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You are on page 1of 36

SEISMIC

LATERAL FORCES COMPUTATION

STATIC LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE

BASED ON NSCP

2001/2010

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this lecture,

students will be able to

• Describe the seismic coefficients for

base shear computation

• Compute the base shear based on

the NSCP 2001/2010

• Compute the static seismic lateral

forces vertically and horizontally on a

multi-story building

2

Governing Concepts in Earthquake Resistant Governing Concepts in Earthquake Resistant

Design Design

• Resist minor earthquake without damage

• Resist moderate earthquake without structural

damage, but possibly experience some non-

structural damage

• Resist major earthquake without collapse, but

possibly with some structural as well as

nonstructural damage.

To become earthquake resistant, the structure To become earthquake resistant, the structure

must possess : must possess :

• Strength - the structure must have the ability to

carry or resist the earthquake forces without

failure

• Ductility - the structure must have the ability to

deform past the elastic range without failure to

dissipate the energy induced by the earthquake.

3

Basis for Seismic Design

• Seismic zoning

• Site characteristics

• Occupancy

• Configuration

• Structural system

• Height Limits

Effect of Earthquake on a Structure Effect of Earthquake on a Structure

• Earthquake causes ground motion

• Structures accelerate during ground motion

• Acceleration causes inertial force

• Inertial force is proportional to the mass

(F=ma)

F = ma

a V

F = ma

V = F

V = ma

V = (a/g) W

V = (Seimic Coefficients) W

4

Static Lateral Force Procedure: Design

Base Shear

• 1992 NSCP

Cv Cv I I

V = V = W W

R T R T

Note: Cv / T <=> Z C

Note also that the 2001 NSCP specifies lower values

of R.

Z I C Z I C

V = V = W W

R R

• 2001/2010 NSCP

SEISMIC LOAD CALCULATION

5

Design Base Shear

V= Cv I W Eq. 208-4

RT

Where:

V = is the total design seismic force

Cv = Seismic coefficient in Table 208-8

I = Importance factor in Table 208-1

W = Total dead load per Sect. 208.5.1.1

R = Numerical coefficient in Table 208-11

T = Fundamental period of vibration

Design Base Shear (Cont’n.)

Base Shear need not exceed the ff:

V= 2.5 Ca I W Eq. 208-5

R

Where:

Ca = Seismic Coefficient in Table 208-7

I, W, & R = as previously defined

6

Design Base Shear ( Cont’n.)

Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.11 Ca I W Eq. 208-6

In Zone 4, Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.8 Z Nv I W Eq. 208-7

R

Where:

Z = Seismic Zone Factor in Table 208-3

Nv = Near Source Factor in Table 208-5

Seismic Parameters

Na = Near source Factor,

from Table 208-4

Nv = Near source Factor,

from Table 208-5

Ca = Seismic Coefficient from

Table 208-7

Cv = Seismic Coefficient from

Table 208-8

7

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-1 - Seismic Importance Factors

Occupancy

Category

1

Seismic

Importance

Factor, I

Seismic

Importance

2

Factor, I

p

I. Essential

Facilities

3 1.50 1.50

II. Hazardous

Facilities

1.25 1.50

III. Special

Occupancy

Structures

4

1.00 1.00

IV.Standard

Occupancy

Structures

4

1.00 1.00

V.Miscellaneous

structures

1.00 1.00

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-3 Seismic Zone Factor Z

ZONE 2 4

Z 0.20 0.40

8

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-6 - Seismic Source Types

1

Seismic Source Definition Seismic

Source

Type

Seismic Source Description Maximum Moment

Magnitude, M

A

Faults that are capable of

producing large magnitude events

and that have a high rate of seismic

activity

M ≥ 7.0

B

All faults other than Types A and

C

6.5 = M < 7.0

C

Faults that are not capable of

producing large magnitude

earthquakes and that have a

relatively low rate of seismic

activity

M < 6.5

1

Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis.

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-4 Near-Source Factor N

a

1

Closest Distance To

Known Seismic

Source

2

Seismic

Source

Type ≤ 5

km

≥ 10 km

A 1.2 1.0

B 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0

9

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-5 Near-Source Factor, N

V

1

Closest Distance To

Known Seismic Source

2

Seismic

Source

Type ≤ 5 km 10 km ≥ 15 km

A 1.6 1.2 1.0

B 1.2 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0 1.0

Table 208-2 - Soil Profile Types

Average Soil Properties For Top 30 m Of

Soil Profile

Soil Profile

Type

Soil Profile

Name/ Generic

Description

Shear

Wave

Velocity,

V

s

(m/s)

SPT, N

(blows /

300 mm)

Undrained Shear

Strength, (kPa)

S

A

Hard Rock > 1,500

S

B

Rock

760 to

1,500

S

C

Very Dense Soil ad

Soft Rock

360 to 760 > 50 > 100

S

D

Stiff Soil Profile 180 to 360 15 to 50 50 to 100

S

E

1

Soft Soil Profile < 180 < 15 < 50

S

F

Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation.

See Section 208.4.3.1

1

Soil Profile Type S

E

also includes any soil profile with more than 3.0 meters of

soft clay defined as a soil with plasticity index, Pl>20, w

mc

≥ 40 percent and s

u

<

24 kPa. The Plasticity Index, PI, and the moisture content, w

mc

, shall be

determined in accordance with approved national standards.

Seismic Parameters

10

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-7 - Seismic Coefficient, Ca

Soil

Profile

type

Seismic Zone Factor, Z

Z =

0.2

Z = 0.4

S

A

0.16 0.32N

a

S

B

0.20 0.40N

a

S

C

0.24 0.40N

a

S

D

0.28 0.44N

a

S

E

0.34 0.36N

a

S

F

See Footnote 1 of Table

208-8

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-8 - Seismic Coefficient, C

v

Seismic Zone Factor, Z Soil

Profile

type

Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4

S

A

0.16 0.32N

V

S

B

0.20 0.40N

V

S

C

0.32 0.56N

V

S

D

0.40 0.64N

V

S

E

0.64 0.96N

V

S

F

See Footnote 1

1 Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic

site response analysis shall be performed to

determine seismic coefficients.

11

Seismic Parameters

Table 208-11 Structural Systems

1

Basic

Structural

System

2

Lateral-Force-Resisting

System Description

R Ω

ο

Height Limit for

Zones 4 (m)

1.Special Moment-Resisting Frame

(SMRF)

a. Steel 8.5 2.8 N.L.

b.Concrete

4

8.5 2.8 N.L.

3.Moment-

Resisting

2. Masonry Moment-Resisting Wall

Frame (MMRWF)

6.5 2.8 50

Frame

Systems

3. Concrete Intermediate Moment-

Resisting Frame (IMRF)

5

5.5 2.8 --

4. Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame

(OMRF)

a. Steel

6

4.5 2.8 50

b.Concrete

7

3.5 2.8 --

5. Special Truss Moment Frames of

Steel (STMF)

6.5 2.8 75

Fundamental Period of

Vibration of the Structure, T

T= Ct (hn)

3/4

Ct = 0.0853 for Steel Moment Resisting Frame

Ct = 0.0731 for RC Moment Resisting Frame

Ct = 0.0488 for all other buildings

hn = height of structure above base

12

General Procedure – Static lateral force

procedure 208.4.8.2

1. Seismic Dead Load

Computation: WV

2. Base Shear Computation

V

R

IW ZN

V

IW C V

R

IW C

V

RT

IW C

V

v

a

a

v

8 . 0

11 . 0

5 . 2

≥

≥

≤

=

3. Vertical Distribution of Forces

General Procedure – Static lateral force

procedure 208.4.8.2

∑

∑

=

=

+ =

−

=

≤ =

> =

n

i

i t

n

i

i i

x x t

x

t

t

F F V

h w

h w F V

F

s T F

s T TV F

1

1

) (

7 . 0 if 0 . 0

7 . 0 if 07 . 0

i=3

i=2

i=1

h

x

w

i

w

x

w

n

F

x

F

i

F

n

F

t

V

h

n

h

i

13

4. Story Shear (Vx) and Overturning Moment (Mx)

General Procedure – Static lateral force

procedure 208.4.8.2

M

x

h

x

F

x

F

i

F

n

F

t

V

x

h

n

h

i

) ( ) (

x i

n

x i

i x n t x

n

x i

i t x

h h F h h F M

F F V

− + − =

+ =

∑

∑

=

=

Sample Problem

Calculate the seismic design loads for a three-

story reinforced concrete frame building under the

requirements of NSCP 2001 edition. The proposed

building would be used as an office and

approximately located 5Km away from Valley Fault

System (See Figure 208-2B of NSCP 2001).

14

Sample Problem (Cont’n.)

Design Criteria

A typical floor plan, roof plan and elevation of the

building are shown below. The columns, beams and

slabs have constant cross sections throughout the

height of the building. Though the uniformity and

symmetry used in this example have been adapted

primarily for simplicity, the structure itself is a

hypothetical one, and has been chosen mainly for

illustrative purposes. Other pertinent design data are

as follows:

Sample Problem (Cont’n.)

Material Properties:

Concrete fc' = 28MPa (4ksi)

Concrete weight, wc = 24 kN/m^3

Concrete CHB weight, 150mm thick solid

grouted = 2.62 KN/m^2 ( vertical surface)

Rebar fy = 413 MPa

15

Sample Problem (Cont’n.)

Member sizes:

Column C1 =0.40mx0.60m

Column C2 =0.40mx0.40m

Beam sizes =0.40m wide x 0.60m deep

Slab Thickness =0.15 m

Sample Problem (Cont’n.)

Other Superimposed Dead Load:

•Concrete Toppings at Roof = 0.075m

•Concrete Toppings at Typ.Flr. = 0.05m

•Interior Partition at Typ. Flr. = 1.00 kN/m^2

•Assume 1.5m high parapet RC wall along the

perimeter of the roof level.

•Assume the perimeter of the typical floor is

covered with 150mm thk. CHB wall

solid grouted (2.62 kN/m^2)

16

Sample Problem (Cont’n.)

Seismic Parameters:

•Importance factor, I = 1.00 (Assumed

Occupancy Category IV,

See Section 103)

•Seismic Zone factor, Z = 0.40 (Zone 4, see Section

208.4.4.1)

•Soil Profile Types = S

D

(see Section

208.4.3.1)

•Seismic Source Type = A (See Fig. 208-2B,

Valley Fault System is

Type A)

Typical Floor Plan

C1 C1 C1

C1 C1 C1

C2 C2

C2

1 2 3

C

B

A

10 m 8 m

6 m

6 m

.4x.6 typ.

C1 = 0.4x0.6

C2 = 0.4x0.4

Typ. Beam Size (incl. intermediate beams) = 0.4x0.6

17

Frame Elevation Along Grids A, B & C

10 m 8 m

1 2 3

3.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

Base

Frame Elevation Along Grids 1, 2 & 3

6 m 6 m

A B C

3.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

Base

18

Step 1:Compute the Mass

At Roof Level:

• Slab weight= 0.15 x24 = 3.60kPa

• Topping wt = 0.075x24 = 1.80kPa

• Parapet wt.= 0.15x1.5x60x24 = 1.50kPa

(12x18)

• Beam wt.= 0.40x0.60x126x24 = 3.36kPa

(12x18)

• Col. wt.1= .4x.6x3.5/2(6)(24) = 0.28kPa

(12x18)

• Col. Wt.2= .4x.4x3.5/2(3)(24) =0.09kPa

(12x18)

Mass Computation at Roof Level

Total Unit Load at Roof Level:

= 3.60 + 1.80 + 1.50 + 3.36 + 0.28 + 0.09

= 10.63 kPa

Total weight at Roof Level:

= 10.63 x 12 x 18 = 2296 kN

19

Step 1:Compute the Mass

At Typ Floor:

• Slab weight= 0.15 x24 = 3.60kPa

• Topping wt = 0.05x24 = 1.20kPa

• Peri.Wall wt.=3.5x60x2.62 =2.54kPa

(12x18)

• Beam wt.= Same as in Roof = 3.36kPa

• Interior Partition = 1.00kPa

• Col. wt.1= .4x.6x3.5(6)(24) = 0.56kPa

(12x18)

• Col. Wt.2= .4x.4x3.5(3)(24) =0.18kPa

(12x18)

Mass Computation at Typ.Floor

Total Unit Load at Typ Floor:

= 3.60 + 1.20 + 2.54 + 3.36 + 0.56 + 0.18

= 11.45 kPa

Total weight at Typ.Floor:

= 1145 x 12 x 18 = 2473 kN

20

Step 2: Calculate Total Mass of the

Building

Wt. of Roof level = 2296kN

Wt. of 3rd Floor = 2473kN

Wt. of 2nd Floor = 2473kN

Total Mass = 7242 kN

Step 3: Calculate Total Base Shear

V= Cv I W

RT

Base Shear need not exceed the ff:

V= 2.5 Ca I W

R

Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.11 Ca I W

In Zone 4, Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.8 Z Nv I W

R

21

Fundamental Period of

Vibration of the Structure, T

T= Ct (hn)

3/4

Ct = 0.0731 for RC Moment Resisting Frame

hn = 10.50 m , height of structure above base

T = 0.0731(10.5)

3/4

= 0.43 sec.

Seismic Parameters

Na = 1.2 Near source Factor,

from Table 208-4, for Seismic

Source Type A and distance of

≦ 5km from Fault Line.

Nv = 1.6 Near source Factor,

from Table 208-5, for Seismic

Source Type A and distance of

≦ 5km from Fault Line.

22

Seismic Parameters

Ca = 0.44Na Seismic Coefficient from

Table 208-7, for Soil profile

type S

D

and Seismic Zone 4

Ca = 0.44(1.2) = 0.53

Cv = 0.64Nv Seismic Coefficient from

Table 208-8, for Soil profile

type S

D

and Seismic Zone 4

Cv = 0.64(1.6) = 1.02

Seismic Parameters

R = 8.5 Numerical coefficient

representative of the global

ductility capacity of structural

system from Table 208-11

I = 1.00 Seismic Importance Factor from

Table 208-1

23

Total Base Shear

V= Cv I W = 1.02(1)(7242) = 2021 kN

RT 8.5(.43)

Base Shear need not exceed the ff:

V= 2.5 Ca I W = 2.5(.53)(1)(7242) = 1129 kN

R 8.5

Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.11 Ca I W = 0.11(.53)(1)(7242) = 422 kN

In Zone 4, Base Shear shall not be < the ff:

V= 0.8 Z Nv I W = .8(.4)(1.6)(1)(7242) = 436kN

R 8.5

Step 4: Vertical Distribution

V = Ft + Σ Fi NSCP 2001 Eq. 208-13

Ft = 0.07 T V NSCP 2001 Eq.208-14

Ft = 0 for T ≦ 0.7 sec

Fx = (V-Ft)wxhx NSCP 2001 Eq 208-15

Σ wihi

V = 1129 kN

T = 0.43 sec.

24

Step 4: Vertical Distribution

Fx = (1129-0)(24108) = 543 kN at Roof level

50075

Fx = (1129-0)(17311) = 391 kN at 3rd flr.

50075

Fx = (1129-0)(8656) = 195 kN at 2nd flr.

50075

Step 4: Vertical Distribution

Levels Storey

Ht.

hx wx wxhx Wxhx

Σwihi

Fx

Roof 3.5 10.5 2296 24108 .481 543

3

rd

3.5 7.0 2473 17311 .346 391

2

nd

3.5 3.5 2473 8656 .173 195

Base

Σ = 7242 50075 1.00 1129

25

Step 5: Horizontal Distribution

Lateral force will be distributed horizontally

in direct proportion to the relative rigidities

of the resisting elements. Rigidity of an

element is the force required to deflect one

end of an element a unit distance relative

to the other end. Rigidity is therefore

inversely proportional to deflection.

Relative rigidity is defined as the ratio of

the rigidity of an element to the total

rigidities of all the elements within a floor to

floor distance.

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

δ = δ

f

+ δ

v

= Ph

3

+ 1.2Ph

12E

c

I GA

Displacement for vertical members with both ends fixed

Where:

δ = total displacement

δ

f

= displacement due to bending

δ

v

= displacement due to shear

P = Lateral force on pier or column

h = height of pier or column

I = moment of inertia of pier in direction of bending

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete

G = shear modulus

26

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

For fc’ = 28mPa

Ec = 24.84 x 10

6

kN/m^2

G = 9.92 x 10

6

kN/m^2

P = 1000 kN (assumed)

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflections & Stiffness Along X-Direction

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Are

a

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

A A1 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

A2 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

A3 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

Σ=137.6

27

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflections & Stiffness Along X-Direction

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Area

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

B B1 .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

B2 .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

B3 .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

Σ=42.81

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflections & Stiffness Along X-Direction

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Are

a

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

C C1 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

C2 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

C3 .4x.6 3.5 0.24 .0072 .0200 .0018 .0218 45.87

Σ=137.6

28

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflections & Stiffness Along Y-Axis

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Are

a

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

1 1A .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

1B .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

1C .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

Σ=57.01

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflection & Stiffness Along Y-Axis

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Are

a

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

2 2A .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

2B .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

2C .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

Σ=57.01

29

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Deflections & Stiffness Along Y-Axis

Frame Col.

b x d

(m)

Heigh

t

h

(m)

Are

a

A

m

2

I

m

4

δ

f

=

Ph

3

12E

c

I

δ

v =

1.2Ph

GA

Total

δ Stiffness

k

i

=1/ δ

3 3A .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

3B .4x.4 3.5 0.16 .00213 0.0675 .0026 .0701 14.27

3C .6x.4 3.5 0.24 .0032 0.0450 .0018 .0468 21.37

Σ=57.01

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Center of Mass

Center of mass Xm and Ym can be calculated by

taking statistical moment about a chosen location

Xm = Σ m x

Σm

Ym = Σ m y

Σm

30

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Center of Mass

The center of mass, by inspection:

Xm = 9 m from grid 1

ym = 6 m from grid C

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Center of Rigidity

Center of rigidity Xr and Yr can be calculated by

taking statistical moment about a chosen location

Xr = Σky x

Σky

Yr = Σkx y

Σkx

31

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Center of Rigidity

Center of rigidity Yr and Xr;

Yr = (137.6x12)+(42.81x6)+(137.6x0)

(137.6+42.81+137.6)

= 6 m from grid C

Xr = (57.01x0)+57.01x10)+(57.01x18)

(57.01x3)

= 9.33 m from grid 1

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Calculation of eccentricity ex & ey:

ex = (Xr-Xm) + 5% (18m)

= (9.33 - 9) + 0.05(18) = 1.23 m

ey = (Yr-Ym) + 5% (12m)

= (6-6) + .05(12) = 0.60 m

32

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Calculation of force Px at Roof level:

P

x

= (k

x

) (F

x

) + (k

x

d

y

) (M

t

)

Σ k

x

J

r

M

t

= F

x

(e

y

) Torsional Moment

J

r

= Σ (k

x

d

y

2

+ k

y

d

x

2

) Rotational Stiffness

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Calculation of force Px at Roof level:

M

t

= F

x

(e

y

) Torsional Moment

= 543(0.6) = 325.8 kN-m

J

r

= Σ (k

x

d

y

2

+ k

y

d

x

2

) Rotational Stiffness

= (137.61x 6

2

+ 42.81x 0

2

+ 137.61x 6

2

+

57.01x 9.33

2

+ 57.01x 0.67

2

+ 57.01x 8.67

2

)

= 19181.55 kN-m

33

Horizontal Distribution (Cont’n.)

Calculation of force Px Along Grid A:

P

roof

= (137.61) (543) + ( 137.61x6)(543x0.6)

318.03 (19181.55)

= 248.98 kN

P

3rd

= (137.61) (391) + (137.61x 6) (391 x 0.6)

318.03 (19181.55)

= 179.28 kN

P

2nd

= (137.61) (195) + ( 137.61x6)195x0.6)

318.03 (19181.55)

= 89.41 kN

Horizontal Dist. Along X Direction

Fr

am

e

Stiffnes

s

k

i

Relat

.Stiff.

k

i

Σk

i

Direc

t

Force

d

(m)

d

2

k

i

d

2

k

i

d

2

Σk

i

d

2

Torsion

Force

Direct

+

Torsion

A 137.61 0.433 0.433 6 36 4953.9 0.258 0.0258 0.4588

B 42.81 0.135 0.135 0 0 0 0 0 0.135

C 137.61 0.433 0.433 6 36 4953.9 0.258 -.0258 0.433

Σk

i

=318.03

1.00 1.00

1 57.01 0.333 - 9.33 87.05 4962.7 0.259 0.0167 0.0167

2 57.01 0.333 - 0.67 0.45 25.65 0.0013 -0.0012 -

3 57.01 0.333 - 8.67 75.17 4285.4 0.2234 -0.0155 -

Σk

i

=171.03

1.00 19181.

73

34

ASEP

Direct and Torsional Shear

Assume F

x

= 1

Direct Shear Coefficient

V

Dx

= (k

x

d

y

) (F

x

) = (k

x

d

y

) (1 )

Σ k

x

Σ k

x

M

t

= F

x

(e

y

) = 1 (e

y

)

Torsional Shear Coefficient

V

Tx

= (k

x

d

y

) (M

t

) = 1 (k

x

d

y

2

) (1)( e

y

)

J

r

d

y

J

r

J

r

= Σ (k

x

d

y

2

+ k

y

d

x

2

)

Seismic Forces Along Grids A

10 m 8 m

1 2 3

195x.4588=

89.47

Base

2nd/F

3rd/F

Roof

543x.4588=

249.13

391x.4588=

179.39

35

Seismic Forces Along Grids B

10 m 8 m

1 2 3

Base

2nd/F

3rd/F

Roof

543x.135=

73.31

391x.135=

52.79

195x.135=

26.33

Seismic Forces Along Grids C

10 m 8 m

1 2 3

391x.433=

169.3

Base

2nd/F

3rd/F

Roof

543x.433=

235.12

195x.433=

84.43

36

Horizontal Dist. along Y Direction

• Apply the forces along the Y-direction

• Consider the eccentricity e

x

in computing the

torsional moment

• Repeat the same procedure

• Determine the lateral forces for frames 1, 2 and 3

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