpand fuiusly delaimed against t e Empe P yas f weaing lng ai. and C ales t e Bald. w . Fm Gegy f Tus we lean t at in t e Ryal family f Fane it was f a lng time t e peulia pivilege f Kings and Pines f t e bld t wea lng ai. Pliny adds t at Sipi Afianus was t e fist t intdue t e fas in f s aving daily. as is suname indiates. weve. and w  we is lng ai as a wn. Fen istians. epved t e wiked f all anks wit geat bldness but e ebuked t se wit t e geatest seveity w  wee pud f t ei lng ai."_] In t e C u . f t e pupse. and s all let t e lks f is ai gw. in spite f t e bead f Aan. and s e aused im t s ave ff t e _seven lks f is ead_. T e fist futeen Rman Empes s aved until t e time f t e Empe Adian. t. being bald. w  disntinued t e patie and we a bead.

Six weeks aftewads Elean was again a wife--Heny." _Mnk's Tale. ."[24] Had e plled it at me fequent intevals e mig t ave made gd is suessin t t e wn. Aginut. but find I ave wedded nt ing but a mnk. . . imagined it a matte f nsiene t give an example f submissin t t e mmand f t e bis ps n t e subjet f lng ai. "In all Isael t ee was nne t be s mu paised as Absalm f is beauty: fm t e sle f is ft even t t e wn f is ead t ee was n blemis in im. t eefe e plled it). f England. f by t e abundane f is ai e met is deat . He ekned. . and t atne f is many uelties by being s aved in publi." T e bea asined by a bae fae was widened. w  allied im upn is s t ai and s aven  in." As in a mig ty ive we may tae bak its use t t e little ill  ivulet w i tikles fm t e muntain side.Ne n is eed m asu nn ne s ee By peept f t e message divyn F alle is stengt es in is ees wee. w  aftewads eigned as Heny II. wit ut is--wife. Hw mig t t e fae f bt Fen and Englis isty ave been  anged but f Pete Lmbad's dislike f a bead! Luis II. Hene ase t se was w i avaged Fane f nea t ee entuies. in w i upwads f t ee millins f Fen men peis ed n t e fields f Cessy. and t e stengt f Samsn. a jse madap. _Hpe's "Cstume f t e Anients. Duke f Nmandy. and Pities. being t e usband. And w en e plled is ead (f it was at evey yea's end t at e plled it: beause t e ai was eavy. it was t e bane f Absalm. "But e is ee lipped was  i-s ave T e was n bnd wit w i men mig t im bynde But nw is e in pisun in a ave T e as t ay made im at t e quene gynde O nble Sampsn stengest f al man kynde O w ilm jugge in gly and in i esse Nw maystw wepe wit t ine eyyen blynde Sit t u f wele at falle t we ednesse. and Slmn neve ave been king. Elean f Aquitaine. Unt is lemman Dalida e tlde T at in is ees al is stengt e lay And falsly t is fmen s e im slde And slepying in i bam upn a day S e made t lippe  s ee is ees away And made is fmen al is aft espien And w an t ay fnd im in t is aay T ay bund im fast and put ut bt e is yen."_] W ile t e ai was t e pide. s we may ften tae t e igin f geat events t vey small beginnings. e weig ed t e ai f is ead at tw unded s ekels afte t e king's weig t. . t e gly._ [Illustatin: ROMAN HEAD-DRESSES. w  btained wit e fai Aquitaine wit its t ee pvines. and t e maiage disslved. weve. . and n many a lesse field. "I t ug t I ad maied a pine. f Absalm ad "stlen t e eats f t e peple f Isael.

It was fund t at t e "siene and nnyng f P ysyke and Sugeie" was patised by unskilful pesns. pwe t ld . Edwade t e iiijt .  yu Fen -wn-lu bead. peeiving t e impessin e ad eated. and t t e mpany t e Sugens f Lndn. yu pefet yellw" ("A Midsumme Nig t's Deam. f t e stiffening w i was applied. indeed. t e "gd bt e" making a simila vw. T ee was appaently as mu vaiety f lu as f fm-"I will dis age it in eit e yu staw-lu bead. it was t eefe fund neessay f Si T mas Bleyn t aplgise f is maste's bad fait by saying t at "t e Queen f England felt an insupeable antipat y t a bus y  in. t e spade bead. issued an edit f t e suppessin f lng ai. and beame a membe f t ei mpany." and as t ee ae many sugens in Lndn w  give instutins t students. weves. and wmen. duly appved by t e Bis p f Lndn  Dean f St. and t ee was an extadinay uled tuft w i esembled a ksew. as Smyt es. wit its wadded nig tap f ptetin duing sleep. T is edit. T ee was t e fantail bead. mfte. and as a natual nsequene lng ai immediately beame t e age. It was t eefe enated t at nne s uld patise as a p ysiian and sugen in Lndn exept by examinatin. and t t e sue savegad f t ei bdily elt . was t e esult f a visit t Nmandy. Duing t e entuy w i fllwed t e eign f Edwad III. beads wee wn f evey imaginable ut. ne "t e Babus f Lndn. 2)." At I. and t e pea ing f a pelate named Sel. s. w  exeise f t e said siene "t t e geate elief.Heny I."[25] w  "bldely and ustumably take upn t eim gete uis. immediately w ipped a pai f sisss fm is sleeve and pped t e w le ngegatin! T e patia al bead and lng ai f Edwad III. yu puple-in-gain bead." Heny. Ri ad f Bdeaux. Ou Ryal "Bluebead" egisteed a slemn vw befe t e Fen Ambassad t at e wuld neve tu az till e ad visited " is gd bt e" upn t e Field f t e Clt f Gld. stngly ntasting wit t e  aate f is suess. t ei lymmes and lyves. in w i t ey pately use sey and w i afte" t t e gievus ut f t e Kyng's liege peple. t e at edal bead. yu ange tawny bead. and su f mu e peple. He ganted t e babes a new  ate. as ex ibited in is effigy at Westminste. "mmn atifies. T ee was. Paul's(!). t e stilett bead. wit a mmn seal. As it seemed needful t pvide skilful sugens f t e " elt f mans bdy w an infimities and sekness s al appen.." t ese tw mpanies ug t t eefe t be united int ne bdy." w i mpany f babus wee fist inpated "unde t e geate Seale f t e late King f famus memy. inpated t em wit t e sugens. T e astute piest. dated at Westminste t e xxiiijt day f Febuay in t e fist yee f is eigne. is in stit nfmity wit t e geneal  aate f t is seius minded mna . nt nly s aved is wn  in and we is ai s t. w se elquene was su t at t e mna and is uties wee mved t teas. w  was t e geatest fp f t e day." and as tw mpanies f sugens exist in Lndn. weve. and t yngys f geat diffiultie. but mmanded all is subjets t d t e same. Wit  aateisti "Englis pefidy" Heny bke is vw. as late. w ile t e Fen man emained tue.

" eit e by imself  by any t e f im. _Fm illet le Du (Fifteent Centuy). w ile e did live." ai was t e vgue--wit "A lng lve-lk n is left s ulde plig t. elquent testimny f t ei fme gly and geatness. babe. n expete in t ei nble siene f babing t an t ey be.  tim any pesn n t e Ld's day." vey peilus t t e King's peple. well s wed a wman's spite. [Illustatin: HEAD-DRESS. and t e feates t eunt belnging. f w i t e Ld May s all judge. publi  pivate. anging dwne ve t ei s uldes. _dawing f tet nelye exept_. and all t e ig ts f bt t e ld mpanies. t w i . t e babe's ple and basin. in any Inn." it was delaed and enated t at w eeas babe sugens ave been s aving and utting ai n t e Ld's day. "I annt but mavell at t e beastlinesse f sme uffians (f t ey ae n sbe C istians) t at will ave t ei ai gw ve t ei faes like mnstes. as t e Apstle pvet ." _T e Geat Oye. 1676. t is  t ei use." Duing t e eign f t e Stuats lng "lve-lks" and " eat beakes._] It was fut e fund t at sugens wee in t e abit f taking diseased pesns int t ei uses. f disvey f su ffendes. and fm is ead A wantn lk itself did dwn dispead Upn is bak. and savage peple." Babes ae neessay. P ilip Stubbes extls babes t t e skies: "T ee ae n fine fellwes unde t e Sunne.D."  t e plae. still emaining. t ei pivileges utailed. at e like mad men t an t ewise. T ei wings wee lipped. and t e sea es f t e said mpany f t e time being ae t make diligent sea in all publi and pivate uses as afesaid. It was als pvided t at any pesn may keep a babe  a sugen as is sevant. w ee t ey "d use and exeise babey. w  may patise in is maste's use. A. It wuld appea t at t e bsevane f t e Ld's day was me stitly enfed in t e seventeent entuy t an it is at pesent-"Att t e Cunell C ambe n Ouze bidge at Yk ye xxt f June." n babe in Lndn s all patise sugey. We de.lands.  any t e t ing belnging t sugey. "letting f bludde." "His bead was uddy ue. "afte t e feast f t e Nativitie f u Lde Gd next ming. in silent. being given t em as a sign f subjetin. Like t a wman's ai. as wass ing and s aving._ . 1745 was t e fatal yea f t e sepaatin f t e babes fm t ei me dignified lleagues. e s all be fined ten s illings. weve. t at if "any bt e f t e said mpany tnse. as wmens aie dt . w i indeed is an nament t t em. T ' ambiguus name f _Elf-lk_ e did give.[26] In t e eign f Gd Queen Bess t e ampaign against lng ai is ntinued." And n sugen s all "upye  exeise t e feate  afte f babaye  s aving. Nw." In man it is a "s ame and ep .

1600. and annt study w at t wea: In sumptuus bes s e still appeas. mst slemnly I ee delae. t pass t e pleasant nig t away. pat es." _Quips upn Questins. T at n t e pained sule yeelds nt a smile. [Illustatin: A PAINTED FACE. Filling t ei bwes wit stmes and geat disgaes. All sts f uius devies wee made use f--spts. _Rxbug e Ballads. nt e temples. And if s e's timm'd and igg'd by five. In tp-knts. T e lfty Tp-knts n e wn. stas. t is idiulus fas in ad beme mmn. w ile I am f'd t ide my eas. and lde it in yu ete t at ye put n t inge t pppe. I ave a Wife. Had. If t at I in t e least mplain. and faye yue visages. t en as like t unde in t e ai. t e w i is made afte Gddes ymage." CHESTER'S _Lve's Maty_. nduted by a bully spak. THE ININCIBLE PRIDE OF WOMEN. and als t at ye wass e nt t e ee f yue ede in nne t e t ing but in lye and wate" ("Advie f t e Knig t f La Tu Landy t is iij dug tes"). 1601. But puts tue lve int pepetuall exile. painte. and t at ye pluke n bwes. faie dug tes. s e des my wds and atins mak.eated Sule._] By t e eign f James I. "W es t e Devill? He's gt a bxe f wmen's paint-W ee pide is. w en it ad degeneated int mee spts  small pat es. mu idiuled by t e satiists. and in ne wdut a a and a man wit tw ses and pstilins appea upn t e lady's fe ead. n f ed. W ee devine beautie ests e f aw ile. in fat. And des likewise my gullet tea. duing t e geate pat f t e Gegian ea. T e fas in ntinued f a lng peid. t ewise t anne yu Ceatue and natue at deined. w  like a gaudy peak ges. Yet s e's as pud as Luife. . began in t e eign f Elizabet . w y t is I unt is vey sn. besides s e is t e wst f s ws. takit e ensaumple. wit w i s e sails abad wit al. T en ges s e t a ball  play. pwde'd ai. It is e feast t ntive t ise abut t e u f Nn.T e absud fas in f painting and pat ing t e fae. T is fills my eat wit gief and ae t t ink I must t is buden bea. t es t e Divell t. esents._ "T is is an Embleame f t se painted faes. I neve ad a gat wit e. t e me's my ae. su ftune lig t n t ee T at t u maist be tansfm'd as well as e. At t e lse f t e eig teent entuy it ad entiely disappeaed.[27] "W ef. And w en s e me etuns again.

and t ave wn a wig. T ee is n dubt we wigs. May Queen f Sts ad a mst mplete lletin f wigs. mentins.C._ Wigs f vaius kinds ave been in use fm vey ealy peids. t is pud impeius wife s e makes me weay f my life. Gd willing. but will begin next week.. T e peiwig blssmed ut duing t e eign f C ales II. Stutt affims t at t e beads f t e Egyptians. but ae seldm mentined until t e Tud peid. T at eve I s all appy be in su a flaunting Wife as s e. abut B. tw peiwigs. it is fmed f natual ulings f t e ai in t e uppe ptin. appea t ave been made f emved w en t e fae was s aved. amngst t e t ings. ene t e nstant euse t false ai. 1500." "A Lndne int t e unty went. . In t e pivy puse expenses f Heny III. B. T e want f it as eve been deemed a subjet f epa . T e "Maiden Queen" is ppulaly suppsed t ave ad e ead s aved. and it was dangeus f  ilden t wande alne.C. and gat e in ent. _Rxbug e Ballads." By t e middle f t e same entuy t ei use ad beme geneal. And w en t e milline s e duns. and t e lwe ptin. as veings f t e ead. alas! lk dwn. us t e enty: "F a peyke f Sextn t e King's fl xx s illings. It belngs t t e seventeent dynasty. lt es. and iled wit glutinus pefumes f t e pwde t ang by. f is extavagant pu ases in wigs. ia 1686. _Bitis Museum. f Deembe. and it is eded t at s e we ne at e exeutin. eld in idiule._] Lampideses desibes t e wig f t e Empe Cmmdus as pwdeed wit sapings f gld. and attained enmus pptins. and t at t e Egyptians and t e museums. 1500. as t e gae and nament w i t e ai impats t t e uman fame ave always been geneally egnised. nsists f lng. in all limes. "ne w eef st me £3 and t e t e 40s. EGYPTIAN. T e gssiping Pepys. and was fund nea t e small temple f Isis at T ebes. mplaining in is diay f Otbe 30. &. f t appea in gaudy pide.. I t en am f'd my ead t ide: Dea fiends. as t ey wee liable t be depived f t ei ai f t e manufatue f t ese atiles. I ave wn neit e yet. Wigs fist appea in England duing t e eign f Step en. as aving nw n pe at all. T visit is tennants. T e peiwig fist appeas in isty as t e eadgea f a fl. 1663. t e t in plaitings ntasting vey appily wit t e natual uls.Makes me wit ae. a numbe f w i ave been bken ff and deayed. as examples ae t be seen in t e Bitis well as t e false ai. T e wig given in t e illustatin is pbably a wman's. In debt wit evey s p s e uns. [Illustatin: WIG. it was ften gaily deked wit ibbns and allwed t ang ve t e fnt and bak f sme distane. w i was iginally mu lnge. 1522. t in plaits.

t e ut . He eplied t at e ad n bjetin. "t e a man we is. n." says Ftesue. t e lng bb. Si.He n a bave gelding did gallantly ide. t e bigadie and t e temendus fx-ea  luste f temple uls wit a pigtail be ind. His at was kt up. is Lady intimated t at s e wuld like t ampany im. t e tadesman was distinguis ed by t e snug bb  natty sat . t e ded wlf's paw. t e man f business and f law affeted t e gave full-bttm." T ee wee als. _Afte Wissing. T e diffeent s apes w i t e wig assumed wee innumeable. but wit t e lu  anged t blak. was abut t pik it up. t e ap being wn ve t e wig. t inking t at t e band-bx ad tumbled ut f t e windw by sme extadinay  ane. appening t stet is legs. 1688. t e pigen's wing. And e we a wigg st t ee guineas and me. t e  anell. Samuel Rges in is "Table Talk" tells a gd sty f Ld Ellenbug 's wig. t e ut bb. t e staiase. t e bus . T e a man stpped. t e met. t e se. t e negligent. t e ded bukle. t e alf natual.) T e me ant. t e snail bak. and t ei value ften led t t ei being stlen fm t e ead. pvided s e did nt enumbe t e aiage wit band-bxes. "Dive n!" t undeed is lds ip. Up went t e windw." _Rxbug e Ballads. and disveed t at it was ne f t e detested band-bxes. sting as mu as a unded guineas. t e yal bid. and a swd by is side. Beause t at t e Innkeepes t ey will nt se He lined is pkets wit silve gd ste. t e uge tie peuke f t e man f law. On ne asin w en t e distinguis ed Judge was abut t g n iuit. t e temple. Cunt Saxe's mde. as a wite in t e _Lndn Magazine_ f 1753 infms us. t e ladde. t e  ines. weaet a w ite quife f silke. w i is t e pinipal and  iefe insignement f abite w eewit Segeants-at-lawe ae dekked. and in 1808 was ut ff altget e. as d sme t t is day. and neit e t e Justie n t e Segeant s all eve put ff t e quife. "w ile e sittet in t e King's Cuts._] "T e Judge. t e  ain-bukle." T e if-ap is still wn n asins w en t e Judge passes sentene f deat ._ Wigs w en fist wn wee extemely expensive. and ut went t e band-bx. t ug e bee in talke wit is majestie's ig nesse. and t e diffeent lasses f siety wee identified wit patiula s aped wigs. t e wild ba's bak. (T e Amy pigtail was s tened t seven in es in 1804. and t e ftman. nt in t e King's pesene. e stuk is ft against smet ing belw t e seat. [Illustatin: BEAU FIELDING. and many t es. Duing t e fist day's juney. t e s e-dagn. f t e Amy and Navy. w i wee is utte ab ene. t e auliflwe. T ee wee t e leial and t e p ysial. Wit bts and wit spus. T e band-bx was adingly left by t e . t e unty gent by t e natual fly and unting peuke. be ind and befe. in imitatin f t e uled ai f a wate-dg.

by J. "Pemit me t pesent yu ladys ip wit t is bquet--it as been t Waen's. and s e invites is inteest in t e exessively lfty iffue w i s e is weaing. publis ed by Caingtn Bwles." eplied t e attendant." "Yu will t en. Si Hay. ve w i t e ai was dawn in geat uls. iv. my lady." "O! exquisite efinement--w at d yu t ink f my ap?" "Amazing. 1773. yu ae a man f su nie sensatins t at yu wuld d nu t nbility. w  appeas t ave been smew at f a wag amngst publis es. lls. t e lady is seen bwing as s e entes t e m. It was I w  fist det ned t se abminable mnstes t e Buks. t ei empess. I s all wea it t-mw nig t at t e Pant en. dubly pefumed and sented.. w i is illustated by a pitue f a lady and gentleman disussing wit geat animatin t e meits f t e male and female stumes f t is peid." "My lady. I s all ave it as lage again--my tupee s all be eig tened t ee in es." "Yu see. In t e "Maani Dialgue"--a llquy between Si Hay Dimple and Lady Betty Fisky--in t e _Lady's Magazine_. my lady. ibbns." "I vw. and send it me wit t e smell f t e dye. it wuld ave been at t e vey summit f t e mde--yu wuld t en ave been unable t me int a m wit ut stping. "it was t wn ut f t e aiage windw!" [Illustatin: PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER HYACINTHE RIGAUD.] Fm 1770 nwads was t e peid f t e ig est blssming f feminine ead-gea." "I pe I s all ave t e feliity f yu ladys ip's and t walk a minuet. t e gentleman is pesenting t t e lady a nsegay. "Nw. t e ead-dess ea ing t t e tp f t e eiling. and flwes. T e bdies f t ese enmus eatins wee fmed f tw. &.] In a pint f t e peid f t e Fen lady in Lndn. Upn is aival at t e ut at w i e was t ffiiate. binging t e table wit im. and establis ed t e eign f t e Maanies--w  fist impved upn t e Pude à la maé ale by t wing in a das f t e vilet. ." [Illustatin: RIDICULOUS TASTE.dit . T e gd man f t e use is s astnis ed and veme t at e falls t t e gund. A lage pitue upn t e wall epesents t e Peak f Teneiffe. H. Si Hay. We s all ave all eyes upn us. t an t ey knw w t wea it. wit false ai added. &. my taste as neve yet been alled int questin." "And yu. ad it been but an in ig e. be t e empe f t e Maanies. Si Hay. beynd desiptin--yet. my lady. it as nt t e least f t e vulga du f t e flwes. devting imself t t e uius and extadinay." said e. I always de my valet t give it a t ug pefume befe it mes int my pesene. OR THE LADY'S ABSURDITY. deated wit uge bws. t at yu lub may be ineased in pptin t my ead. and aaying imself f is appeaane at t e ut." "T be sue. my lady.use.  iding in a a wit ut t e tp being eig tened. Gimm. else we s all nt be fit patnes. T is at yu ladys ip sees is f my wn king--t se babaians t e attes ave n me idea f 'de etusse un  apeau' f a man f genuine taste. bbs. "w ee's my wig?--w ee _is_ my wig?" "My ld. Si Hay. t e w le feely plasteed ve wit pwde. in w i t ey ae lad. almst suffiient t make ne faint. pmatum. s t at _psitively_. I ave antiipated yu: t at upn t e table is _tw_ in es ig e.. I am supised yu ave it et been velked in t e eatin f Lds. feat es. n dubt!" "I beg.

" Mnsieu le Fiseu is munted n a ig pai f steps." t e ead-dess epesents a s ip in full sail. issued by t e same publis e. wit tents. epesenting t e fas inable ead-desses f t e yea 1776. On eit e side f t e ead-dess ae tw tp ies mpsed espetively f a mp and fie-ins and a besm and king utensils. W  knws. In t e illustatin given f "Ridiulus Taste. and tw ladies lding aws. ftifiatins. and peple ae putting ut t e fie by means f lage squits. [Illustatin: HEAD-DRESS." Hig plumes f feat es e-appeaed in 1796. w i lifts t e lady and e eadgea up t t e fist-fl windw." T e ladies' ead-dess aving aug t alig t fm a  andelie anging fm t e eiling f a ig m. T e legend uns-"T e taste at pesent all may see. t ee bannes ae flying. wit fie alig t and meat king." a mezztint epesenting a nveyane pvided wit spings. May wea a fl's ap ung wit bells. Fm t e ests f t e t ee ills f t e ead-dess. a mnkey. and des away wit t e need f walking up and dwn stais. &. T e lwe ptin f t e ead-dess epesents a sea fig t." It is in t e fm f a eat. attended by t ei blak sevant. But ea may wea t is kit en ead? T e nddle t at s vastly swells. T e tp f t e nveyane is pened t ammdate t e lady's ead-dess. suunded wit a bde f geengey. and giving des fm belw. t e ente f w i is upied by a C es ie  eese wit mie.[Illustatin: THE FRENCH LADY IN LONDON. A  aming design f a fany ead-dess is entitled "Betty t e Ck maids Head dest. and admiing imself in a mi. On t e summit is a stve. and battalins. But nne an tell w at is t be._] In 1776 an et ing appeaed entitled "Bunke's Hill. s ws tw ladies ut walking. Ant e pint issued by t e same publis e is a " int t t e ladies t take ae f t ei eads. In t e example given fm "Jaquemin. a gentleman is taking stk. wit ead-desses tw yads ig .] Ant e pint. weaing a fl's ap and bells. w i ae duly ftified and defended wit sldiey and annn. n w i ae figued.  Ameia's Head-dess. espetively. a gse. a mnstus feat e pjeting yads abve t e sedan--a paasl is fastened t a lng ple stapped n t e . _Fm Jaquemin. Gillay pdued a aiatue f a fas inable belle juneying t t e Assembly Rms at Bat in a sedan  ai. w en fas in's w ims ae spead. A mnkey sits upn t e stve. In t e same yea appeaed "T e New Fas ined P aetn. and is peating upn t e summit f t e lady's iffue." T e enmus eadgea f t e lady epesents t e battle. annn.  t e Lady's Absudity.

w i eminds us f Julian. T e W le At f Haidessing. be given:-"All t at is equied at nig t is t take t e ap  tke ff. peaks." "Still t be neat. Reste t e Bwed Plumes. All is nt sweet. 1779." epesents tw gils attaked by sti es:-"Tw lassies w  wuld like t ei mistesses s ine. afte t at take a vey lage net fillet. And put t e p gils in a teible fig t. w  likened is bead t a "fest gwn ppulus wit tublesme little animals. Give me a lk. W en tw sti es suddenly ame wit in sig t. and sampeing Plly. f "T e Feat eed Fai is a Fig t." "Heads" usually lasted a matte f t ee weeks. as any t e nament. aving always s bad an effet as t give a vilent eada e next day. and." If t e eade be uius in egad t t e _mdus peandi_ f t ese astnis ing eatins. 1782. Rbes lsely flwing. Still t be pwdeed. is nig t veing suffiient f t e ead. still pefumed: Lady. wit t e finest lawn andke ief. a favuite idea was t epesent attaks by sti es. t is. T is us in a numbe f pints f t e peid. w eein t e mysteies f t e at ae set ft wit geat minuteness and elabatin. . w ee t ey must be tied. On t ei eads lap'd sme feat es t make t em lk fine. Fanny seamed as s e an. and tun t e end f ea lle fimly in t keep t em tig t. give me a fae. tu t em wit yu pmatumy ands. till it lses all und t e fae and nek like a puse. T ' t ey etainly made a mst teible latte. ai as fee: Su sweet neglet me taket me. still t be dest. Afte t e uls ae lled up. . As yu wee ging t a feast. T e dietins f t e lady's "nig tap" may. nt ing need be tu ed but t e uls. all is nt sund. and stke t e ai be ind. d t em wit nie lng lles. stke t e ais t at may ave stated. and dawing t e stings t a ppe tig tness be ind. We get a glimpse f t e pssible state f a lady's ead at t e expiatin f t at time fm t e many eipes and advetisements f t e destutin f insets in t e magazines f t e peid. T at makes simpliity a gae. Wit e Fan fug t t e bids in defene f e flly. t delay lnge t e pening f yu ead. Duing t e feat e peid.bak f t e indemst ptin and pteting t e tp. e ( me pbably it will be s e) is efeed t "Plasms. it is t be pesumed. madam." by James Stewat. fa t lng t be explained ee. "But w t e Bids gt t England's n matte. wit a little sft pmatum in yu ands. and put it n. emembeing at t e same time t e ai s uld neve be mbed at nig t. weve. and as yu put t em n. yu an easily knw w t take t em ff: wit egad t t e ai. wind t em up t t e ts. yu may take t e pins ut f t em. . T e pint by J n Cllet. w i must be big enug t ve t e ead and ai. T ug at's id auses ae nt fund. and t e inteested bids. bing t e stings und t e fnt and bak again t t e nek. w en--'twuld be dangeus.

lettues. I will give yu a desiptin f e ging t see t e new medy f t e 'East Indian' t e t e nig t. e  eeks bedaubed wit ed. e plaisteed ve t e ead. and Will. _T e Silent Wman_. tunips. and fm t is iumstane is tubles began. my daug tes  se t g wit ut aps. and even my wife eslved f ne. using is and as a twel. e ai bepuddened. _Engaved by Augustin de St. w  lives in a ut nea us. in mpany wit e bt es and sistes. weve. peas. and tw pund f Sangwine's eig tpenny. and t en.. expsing a pai f legs. my eldest daug te. a t ik-flweed silk expsing t e w le fnt f a quilted pettiat t at ne was w ite. t e ntast between t e tw skins being almst t e vey ppsite t ea t e. [Illustatin: LOUIS XI._] "Dik Dusty. w at an alteatin t is aquaintane wit t e geat family as made. was sent f at tw 'lk. t e peatin f t e ead was begun amng t e abbages. Dik.alfpenny pwde being pued. 1782. T e apeing by t e tadespeple f t e mannes f t e geat is amusingly tld in t e _Lady's Magazine_ f August. Sally. and a ld's ftman. wee t be we. . w  signs imself "Ati ke Pulse. my dea Si." . e nek f a imsn ue. w i duly appeaed in t e next numbe:-- ." He says: "I wis t Gd yu wuld wite smet ing smat against fas in. ." pvked an indignant eply fm a  ampin f t e wmen. ut and slas ed away until e ad left just as mu ai as e uld nveniently dess. talks f taste and t e mde. w  pesented t em wit des f t e tw-s illing galley. aye fait . and an atifiial buquet was stuk in t e fnt f t se puddings. MARIE ANTOINETTE." It appeaed t at is sn Tm ad wked imself int a gentleman's family as ftman. was nt t e least emakable in t e gup. t figue away in ne f t se val piees f nnsense. . but being pu ased at a pawnbke's t ey wee nt ppely ut f t e fas inable p. "Pe aps in natue. t e aidesse's appentie. My family is almst uined by t e atile f dess. t e ankles as t ik as t e alf. "Yu an saely neive. Aubin." T is sally. Hps. ats. eunting t e wes f t e apless "Ati ke. T ey stike mine eyes. and t e desses t. .  t deeive t e eye int a belief t at t e ead was a pudding bag tuned inside ut! "As it was summe. and t e alf as t ik as t e mden waist. in t e fm f a lette t t e edit. until it was faily enusted s as t ide t e lu f t e ai. and t en yu ave t e appeaane f my wife! He daug tes made as idiulus a figue.T an all t e adulteies f at. and beans t at suunded us." BEN JONSON. wit a ppe quantity f gease. pupting t be fm a espetable geenge. AND THE DAUPHIN. aving wked t e gease and t e flu int a kind f paste. e ams busting t ug a pai f w ite glves. t ee was neve su a figue! Only fas in t yuself a geenge's wife issuing fm e ella in Duy Lane. but nt mine eat. T e gwns wee silk. I d assue yu. wit a mnstus p. w  was but a nvie at is business.

we ae eit e. and t e pats f u dess. unde t e  aates f Geen Ges. as feely as t ey exeise t ei aut ity ve t e stles at a unty inn." 1583). wit us..  amiable t yu feend. OF SPAIN. t ei s es tied wit stings. and w . T is is espeially ntieable in t e Cavalies f C ales I. and gives t em t at dignity f appeaane t at evey wman in a genteel line f life as a ig t t assume.  as a sldie makes eady t pesent ams. t e numbe f buttns lately added t t ei ats: f w at eal sevie t at pndesity f t ei wat es and anes? We will even attend t t e Geen Ge. extemely dangeus t indulge in any kind f sweeping genealities wit espet t u wn ep . if e an defend t em."I t ink it ig time. [Illustatin: A REIGNING MONARCH. be it knwn. and. It was s wit t e Bnapatists f t e T id Empie. gime and stene in untenane. yea. tell t em t ey ae inapable f eting t e fibles in t e ladies' desses. weve. In t e dessing f t e ai. 45 degees fwad we may expet t see its wne ente a wded mnibus wit t e pint f is umbella eld at t e same angle. t en. is t emnstate wit t ese smat gentlemen. and n lnge despise t e pinins f t se sutats f u dess. w en t e wits.w t ei mw atwes must be peseved and laid ut. numbes f w m adpted t e s t. and tuned up like tw nes twads t e fe ead" (Stubbes. as impsed is impeius will. as in stume geneally. w en t e "impeial" beame t e vgue. "W en yu me t be timed. f evey female t exet t e little knwledge s e may be pssessed f in t e sibbling line. it is a finis ing gae t t ei pesns. till t ey ave establis ed a itein f t ei wn. fm lng . in stiking ntast t t e lse pped and s aven und eads f t e Cmwellians. t e lwest dept f t e mmnplae as been ea ed duing t e nineteent entuy. It is. and speak f u ps. "Anatmy f Abuses. almst fm ne eae t ant e. dae t insult us. At an angle f. fm ne  eke t ant e. t ey mig t ave sme slid easns f epe ending us.  pleasant and demue.] At a still me eent peid. Did t ey adpt n t e fas ins t an useful and beming nes. nt nly upn is wn untymen. dea Madam. [Illustatin: PHILIP I. w en f a mdeate size. t ey will aske yu w et e yu will be ut t lke teible t yu enimie. but till t en we must insist t at t e p (t e battey at w i mst f t ei pesent atilley is played ff against).] T e angle at w i it is pinted pvides an index as t  aate. but w is t is t be dne? Can t ey pint ut f w at use ae t e ig -wned ats. in t e matte f t e tuned up musta i. pinted bead and musta is and lng ai f t ei maste. and f t e degee f pugnaity f t e weae. we wis f yu. appeas ee _stitly ingnit_ (we wuld fain esape t e die nsequenes f _lèse-majesté_). t e illustius pesnage w  is figued ee. is an additin t t e appeaane f a fine wman.-. say. "T e favu. but upn t e wld at lage." Alt ug Kings ave ften vainly endeavued t impse t ei will upn t e peple in t e matte f appael it as ften appened t at mna s ave set t e pevailing fas in f t e peid.

n is way t Italy. and n men wee beaux w se faes wee nt badest at t e bttm. a unty  u was at and. fund imself in a unty w ee t e in abitants ad ea a lage exesene depending fm t e  in--a defmity w i . Dundeay and muttn- p w iskes ae even nw t be fund in ut-f-t e-way unty plaes. t e pismati figue f t e stange's fae was a fund f infinite gaiety. G. and fe ede te benninge . Upn is fist appeaane at t e  u d t e eyes f all wee fixed upn t e stange. T e  ignn. w  pinted ut t at it bsued and destyed t e beautiful way in w i t e ai spings fm t e fe ead. Watts. in its many develpments. peadventue. and paintit e. in ne f is delig tful essays. time immemial. and w ispes iulated fm visage t visage..  pwde t e fae.abit and ustm. and is dawl. a pused  in! Stifled busts f laug te. like as a lyn ldit e is paie._ Dundeay. F. alt ug t e Dundeay w iske is but a glified develpment f ealie fms-"A ma aunt was t e wit a fked bed. is wit in t e memy f mst f us." said e. M." als appily gne. If t ee s uld. Watts. ntably M. tells a sty f a tavelle w . as it was endemi and t e peple little used t stanges. "Gd flks. and t t e teible "ensaumples" w i e eld up t t em f t ei nsideatin and avidane: "Alas!" e exlaims. wit is stiped peg-tps. Gldsmit . t e devil lding e "bi t e tesses f t e ee f e ede." and t e same "develle putte and t uste in e bwes.  elegated t t e ste fatenity. winks." Ld Dundeay wuld ave been impssible in any t e ep t an t e itian. "w i take wmen nn ede f t e get lve t at Gd at e yeve em t make em afte ys figue? and w i ppit e t ey. t e dius Piadilly finge still endues wit t se pesns w  ae eit e slaves t abit  w  find t at t e uling and fizzing f t e ai f t e fe ead destys its apaity f gwt . It was Sunday. is eyeglass. t lk upn as t e geatest beauty. T e Piadilly finge was pesistently ndemned by atists. tget e wit t e bell-bttmed tuse wit w i it is in singula affinity.. "I peeive t at I am a vey idiulus figue ee. exatly fitted is envinment.. temples. but w at was t ei amazement w en t ey fund t at e atually wanted t at emblem f beauty. Ou tavelle uld n lnge patiently ntinue an bjet f defmity t pint at. paint. weve. but I assue yu I am ekned n way defmed at me. and plukit e e visage t ewise t an Gd at deined em?" W y indeed! T ee was ne a lady w  died and suffeed geat ttues in ell. let t em listen t t e sund advie and gd unsel w i t e Knig t f La Tu Landy gave t is daug tes. it ad been t e ustm. In mtteleye ig n se e sat. be any fai eades w  ae enamued f t e beauties f eit e t e Piadilly  t e finge.  we ae afflited wit t at ntempt w i is bn f a t geat familiaity. Ladies gew tasts fm t e size f t ei  ins. was nt t e fist t wan t e ladies against t e sin f pping s t and pulling ut t e ai f t e fe ead." _Cantebuy Tales.  w  s uld be smitten wit t e insane desie t pp. and u tavelle was willing t pefm t e duties f t e day. His w iskes epesent t e vey antit esis f t e "Piadilly finge. pejudied in favu f a patiula _égime_.

si. a. as M. in w se mind t e inmates wee always epesented by t at patiula atile f t ei stume w i ame unde is immediate supeintendene. si. in t e ealy days f t e luntee mvement f t e beginning f t e sixties. and neve sweas. Flas des. 25. w ee t ey sell t e best tea. w ee t stik my pat es. w  satiises t e vaiatins in t e fm f t e s t side w iske still belved f butles and stles. si?--Jus' s. w at pse yu uld a belnged t. si? (_Custme lks bewildeed._) W y. t at ave as mu knwledge in p isik  sugey as at jakeanapes. a!'" (David Gaik. and tells me w at ibands beme my mplexin. SHOES." 1747). t make e selff t e faye t t e plesinge f t e wlde. si._" It is a vey fa y fm t e gd Knig t f La Tu Landy t t e wiked M. and espeially wmen. 'T e devil take me. si. many pses. 26. Pun f Fleet Steet. AND OTHER COERINGS FOR THE FEET "'W  is t ee in t e use?' said Sam. adin' t t e Reg---.(_Custme stms. fnt and fe ed. [24] 2 Sam. "Miss in He Teens. t ee's a pai f Hessians in t iteen. but yu'll be my peditin-. t ee's tw pai f alves in t e mmeial.alles and nedeles"._) Nt a wluntee. w  is t e best milline. 'T ee's a wden leg in numbe six. X BOOTS. si. t ee's t ese ee painted ." 1583). leastways I was a-wndein' t myself d'etly I see yu. and w i . Miss Biddy.a. t ave awey t e ee. 'as a ekignised style f 'ai. si." FOOTNOTES: [23] William f Malmesbuy. T ug t nt. and t e basin t e vessel t eeive t e bld. beame identified wit patiula egiments  mpanies:-"HAIRDRESSER: Sut Middlesex  Keveens. and w i is t e best was f t e fae and t e best paste f t e ands. "Anatmy f Abuses. and s wing is teet . s uld be estained fm t e publike use t ef" unless t ey d it _gatis_ (Stubbes. and yet I wuld wis t at evey ignant dult. [26] T e fillet w i eniles t e babe's ple indiates t e ibbn used f bandaging t e am in bleeding. and w en eve I speak. [27] "He speaks like a lady f all t e wld. being but smattees in t e same nble sienes. and w y was s e subjeted t all t is tment? _Beause s e ad "pluked e bwes. e pats me--s--and ies. [25] "P isike is gd. e is always playing wit my fan. but weas nie w ite glves. xiv.

twads t e lse f t e t id entuy. Cispin.' "'It is t em!' exlaimed Wadle. f is s emaking.  f is t efts. FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and a pai ' lady's s es in numbe five.'" _Pst umus Papes f t e Pikwik Club. ad been lst in bewildement at t e singula atalgue f visits.' "'Nt ing me?' said t e little man. but n aunt f is eligius tenets. AND OTHER COERINGS FOR THE FEET T e gd St. t Sissns in Fane t ppagate t e C istian fait . bbling s es f t e p by t e lig t f is andle and filling up t e inteval wit pea ing. Denis. Ading t ant e vesin f t e legend.] . tavelling wit is bt e Cispinian. "'Any make's name?' "'Bwn. OR PATTEN. weve._ [Illustatin: FLEMISH (EIGHTEENTH CENTURY). t e saint _stle_ t e leat e. 'By Heaven. Hw did Cispin beme t e tutelay saint f s emakes? Well. s as t enable im t benefit t e p.' eplied Sam.] [Illustatin: FRENCH (SEENTEENTH CENTURY). we've fund t em. wee ply ewaded. pea ing t e Gspel by day. and suffeed matydm in 287 A. like t se f s many t e benefats f t ei kind. t ee's a pai f Wellingtns a gd deal wn. in mpany wit St. nt.tps in t e snuggey inside t e ba. and five me tps in t e ffee-m.' "'W at st f s es?' astily inquied Wadle. Sme aunts state t at e and is bt e wee flung int a auldn f mlten lead.' eplied Sam. it was in t is wise. "'Cunty make. suddenly elleting imself.' "'W ee f?' "'Muggletn. [Illustatin: CLOG. Cispin. is a figue w i all s emakes egad wit eveene. 'Yes. "'Stp a bit. tget e wit M. in de t at e mig t nt be a buden t t es f is maintenane.. T e s es wee sld at a lw pie t t e p. Pikwik. SHOES.D. w .] X BOOTS. He was deed t be be eaded. f blessed memy. Cispin's effts. exeised at nig t t e tade f s emake. an angel (s t e legend eunts) miaulusly funis ing t e leat e.

t e mst eminent Geman pet f is time. tanned  untanned. Sandals wee wn eit e wit bae feet  wit stkings  se. 287). T e sandal." T e Westen patie f unveing t e evese end f t e uman anatmy pesents a uius and smew at statling ntast.' as s emaking as been alled sine t e days f t e illustius Cispin.[28] T e univesal bsevane by Easten natins f t e ustm f emving t e s es as a mak f eveene is in bediene t t e mmand given t Mses fm t e buning bus at Heb: "Put ff t y s es fm ff t y feet. t e w le nneted  dawn tget e wit staps dawn sswise ve t e instep and und t e ankle. Mst f t e ealy natins we sandals. w  we s es f _byblus_. ntably in t e ptaits by andyke. less emembeed pe aps as a s emake t an f is edits ip f t e famus _Quately_--t ese ae a few nly f t e men "w  ave impated a gly t t e 'gentle aft. w i n amunt f leanliness and ae an w lly avet. wee usually baefted." alt ug Natue pvides e wn ptetin t t e sles f feet w i ae abitually bae. dividing is time and enegies between s emaking and pea ing.T e bt e d f t e s emakes as always inluded men f emakable  aate and pats. . William Giffd. been wn at all peids. t e eads and laws being allwed t fall ve t e tp by way f nament. _i. t en."[29] Bt t e Geeks and Rmans we buskins. w i ea ed t abut t e middle f t e alf. Hans Sa s. and wee usually lined wit t e skins f t e smalle animals. sine it is t e sles w i neessaily demand sme st f ptetin until t at time w en t e "ug plaes s all be made plain. f t e sle. like t e finges f a glve. assuming sme namental fm. Sme mden ygieni efmes ave. "T e intepsitin in t e five-ted sks f a laye f wllen  t e mateial between ea te absbs t e pespiatin and apidly effets a emakable  ange. Gege Fx. wit a t inne piee. f Lds J n and Benad Stuat (p." and invested it wit distintin. we ae tld. and wee nt pemitted t wea any t e. bn at Nuembug in 1494.  a d  t ng passing between t e geat te and t e fist f t e smalle tes. T e skin between t e tes bemes dy and w lesme. upn t e instep. T e Egyptians. fist f Quakes._.e. t be wn even wit t e mden s e  bt. and t e squeezed. T e skin f t e abitually baefted Iis lassie vaies. and even me. by t ikening t e skin. T ese wee vaiusly namented and laed. f t e plae w een t u standest is ly gund. is due t t e inability f t e pespiatin t esape w en t e sufaes ae in ntat. weve. Ftgea began as a ptetin t t e _sles_ f t e feet. and t is wuld seem t be easnable. n t e gund f ealt iness. sine t e bjetinable nditin f t e skin between t e tes. fm a quate t alf an in in t ikness. ippled appeaane f t e tes geatly altes f t e bette. indeed. wit t e exeptin f t e piests. Buskins ave. may be nsideed as t e peus f t e s e. seveal examples ae given. tue fllwe f Cispin. emmended ted stkings f pesent use. in w i ase a divisin f t e stking wuld be neessay between t e geat and little tes. T e Geek sandal nsisted f a stip f t ik ide. stkings pvided wit a sepaate eeptale f ea te. as a matte f fat.

It nsisted f a piee f aw w ide. t t e knee. t e ft and leg being enased in a me  less lse stking  se. eldest sn f t e Cnque. and by t e mmn peple duing a lng peid. [Illustatin: LORDS JOHN AND BERNARD STUART. but wee allwed t fall at will. sswise ve t e instep and und t e ankle. Rbet. T e usual ftgea f t e peid. t eaded alng t e uppe edge. s es vaied vey little. was alled "Cuta Oea."  S t Bts. velvet. exept in t e  aate f t ei namentatin. T is fas in btained. was nt nfined t t e ealy Bitns. and teminating in a pint. Du de Bey.  und t e w le f t e leg t t e middle. _Engaved by James Maadell. weve. _Hpe's "Cstume f t e Anients. weve. dawn ve t e se. and alf way up t e leg. made f lt .  t e mateial. f Fane in 1375. in sme . and Ri ad I. duing t e w le f t e Angl-Saxn peid. It nsists f a simple blng piee f t ik leat e. dawing t e s e like a puse ve t e ft. T ey ad n fastenings  laings.[Illustatin: ROMAN SANDALS. Duing t e eign f William t e Cnque. wit a plain band und t e tps. ading t t e stiffness  t ewise f t e mateial f w i t ey wee made."_] T e ftgea f t e Italian peasant f t e pesent day may be nsideed as t e mst pimitive fm f sandal. pefated at t e sides and ends t allw f staps being dawn t ug . T ese bts esembled lse sks  gal es. in 1405._] T e Angl-Saxn s e was pvided wit lng t ngs f leat e  t e mateial atta ed t t e s e at t e ankles and wund sswise und t e leg t t e knee. Duing t e eigns f Heny II. but me ften alf way up t e leg nly. me  less. s t bts ea ing abve t e ankle. and was mmn t mst f t e Nt en natins.. T is fm f s e. eit e in iula bands  sswise. ea ing t t e knee. but was adpted by mst pimitive peples at diffeent peids. in many instanes t e w le f t e leg being ss gateed. smetimes ea ing as ig as t e knee. a numbe f figues ave bts. it is t e fist and eadiest met d f veing t e feet w i wuld u t t e pimitive mind. wit sme fm f se. and asinally t t e middle f t e t ig . T ey wee wn in vaius fms by all lasses.] T e ealy Bitns we a s e w i was almst as simple in nstutin as t e last mentined. [Illustatin: SANDALS OF THE ITALIAN PEASANTRY. weve. In t e miniatues f t e "Fata et Dita Memabilia" f aleius Maximus. pevailed. eit e fm is setting t e fas in  fm etaining it w en abandned by t e beaux f t e day. in fat. w  died in 1134. begun by Simn de Hesdin f C ales . wit a leat e t ng fastened at t e eel. always. Duke f Nmandy. is t e lse s e. made appaently f sft leat e and lued eit e ed  w ite. leat e. and mpleted by Ni las de Gnesse f Jean. a kind f lse tp-bt appeaed. Fm t is peid f me t an a entuy nwad.

w i was t e mst idiulus t ing t at eve was seen. pinted tes. but asinally f wd. T is fas in f lng pinted tes lasted duing t e t ee sueeding eigns. and Pines _tw feet lng_. wit pinted tes. In a wk n "Anient Cstume. f Siily. satin. and assumed vaius s apes. FRENCH. and velvet. king upwads. aving a bill  beak befe. and w en men beame tied f t ese pinted s es. GERMAN (SIXTEENTH CENTURY). estited t e lengt f te t tw in es. ftgea. was t e peid f abnmally lng pinted tes. wit lng. ad pints at t e tes f t ei s es a quate f an ell lng and upwads. FRONT AND SIDE IEW. and wee vaiusly s aped. and almst all. and even f k. t e tes being stuffed wit tw  t e substane t keep t em in s ape. T is seies f miniatues is extemely inteesting as giving an insig t int t e dmesti life f t e futeent entuy.] T is fas in f appending  ains t t e peaks f t e s es lasted intemittently f a nsideable time. alf a ft lng: t e i e and me eminent pesnages me t an a ft. sft leat e." Paadin desibes t e men as "weaing s es wit a pint befe. lt . w i asinally ea ed t e lengt f six in es and me. and namented wit t e i est vaiety f pattening. veed wit lt -f-gld. f fu  five finges in lengt . w i t ey nw alled _pulaines_." ited by Camden. GERMAN (SIXTEENTH CENTURY).instanes t e tps tuned dwn. T e At f 3 Edwad I. Upn t e pening f t e tmb f Heny I. espeially in t e Cuts f Pines.] Clgs and pattens wee wn fm t e time f Ri ad II. and t e sles f k. . like t e est f t e stume f t at peid. T e sles wee usually f t ike leat e. t e dead mna was disveed weaing s es f w i t e uppes wee f lt -f-gld embideed wit peals. in w i t e peaks f t e mna 's s es ae fastened by  ains f gld t is gidle. "Even bys we dublets f silk. w i t ey all _akwes_. t ey adpted t es in t ei stead denminated duk-bills. and fastened t t e knees wit  ains f gld and silve. T e eign f Ri ad II. T e tps wee f vaius mateials. f Stland is mentined. was exeedingly sumptuus." T e sumptuay laws egulating t ese mattes ave been efeed t in t e intdutin t t is wk. nwads as a ptetin t t e sles f t e s es. silk. me t an a finge lng. MAN'S SHOE. Duing t e eign f t e Plantagenets. Randal Hlme alls _pattanes_ "ins t be tied unde t e s es t keep t em ut f t e dit. a ptait f James I." In an annymus wk alled t e "Eulgium. [Illustatin: FRENCH. T e s es wee usually lse-fitting. lt -f-gld. esembling devils' laws. sme f t e inteis being espeially s. SEENTEENTH CENTURY. FIFTEENTH CENTURY." [Illustatin: CHILD'S SHOES. &. it states: "T ei s es and pattens ae snuted and piked." by Maj Hamiltn Smit .

t estit t ei _beadt _. by t e altitude f a  pine!" Twads t e lse f t e fifteent entuy it beame t e fas in t bend t e lng te ve t e s e bakwads. 282). as eetfe.  velvet." 1714) says: "F s ame. Ant e means f aising t e ft was t e " pine._] A numbe f examples f s es f t e fifteent . in fat. FRENCH (SEENTEENTH CENTURY).] Duing t e eign f t e Tuds t e  aate f t e s e suddenly  anged fm t e lng pinted te t t e bad-ted s e. it was. tw f t e t ee lwe nes s w t e lg f leat e w i was fixed fm t e eel t t e te.T ee is a manusipt in t e Ryal lletin in w i t e Duke f Glueste. An illustatin is given fm t e Cluny Museum (p. T e man's s e is s t-ted. T e side view s ws t e pint tuned upwads. and s ten u eels. fa bette t an any witten desiptin. sixteent .[30] [Illustatin: SHOES OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEENTEENTH CENTURIES. and esemble t e s es wit w i t e C inese ladies until quite eently ttued and mutilated t ei feet. weve. yu ladys ip is neae eaven t an w en I saw yu last. Bulwe's "Pedigee f t e Englis Gallant" says: "In t e eign f . suely a mst unmftable t ing t wea. elngated t an extavagant degee. i ly wked in stamped leat e." w i was a kind f stilt. kid. and seventeent entuies ae given fm t e inteesting lletin in t e Musée de Cluny. t give an idea f t e  aate f t e ftgea f t ese peids. let us leave ff aiming at t e utding u Make in u tue symmety and pptin. T e ladies' s es f t e sixteent and seventeent entuies given n p. it is said. Bt ave ig eels." Clgs wee f wd." T e s es f t is peid affd a minimum f ptetin t t e feet. and ae  aateisti. t e w le f t e instep being unveed. T is as been adpted by Abbey in is famus pitue f "Glueste and t e Lady Anne. T e tw examples figued at t e ead f t is  at ae fm t e Cluny Museum. f pleasing t e distted fany f t e men and t be qualified f maiage. and ae typial f t e s e wn duing t e geate pat f t e fifteent entuy. seue teading and upig t walking. f u wn ease. It was again fund neessay f legislatin t step in--t is time. Si T mas Pakins ("Teatise n Westling.. and will seve. an example f w i will be seen in Hlbein's pitue f t e "Tw Ambassads. t ikened at t e eel and ball f t e ft f t e pupse f aising it fm t e gund. Aftewads it was fut e aised by means f tw piees set at ig t angles t t e ft. 293 ae f vaius mateials. f t e pupse. slas ed and puffed wit silk. t e ente ne f t e t ee aving a s ap pinted eel and a unded sle. is depited as weaing a lg. n peisely t e same piniple as t e Japanese s es f t-day. 291 ae f leat e. let us likewise. as He designed we s uld. made eit e f vaius lt s." [Illustatin: CARED WOODEN SHOE. instead f t e lengt f t e tes. Hamlet t us addesses t e lady playes: "W at! my yung lady and mistess! By'-lady. and f t e mst pat i ly embideed. _Musée de Cluny. T e tw  ild's s es given n p. aftewads Ri ad III. t e sle.

is desibed a fas inable man. t e s es ae f leat e.000. T ey fmed t e usual fastening f t e s e duing t e Cmmnwealt . fm t e ig est spig in is feat e t t e lwest spangle t at s ines in is s e-sting. 2. w  "takes a full suvey f imself. I pesume. weve. t e peple in geneal ad laid aside t e lng pints t ey fmely we at t e end f t ei s es. "a plamatin was made. by way f "piling Pelin upn Ossa. t at n man s uld wea is s es abve six in es squae at t e tes.Queen May. alamed at t ei delining tade. t e tw nes even pjeting fm t e flat edge. w en t ey fell int disuse. t ey neve ea ed su extavagant pptins as in t e befe-mentined instane. and wee wn until t e lse f t e eig teent entuy.  "s e-se. wit t e stap dawn ve t e instep. 129). slas ed." T ese s e-ses ad a geat vgue duing t e time f Elizabet . is given." 1621. T e bukle-makes f 1800. At III. s wing t e lued stking undeneat . 1662. an example f a iula bukle uing n a bass f 1376. and wee asinally namented wit stly jewels. als a s e f a musketee wit a small bukle n t e instep and a lage tngue  flap in fnt. A squae-ted s e f a Dut ffie f t e Guads." We nw me t t e peid f ig -tpped bts. but t ey did nt. s. 1662.  t e Wmanis Man. afte Mitelli (p. by Daniel Mytens in t e Natinal Ptait Galley will be seen an example f t e ealie fm f tp-bt. Bukles wee ften i ly jewelled." He t en tells us t at "piked s es sn afte ame again in vgue." t e bend f t e stiffened bws is supplemented by smalle bws. eldest sn f James I." In t e figue f t e exquisite f 1670. (p. T ee ae small bun es f ibbns at t e tes. In t e ptait f C ales I. Usually t ese bws  ibbns wee allwed t fall lse. "Wit tw Pvenal ses n my azed s es. w i ntinued wit vaiatins t t e time f Gege II. t e squaeness f t e tes is emp asised.] In t e annymus ptait f Pine Heny." says t e aut . and. 103). and ae tuned . it was f n avail. and nsequently vey stly. an abnmally lage stiffened bw at t e instep. alt ug t e Pine mplied wit t e wis es f t e petitin. t eefe. ntinue any geat time in use. [Illustatin: MOUSQUETAIRE. veed by a jewelled sette. and aused t em t be made squae at t e tes. t ey wee usually f bun es f ibbns made t fm a se. T se wn by t e Hn." _Hamlet_. T e tps fit lse. but. wit s mu additin t t e beadt . 1697. and t ewise namented.] Bukles ave been wn fm quite an ealy peid. t at t ei feet ex ibited a mu me pepsteus appeaane t an t ey ad dne in t e fme instane. petitined t e Pine f Wales t disad is new stings and adpt t e bukle. [Illustatin: DUTCH OFFICER OF GUARDS. J n Spene n t e asin f is maiage wee said t be wt £30. aving a lse bw. epesenting t e vey ame f w imsial extavagane. in w i ase. In "Hæ-i.

weve. until it ea ed an extavagant pit in Fane in t e eign f Luis XI. did t ey beme. and ee. T e bt in t e ptait f Naplen by Isabey. A lage flap wit duble edges ptets t e instep. T e vaiatins wee mainly in t e s ape  adjustment f t e tps. and is a vey slig t vaiatin f t e fm f iding bt w i was in use at t e beginning f t e eig teent entuy. w en eveyt tuni (p.dwn at t e knee. but must at ne be uled ut f t e questin f Lndn. in fat. t ei spnss affiming t at "lt and wl ae pefetly suitable and safe f wet weat e. t e dit and mud f a Lndn winte wuld be a tial. be admitted t at wit a lt veing. T ey wee wn by t e dandies wit a pfusin f stly lae. Cbble-stnes wuld indeed add a fes  t Lndn life. at e t an in t at ptin f t e bt w i veed t e ft. develpment f t e tps f t e bts. indeed. tuned dwn belw t e knee and edged wit i lae. A vaiatin f t e tp-bt a kind f sft leat e se t ig .at. as wee wn in t e Middle Ages. [Illustatin: BRAOES. t keep its steets lean? Is t ee any easn w y lage ities s uld nt be kept lean as well as small ities? "Bts and s es s uld be my." It must. ad been wn fm t e time f William III.  at e widest. An example is given f a bt wn by t e Cmte de Sissns. may be desibed as a st f alf Wellingtn. But is it t mu t expet t e i est ity in t e wld. as t e wetting f t e wl des nt  ill t e feet. 1628. t at t e gait f a man mig t be desibed as staddling at e t an walking. ave been emmended f _mden_ wea as being me ealt y. and t e edges again tuned up alf-way dwn t e alf f t e leg. 1611. T is was t e peid f t e ig est. Seveal examples ae given. but t e tp-bt w i is usually assiated wit Naplen is ut away at its uppe edge at t e bak. dublet. a fm f bt w i . we ave a easn f t e bblestnes f mediæval twns. t e eat f w i pmptly evapates t e mistue fm t e veing. wn fm t e time f Elizabet nwads is  buskin dawn up t t e middle f t e and slas ed. sleeves. t e fnt fming a kind f mask t t e knee. t pevent t e tes fm being squeezed tget e. 1628. w i sn dies. exept t at it is f sfte leat e. 297). and [Illustatin: COMTE DE SOISSONS. allwing t e bt t fall int flds at t e ankle. [Illustatin: LOUIS XIII. s wide. wit a s t se wn ve t e se ppe. wit its t usands f unemplyed. and as allwing t e natual pespiatin f t e ft t ex ale._] Clt and wllen bts and s es. in t e Musée de esailles. _Matin S ngaue. t ese wee wn duing t e ing was slas ed-.. dubtless.] T e fm f tp-bts was develped in vaius ways. w i as a stiff unded tp like a basin. Cbble-stnes ae lean.] T e "Wellingtn" bt f t e pesent day is patially idential wit t at wn by t e illustius sldie fm w m it takes its name. t e edge flded ve slas ed peid. and s uld be s made t at t e geat te is nt .

t e _nly_ beautiful ft w i we eve emembe aving seen. s emaking is named "T e Gentle Caft. inteating f S wmakes. Hene t e saying. t. and t e ft as entiely lst its iginal  aate. "A s emake's sn is bn a Pine... t e little te by itself. bunins. Upn æst eti gunds it is espeially welme. Kent. exept pe aps at t e seaside  in t e unty). aised up. T e bun f t ee tes is pessed bak. T e  ange is a ealt y ne fm evey pint f view." G. FOOTNOTES: [28] T mas Delney's "bke alled t e Gentle Cafte. and t e eye suddenly lig ts upn t e sy feet f ne f t ese little nes as t ey tip alng t e steet. Nw mpae wit t is any natual ft abituated t s es  bts. T e eel f t e bt s uld be lw and bad. wee s elteed at Faves am. Of late t ee as been a dispsitin t etun t t e sandal as a veing  at e ptetin f  ilden's feet (ne feas t at it will be lng befe gwn-ups adpt t e sandal. a bave S emake. t e fist t e lngest. in plae f t e uninteesting pdut f t e s emake. and as beme gtesquely malfmed by ns. One as nly t ntie t e flexible tes f new-bn and yung babies. Cispin wed and maied Piness Usula. "W at a  aming design! W at a beautiful piee f nament!" Of a tut . was a ast in Si Edga Be m's studi f t e ft f a blak wman w  ad neve wn s es. T e pads f all t e tes ae pessed sideways instead f being immediately unde t e nails." _Rxbug e Ballads." tells w Cispin and Cispianus. M. in de t peeive t e easnableness f t is psitin. t e mind pe aps peupied. in its natual state. w i we ad beme s inued and austmed t. and destying t e tue ntu f t e ft. T is aft was neve eld in sn. One invluntaily exlaims." "I am f Cispin's tade. and simila gwt s. and ne' fsak't e. and t ey endeavued in t ei sulptue t impat t at and-like  aate t t ei feet. t us lsing t e divisin between t em and t e geat te.. T e Geeks in t ei sulptue made a distint divisin between t e geat te and t e est f t e tes. eaded by t e Empess. One walks alng t e steet duing t e summe mnt s. as between t e t umb and t e finges f t e and--t e t ee tes well fwad in a bun . Jaege. t e uman ft. and t e t id s te still. Si T mas Eye did it adn.D._ [29] "Healt Cultue. ne is suddenly intdued t t at mastepiee f t e Geat Designe. t e next a little s te."[31] T e Geek ideal f t e ft is t e tue ne. A S emake's sn a Pine is bn. sns f King Lgid f Bitain and f Queen Esteda. but is enuaged t lie in a staig t line dawn fm t e eel t t e t f t e geat te. [30] A mvement. as been instituted eently f t e ablitin f t e patie f mutilating t e feet f C inese ." Fm t ei ig lineage. T e mst beautiful natual ft. and als sideways against t e geat te.pessed against its neig bus. He lved a Piness dea. w se sn was bn in t e s emake's use. T e Geeks ig tly egaded t e ft as an undevelped and. and t e ft. befe it as beme ippled and distted by lng nfinement in a leat e pisn.

76. 141 Angeli. Fa. C nile. 68 Bdie. 298 Bukles. 297. flat. 246 Beaumnt and Flet e. intdutin f in Rme. 288.wmen. 281-301 ---. igidity f. ladies wee aied t ug t e steets pik-a-bak. s es. 239.. santiness f dess. 76. 247-249 Bead. Pete Lmbad's dislike f. mantle pesented by t Heny I. qutatin fm. and t e ft veings. Jaege. and mved abut t ei uses n t ei knees. 298. painting by." G. 209 . eemnies and ustms elating t. 245. teasues f King Mallm f Stland. vw f Heny III. In t e fields t e wmen wked n t ei knees. M. embidey. 238. Wellingtn. 245. f Tud peid. f suppessin f. 72 Calas . [31] "Healt Cultue.  ate ganted by Heny III. 288. 230 Cap. In t e ities. 144 Bts. at Flene. 218-220. 247 Babe-Sugens. 100 Babes. being unable t stand. 296 Buskins. dess f. Rbet. Bis p f Linln.D. INDEX Addisn. 101 Angl-Saxn supe-tuni. elating t. 246. 237.s t.. tuni f. tp. dyeing and pwdeing. 238. vaius s apes f. 90 Badiea. fl's. 140 Blet. fmality f Assyian and Geek. edit by Heny I. w i was univesal t ug ut all lasses f siety. intdutin f. 284-286 Byzantine wmen.

mnk f Glastnbuy. geneal use f. 82. 178 Cinline. 26 Cif-aps. stume f." 188 Cveley. 110 C alemagne. e  f ealie pttype. 162 Cispin. mantle f. 275 C pine. 164 Cavat. 181-201 Cttn MS. 211 Cinletta. qutatin fm "Pikwik. 160. 195. 20. 22. extavaganes f dess f eign . 18. Si Rge de. 78. 242.. aiatue f winged devil. Puitan.. uses f. 102 Clt es. at f tying t e. ise and fall f. 195-201 Cestine  net-aul. lette t King J n f Gasgny. limati influene n. 281 Css gateing. "disfiguans.Calyle. 52. 118. inventin f. 90 C ales I. 89. 26. 102. 114. 98. 159-178. Spanis . 68. 85 Clak. 292 C lamys." 177. qutatins fm. 286 Cut-puse. 42 "Culeu Isabella. 182.. 22. 126 C aue. dess f. index as t  aate. St. 46. T. igin f. 111-132 Dwglas. 258 Clla. 181 Cllas and uffs." 280 Dublet and se. emaks n ped pettiat. Gut 's. t ei symblism. 78 Dikens.

Haleian Libay. 77. in basses. 78 Gssn. Queen. "S le f Abuse. gift f silk stkings t Edwad I. 46. 46. velvet. 52. 150. 77. 96 Geneal suvey.. nditins f beautiful. Si T mas. mantle f. stumes f mden. ilatun. 101 Geeks. 94. flal pattenings f. as at pesent wn. satin. 77. 153 Fen Revlutin. 148. 76 Empie gwn. s t lak. pattenings f. 152 Fabis: lt f gld. jewel f. impeial gidle f Hly Rman Empie. Siilian bades. Benzz. 164 Fas in. genuine wman f. 95. Step en.. 37 Dess: s uld be ne f t e deative ats. 44. mdes f. 149 Elizabet . 19-57 Gidle. 78 Ges am. a nspiuus element in Angl-Saxn dess. feses at Pisa. f C alemagne. 1773. silk. 101 Embidey. endal. 94. vestments f. 1782. 48. 106. 146.. 94. fas inable. disappeaane f t ee-need at. 46. influene n dess. embideings f. taffetas. 53. aiatue f pig walking upn stilts." 36 Gzzli. 43. geat w eel.f Edwad III. 77. 49-51 Fat ingale. f Heny I. saenet. 227 Fissat. 42 Gate. 162. vaius kinds f. 120 .

170 Hse.. steeple. St. tig t-fitting. panama. 57. 120. 268. pivilege f Kings and Pines f t e Fanks. bwle. 215. 205. 73 Jekin. ndemnatin f by t e piest d. 240. a develpment tuni. King. 135 La Tu Landy. Galli. 52 Hat. Benad's admnitin f is siste. 222. banne unde w i e fug t at Hastings. t e.Hai. 159-175. 213-215. 41. musta is. 135-156 Kitle "Rmaunt f t e Rse. vaiatins f. 240 Hald. 236." 73-136. extavaganes f. qutatins fm "Silent Wman. 120. 25. 216 Hd. 209 Hped pettiat. 117 Jewels. 120 Illuminated MSS. 224 Jnsn. Geek bad-bimmed. and bead. enetian. develpment f.lengt f. 220." 38. 232 Hats. and bnnets. innvenienes f. 36. 226. 260-271. 222-224. slu . 132. Keven ulle. 237-277 ---." 122 Kitle  pettiat. 114. entenay f mden. 36. ked. 227. 205 Head-desses. disappeaane f. 170. 208. Knig t f. 210. Stuat peid. pati-lued. ned. silk. 130. luing f. 115. eat-s aped. . 222-224. 232. 215 Hennin. wn in ats. "Evey Man ut f is Humu. 205-233 Headveings nt a neessity.  imney-pt. Rman ded lak. Ben. aps.

Matt ew. 138 Mey Mna ." 1580. 90. A duid's. f Stland. 104 Nazaite law. Dundeay's. festal dess. Matin. 113 Lve lks. 84. 290-292 Pegtps. C ales I. 214. 22 Maanies. beauties f t e Cut f. 272 Muffs. fable f wind and sun. 90. lt ing f abigines. 88 . 276 Lenz. Fankis .extavagane in dess. 240-244 Ondina  waved Jupns. 275 Peplum f t e Geeks. 90. 83-106. 260 Malay Peninsula. desiptin f ptait f. St. Queen. 91. 89. Fienz di. f t e Ode f t e Gate. 100. a eigning mna . t id Empie. t e. Nman peid. desiptin f maiage f Alexande III. 83. 150 Musta is. painted faes. 41 Lyly's "Eup ues.. 54. Edwad t e Cnfess's. paintings by. 1863. Raleig . f Elija . 85. 41. natin mantle f Hly Rman Empie. 141 Meveilleuses. Queen Matilda's. 88. lu f C alemagne's. saties. 94 May. ned ead-desses. 88. 20 Mantle. advetisement in _Illustated Lndn News_. 96 Pattens. 250 Lydgate. 84. 175 Ota eite. 250-252 Pais. 166 Painted faes. 99. mnk f Buy.

M. pptins f. 53. ea f. f. 187. 40. bad ted. dess f Mit . 286. Geek. 183-184 St. 283. emaks n mden stume. 301 S e ses. 46 Pt. inletta. 38. 288. f Italian peasanty. pinted ted. 212 Pil e. fist appeaane f in isty. efeenes t dess. 255 Peiwig. 25 Puffing.at. 190. 289-291. 36 Salisbuy. 142-144. waning t ladies iding in inlines. 98-100 Ple. lette t. inventin extavaganes vaius kinds disappeaane f. 176. 74. mden. fagments f a lve-sng. examples f in past at.. desiptin f Meed (Bibey). duing t e eign f C ales II. s t side-w iskes. 255. 283 Ruff. 189-192 Piadilly. 128-130 ---. Benad. 138 Piadil. 192.. 172-176. ealy Bitis . Ld. ned ead-desses. 213 Rxbug e ballads. f. finge. 255 Pettiat bee es. 294-296 . 170 "Rman de la Rse. 102-104. 276. 194 Ruffle. 296 S es. 56 Sandal. Angl-Saxn. admnitin f is siste. 183.inflatin." satie n dess. Edmund de la. 286. 252.Pepys. 275 Pies Plwman. f. 255. 117 Pun . satie f inline.

pimitive fm f.Slas ings. t iteent and futeent entuies. 61. 28-36. 61-80. 69. 114 Tunk se. 112-113. 54. seated. Egyptian. Angl-Saxn peid. 124. 186. Laedemnian gils'. plan f." t e. innvenienes f. bmbasting f. 56 Tuses. 188. qutatin fm. plan f. efeene t uffs. 74 _Tail and Cutte_. 140 Tuni. 63. supe-tuni. Nman. 56 Tails.  ild's tuni. Latin sng upn t e. t ei antiquity. "pkys. 89 Tga. Geek. ut wk f. t e appaent etenity f. 180. peasd bellied dublets. 112. 290 Suat. Fankis . 92 "Tale f Beyn. 187 Stutt. 64. 72. 25. 56. 42." 112 "Spene" jaket. 73 Stubbes. 54. 86. ints f impending  anges in men's attie. 122. 66. paise f babes. 184 Stw. C alemagne's. t e. musta is. 67. 66. 272 Sumptuay laws. 69. 118. pinipal Ats. uffs. 117-118 Sleeves. 126 Tud peid. develpment f. 64. dimensins f. 76. f peid f James I. . 88 Tuse stet e. 137 Sta ing. 112. magnifiene f dess f. tig t. Egyptian. 250.. develpment f." feminine abit f aping masuline dess. "Anatmy f Abuses.

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