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# Philippine College of Science and Technology

Nalsian, Calasiao, Pangasinan
1
st
Semester, A.Y. 2014-2015

Chapter 3
Assessment Tools

Submitted by:
Group 2

Calaunan, Rachel D.
Caragay, Ma. Cristina B.
Castillo, Keeshia Joy B.
Calimquim, Frederick

Submitted to:
Dr. Jovelita Aficial
Instructor

Assessment of Student Learning 1
SAT, 10:30-12:30, 1:00-2:00

WHAT IS A TEST?

 Test is a systematic procedure for observing persons and describing them
with either a numerical scale or a category system. Thus, test may give
qualitative or quantitative information. (ANTHONY J. NITKO)
 Test commonly refers to a set of items or questions under specific conditions.

TYPES OF TEST

 OBJECTIVE TYPE
 ESSAY TYPE

Multiple Choice Test (MCT)

 The multiple choice test is a form of assessment in which the students are
asked to select the correct or best answer out of the choices from the list.
 Is composed of a STEM, which sets up the problem, followed by the number
of ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES. The other alternatives are DISTRACTORS or
FOILS.
 Can be presented in 3 ways: direct question, incomplete statement and
mathematical equation.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 Has a great versatility in
measuring objectives
 Requires less time
 Writing is minimized
 Scoring is objective
 More amenable to item analysis
 Multiple choices are ambiguous
 Can just select random
answers/guessing

True or False Test

 This type of test requires the examinee to recognize and mark an item as
true or false. Other possible options are agree or disagree, yes or no, valid or
invalid, fact or opinion, and cause or effect.
 Are utilized to assess a student’s ability to recognize the accuracy of a
declarative statement

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 Answers tend to be short
 Ease of Construction
 Ease of Scoring
 Emphasis on Rote Memorization
 Dependence on Absolute
Judgment
 Likelihood of Guessing

Pointers on Writing True or False Items

 Construct items that measure important objectives.
 Avoid using determiners.
 Avoid using trick questions.
 Limit each item to the point that is being tested.
 Avoid excess use of negative words and phrases.
 Approximately half of the statements are false.
 Avoid qualitative terms like best, some, many, and several.

Matching-Type Test

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 The matching-type test is simple to
construct score. It is well suited in
measuring associations. Like a
multiple-choice test, it presents the
student with questions and
alternatives.
 It reduces the effects of guessing,
although the chance of guessing
increases as the student progress in
answering items. This, however, is
easily remedied by adding more
options.
 It tends to ask students to associate
trivial information. Unfortunately,
most matching-type test emphasizes
memorization, although it is
impossible to construct items that
measure more complex cognitive
skills.

 In case of commercial answer
sheets, matching items can
accommodate no more than five
options.

Pointers on Writing matching-type Tests

 If possible, the response list should consist of short phrase, single words, or
numbers.
 Use homogenous options and items.
 Have more options than the given items. Initially, a matching-item test
decrease the students' tendencies to guess but as the students’ progress in
answering the test, the guessing tendencies increase. This can be avoided by
increasing the options.
 Arrange the options and items alphabetically, numerically, or
magnitudinally. This is one way to help the examinees since they can
maximize their time by not searching for the correct answers, especially if
there are many options.
 Limit the number of items within each set. Ideally, the minimum is five
and the maximum is ten per set.
 Place the shorter responses on column B. This time-saving practice allows
the students to read the longer items first in column A and then search
quickly through the shorter options to locate the correct alternative.
 Provide complete directions. Directions should stipulate whether options
can be used only once or more than once. They should also instruct the
students on how to respond. The instructions should also clarify what
column A and B are about.
 Place the list of options on the same page as the list of items. Time is
wasted if the students have to flip pages to search through all options to
locate the correct ones. Additionally, some students may overlook that there
are still some options on the next page.
 Avoid specific determiners and trivial information that can help the
students find the correct response without any effort on their part. The use
of "none of the above" option is recommended if it is only correct answer.
 Clearly explain the basis on which is to be made.

Suggestions for Measuring Complex Objectives with Matching-Type Tests

 Match examples with terminologies. Perhaps this is the most direct and
simplest method of increasing the thought content of matching tests provide
that the example has not yet been taught before.
 Use novel pictorial materials.

Completion Test

 A completion test is a format of testing that requires the students to
complete with the correct word or phrase.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 Construction of relatively test is
relative easy.
 Guessing is eliminated.
 Item sampling is improved.

 Completion test are difficult to
score.
 They typically measure rote
memory.

Pointers of Completion Test

 Write items that clearly imply of response desired.
 Use only one blank per item.
 Put the blank at the end of the item if possible.
 Avoid specific determiners.
 Structure an item so that they require response should be concise.
 Blanks provided for answer should be equal in length.
 Provide sufficient space for the answer.

Cloze Test

 Cloze or cloze deletion test is an exercise. Test. Or assessment consisting of a
portion of a text with certain words removed (cloze text) and the students
are asked to replace the missing words. The cloze test requires the ability to
understand context and vocabulary to be able to identify the correct words
or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of the text.
 Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically or
selectively, depending on what aspect the test intends to give emphasis to.

Example:
Today I went to the _________________ and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it
was going to rain, but I forgot to take my _________________, and ended up getting wet
on my way ____________.

Advantages of Cloze Test. Tests made by the close procedure have done much to
solve these problems. A cloze test can be made over any passage by replacing every
fifth word with an underlined blank space of a standard of a length.

Essay test (ET)

An essay test permits direct assessment of the attainment of numerous goals and
objectives. In contrast to with the objective test item types, an essay test demands
less construction time per fixed unit of student time but a significant increase in
labor and time for scoring.

Advantages of Essay Tests

 Essays give students freedom to respond within broad limits. Essay
examinations allow students to express their ideas with relatively few
restraints.
 Guessing is eliminated. Essays involve recall and there are no options to
select from. The student is expected to supply rather that select the proper
response.
 Essay items are practical for testing a small number of students. However,
as the number of students increases, the advantage of essay tests decrease.
 Essay test reduce assembling time. Less time is required for typing,
mimeographing, and assembling. If only a few questions are asked, the
teacher can just write them on the board.
 They can measure divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is indicated by
unconventional, creative, relatively free responses. Because they allow great
freedom in answering, the opportunity to obtain unusual responses is
increased.

Disadvantages and Limitations of Essay Tests

 Essays are difficult to score objectively because students have greater
freedom of expression.
 Extended essays measure only the limited aspects of student knowledge.
 Essay questions are time-consuming for teachers and students.
 Essays eliminate guessing but not bluffing.
 Most essays require a little more than rote memory.
 Essay tests place a premium on writing.

The Use of Essay Tests to Facilitate Learning

FAVORABLE DISADVANTAGES
 Raises the quality of writing
 Teaches students to organize,
outline and summarize
assignments rather than simply
look for facts, dates and details
expected in T-F or multiple choice
tests.

 Essay tests do not allow students to
revise and rewrite their work
since time is limited.
 The teachers’ over-attention to
details can destroy the themes of
essays.

Situations that Suggest the Use of Essay Questions

 If the test objectives specify that students have to write, recall or supply
information, an essay type of test may be necessary.
 When the class size is small, a teacher can afford to spend more time to
read and check the essay responses.
 If a test can be used only once, an essay examination may be more
convenient than a multiple-choice one.

Pointers on Writing Essay Questions

 Specify limitations. The teachers should tell the students the length of the
desired response and the weight each question will be given when
determining scores. With these, the students will be able to know the time
to be spent on each item, the maximum points per item, the approximate
number of words and space for each item.
 Structure the task. The instructions in the essay test should clearly specify
the task. Most of the questions in the essay tests are so vague that the real
intentions of the instructors are lost.
 Make each item relatively short and increase the number of items. The
more items there are, the greater chance there is of the sampling of
knowledge.
 Give all the students the same essay questions if content is relevant.
Sometimes, teachers give the students the opportunity to deal with one or
two items from a set of essay questions.
 Ask questions in a direct manner. Avoid being devious and pedantic when
framing questions.