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You are on page 1of 6

com

Teruhiko Yoneyama

Multidisciplinary Science

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Troy, New York, Unites States

yoneyt@rpi.edu

Mukkai S. Krishnamoothy

Computer Science

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Troy, New York, United States

moorthy@cs.rpi.edu

Abstract—Amazon.com is among the largest bookstores on the

internet. It provides the sales rank of each book. Our hypothesis

is as follows: if a book has low sales rank (i.e., it is well–sold), the

related book also has a low sales rank. In the small world

principle, if a network is connected, any two nodes are connected

with relatively small number of links. If this hypothesis is true,

any book can link to a bestseller book with small number of

distance by linking some related books. In this paper, we design

an algorithm to ascertain our hypothesis, and analyze the

network structure of Amazon.com.

Keywords-Complex Network, Small World Principle, Network

Structure, Graph Theory, Component, Distance

I. INTRODUCTION

Stanley Milgram conducted the “small world experiment”

in 1967 [1]. In this experiment, he sent letters to 160 people

who were chosen at random in Nebraska and asked them to

forward the letter to their acquaintance who might be closer to

a target individual in Boston. Then he discovered, by tracking

the chains of letters, that two people in the US who do not

know each other, are connected by 5 or 6 intermediate people.

Based on this experiment, we might conclude that any two

nodes in a connected network are connected through relatively

small number of intermediate nodes and links. This

phenomenon was the discovery of small world in the real world.

The following related works investigate the “distance” in

the real network. Computing Erdös number is the first example.

Paul Erdös is one of the greatest mathematicians and he wrote

more than 1500 papers with many co-authors. The Erdös

number is to show how a mathematician is related to him by

co-authorship. For example, if a person wrote a paper with him,

his/her Erdös number is 1. If he/she never wrote a paper with

Erdös himself but wrote a paper with a person whose number is

1, then his/her Erdös number is 2. Having a fewer Erdös

number could be an honor for mathematicians. Interestingly, no

mathematician whose Erdös number is more than 17 has found

so far, and most of mathematicians, more than 100 thousand,

have 5 or 6. Therefore the network among mathematicians is

also a small world [5].

Brett Tjaden and Glenn Wasson contrived a game called

“The Oracle of Bacon” when they were graduate students at the

University of Virginia. The game is to find the distance from an

actor Kevin Bacon to another actor/actress through being a co-

star(s). From this game, it is found that most of all

actors/actresses connect with Kevin Bacon within 6 links. In

fact, there is no one who needs more than 10 links to reach and

the average distance of 500 thousand actors/actresses was only

2.896 [5].

Duncan J Watts and Steven H. Strogatz, well-known for

small-world and WS model, investigated the power distribution

network. They computed the number of electrical power cable

between power plants, booster stations, and distribution

stations and discovered that average number of power cables

between facilities is 18.7 [5].

Other researches work, such as computing the relationship

among words, among research paper citations, and among web

pages and links, also exhibit a small world behavior.

However, in fact, it is not easy to conduct the same

experiment in Amazon network. Instead, we look at the books

in Amazon.com which is a bookstore in the internet and has a

network structure; if we regard each book as a node and the

relation between books as a link, the bookstore can model a

large network. Each book’s main page lists the book’s sales

rank and related books through “customer who bought this item

also bought the following item.” Therefore books are

connected by this relation and the network is a directed graph.

The related books are usually similar genre/content or by same

author. Since the books are introduced to a customer in this

manner, the customer finds the related book easily and

compares multiple books. Here we have two hypotheses: (1) a

book which is bought with a well–sold book, such as bestseller,

is also a well–sold one, and (2) if we accept the small network

concept, any book can link to a bestseller book, such as Top100

bestsellers, with small number of distance by tracing some

related books. In this paper, in order to test these hypotheses,

we apply an algorithm to trace from a book to the related books,

and analyze and determine the network structure within

Amazon.com. We define as following. A book is a node. A

book is bought with other books and its relation is shown at

Amazon.com. Then these books are connected by a link.

Therefore these two books (nodes) are adjacent to one another.

If we make a direction, the arrow goes from the “target” book

which is found earlier to another book which is bought with the

target book which is connected from the target book.

II. METHODOLOGY AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT

For the preliminary experiment, similar to Milgram’s

experiment, we choose one book in Amazon.com at random

and look at sales ranks of 5 related books. Then we select one

book with the lowest sales rank (i.e., best sold book) among

these 5 books, and repeat this pattern 10 times. The preliminary

algorithm is following.

1. Pick one book at random. Call the

book target.

2. Examine the sales ranks of 5 related

books (which are often bought with

the target).

3. Pick the book which has the lowest

sales rank among the 5 books. Call

this book as (new) target.

4. If the trial is <= 10

5. Repeat from 2

6. Else

7. Done. Return the target’s sales rank.

For the preliminary experiment we tried the algorithm 10

times. Figure 1 shows the transition of sales rank in this

experiment. X–axis shows the number of distance from the

initial target and Y–axis shows the sales rank. According to the

result from this experiment, 9 of 10 cases failed to reach the

Top 100 bestsellers and all cases converge to two points. Some

curves show a decrease in sales rank. This means that same

books repeatedly appear in the algorithm and there are some

cycles around the first chosen books and the transition did not

get out of these cycles. Another observation is that a related

book is of similar genre/content or by same author with the

target book. When a person wants to buy a book, he/she may

tend to also buy the similar book. This works for introducing

similar book to customer and customer can easily find similar

books and compare them. A cycle may appear since a book

will more likely connect to the similar books and they make a

small component.

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Figure 1 Transition of Sales Rank and Distances

In Figure 2, we plot the relation between the target book’s

sales rank and the average sales rank of its 5 related books. X-

axis shows the target book’s sales rank and Y-axis shows the

average sales rank of 5 related books. Both X-axis and Y-axis

are in log. In this figure, the regression line seems imply that

when the target book’s sales rank is higher, the average sales

rank of related books is also higher, and these ranks are in

proportion. In the formal experiment, we will use a large

number of samples to verify this phenomenon.

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1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

Target's Sales Rank (in log)

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Figure 2 Relation between Sales Rank of the Target Book

and Average Sales Rank of 5 Related Books

It appears that with this algorithm choosing arbitrary books

cannot link to Top100 bestseller-books. We hypothesize that

each book belongs to a component and it is difficult to link to

the other components.

In our first algorithm, we allow to revisit same book. In the

revised algorithm, we are not allowed to revisit and cycles are

not permitted. The revised algorithm for the formal experiment

follows. Revision is on line 3.

1. Pick one book at random. Call the

book as target.

2. Examine the sales ranks of the

related 5 books which are often

bought with the target.

3. Pick the book which has the lowest

sales rank among the 5 books and has

never been visited before. Call the

book (new) target.

4. If the trial is <= 10

5. Repeat from 2

6. Else

7. Done. Return the target’s sales rank.

We ran this algorithm 10 times and the results are shown in

Figure 3. Now, there is no cycle and no repetition of books.

Also the plots do not exhibit a tendency of decreasing the sales

rank and some sales ranks are increasing, although we always

pick up the lowest sales rank book among the 5 related books

in this algorithm. Similar to Milgram’s experiment, many

letters could link from a random person to the target person

through 5 or 6 intermediate persons, but in our experiment, the

transition doesn’t reach a Top100 bestseller book (this can be a

target book in this experiment). There are other observations

from this experiment. First, as similar to the preliminary

experiment, it shows some small components and it is not easy

to link to the other components. Usually a component consists

of same genre books, similar content books, or books by

multiple (same) authors. Second, there are some core books

and other books are in the neighborhood of the core books in

the component, and not all core books have low sales rank

compared with the neighboring books in the component. Third,

if the sales rank is relatively low, it looks easy to reach to

bestseller whose rank is less than 100. That means a book

which links to a bestseller book has also a low sales rank and

this is related to our first hypothesis; a book which is bought

with a well-sold book, such as bestseller, is also a well-sold one.

Consequently we expect that lower rank (well-sold) book’s

component easily links to other books or other components and

become a bigger component. Therefore the bestseller book

tends to belong to a bigger component compared with other

average rank components. In the following chapters, we

analyze the network structure by multiple trial of the algorithm

and verify our hypothesis.

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Figure 3 10 Transitions of Sales Rank and Distances

III. FORMAL EXPERIMENT WITH DIFFERENT INITIAL

TARGETS

In the previous cases, we chose the initial book at random.

We expected that the network structure may be different

depending on the sales rank of the initial book from the results

of previous experiment. In this section, we experiment with the

revised algorithm by choosing books with some particular sales

rank. This will enable us to observe the different types of

network structures according to the sales rank of the initial

book. We choose the initial target book from Top10 (the sales

rank is 1 and 10), Top100 (the sales rank is 11 and

100), Top1000 (the sales rank is 101 and 1000), and

Top10000 (the sales rank is 1001 and 10000). In each case,

we run our algorithm 10 times. Then we have each network by

the algorithm which starts from different initial target book. Let

us call it Top10 network when the initial target book is from

Top 10, Top 100 network when the initial target book is from

Top100, and so on.

Figure 4 shows the relation between target book’s sales

rank and the average sales rank of its 5 related books. It seems

that the target book’s sales rank is in proportion to the sales

rank of the related books. This is consistent with the hypothesis

that a lower rank (well-sold) book tends to be linked to other

lower rank books.

1

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1000

10000

100000

1000000

1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

Target's Sales Rank (in log)

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Figure 4 Relation between Sales Rank of the Target Book

and Average Sales Rank of 5 Related Books in All Cases

Figure 5 shows each raw network. Each node shows the

book. Each directed link shows the relations between books.

For example, when book A is introduced by book B as “Book

A is frequently bought by customers who bought Book B”, a

directed link connects these nodes (books) as B A.

Interestingly, in the combined graph, there is one large

component and a few middle and small components are present.

Some low sales rank books are referred many times in all

transitions and same books appear in different networks of

Top10 through Top10000 and Random case. Consequently, the

large component becomes larger combining with other

components since such low rank book(s) can be a connection.

This structure is very similar to that of the WWW which has a

Giant Connected Component (GCC), the huge connected

component which plays the role of a percolating cluster and

Disconnected Component (DC), the rest of the network which

consists of separate finite connected components [2].

Figure 6 shows three typical component structures from

Top10 and Top10000 networks. Figure 6 (a) is from Top10

network and some nodes (books) are related to other nodes in

the component. Figure 6 (b) is from Top10000 network and

generally the each node’s degree is lower compared with the

one of the lower sales rank component. But there is an

exception. Like Figure 6 (c) which is also from Top10000

network, there is a very strongly connected component such

that all nodes are related to other all nodes. In fact this

component is a complete graph and there is no way to get out

from here. In this case, the books in this component are about a

very academic and special field and the component is closed.

Figure 7 shows the observed total number of books which

were discovered in the algorithm and the expected total number

of books to be discovered. Since we ran the algorithm of 10

cycles and one book links to 5 related books, the expected total

number of discovered books is 51, including (one) initial target

book, in a run of the algorithm at the maximum case. Then,

since we ran the algorithm 10 times for each network (Top10 ~

Top10000 and Random), the expected total number of

discovered books in each network should be 51 * 10 = 510 at

the maximum case. However, some books are discovered

multiple times in a run of the algorithm and/or in 10 times

executions. The observed total number of books therefore

decreases. The difference between the observed total number of

books and expected total number of books is larger when the

initial target book’s sales rank is low (well-sold). This means

that when the initial target book is well-sold, the books which

belong to same component with the initial target book are more

often discovered in multiple runs of the algorithm. In other

words, in a lower sales rank (well-sold books) network, it is

more likely that each book links to one another.

Figure 8 shows the observed total number of components

which were discovered in the algorithm and the expected total

number of components to be discovered. Since we ran the

algorithm 10 times for each network, the expected total number

of component is 10 in each network at the maximum case.

However, some books are discovered multiple times in

multiple runs of the algorithm. Such books connect two

different components in a network. Therefore the observed

total number of components decreases. In general, in a lower

sales rank (well-sold books) network, the observed total

number of components is small. It means that in lower sales

rank network, each component more tends to link to one

another, and forms bigger component.

Figure 5 Network Graphs

Figure 6 Some Typical Component Structure from Top10

Network ((a)) and from Top10000 Network ((b) and (c))

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Top10 Top100 Top1000 Top10000 Random

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Observed Total Book Expected Total Book

Figure 7 Observed Total Number of Books and Expected

Total Number of Books in each Network

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Observed Total Component Expected Total Components

Figure 8 Observed Total Number of Components and

Expected Total Number of Components in each Network

IV. ANALYSIS OF NETWORK

In this section, we analyze the properties of each network of

Top10 through Top10000 and Random. Each network has

different characteristics. At first, we show the combined

network’s properties in Table 1. Combined network includes

all books (nodes) and the relations (links) of Top10 through

Top10000 and Random. Note that average shortest path length

in the table is calculated only if two nodes are connected

through other intermediate nodes. When two nodes are in

different components, these nodes are disconnected. We don’t

consider this case for the average shortest path length. Figure 9

shows the degree distribution in the combined network. X-axis

shows the number of incoming degree and Y-axis shows the

number of books whose incoming degree is X. Both X-axis and

Y-axis are in log. The distribution follows the power law.

Table 1 Properties of Combined Network

Average Degree Average Clustering

Coefficient

Average Shortest

Path Length

1.986134 0.355569 6.098843

Degree Distribution

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Number of Incoming Degree (in log)

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Figure 9 Degree Distributions in Combined Network

Figure 10 shows the degree distributions in different

network. X-axis shows the number of incoming degree and Y-

axis shows the number of books whose incoming degree is X.

In general, the distribution follows the power law. When the

network’s sales rank is higher, the distribution more tends to

follow the power law. Three distributions for Top1000,

Top10000, and Random are similar and these regression curves

overlap. On the other hand, in the lower sales rank networks,

the number of books which have small number of incoming

degree is small compared with those in the higher sales rank

network. This means that each book more likely links to one

another and each degree becomes close to the average.

Degree Distribution

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Random

Figure 10 Degree Distributions in Different Networks

Figure 11 shows the average degrees in different networks.

The average degree is larger when the network’s sales rank is

lower. Thus when the network’s sales rank is lower, each book

in the network more tends to link to other books. This

corresponds to the conclusions from Figure 10.

Figure 12 shows the average clustering coefficient in

different networks. The average clustering coefficient is larger

when the network’s sales rank is lower. Thus when the

network’s sales rank is lower, each book in the network more

tends to link to neighboring books.

Figure 13 shows the average shortest path length in

different networks. It is difficult to conclude from this figure. If

each book is more likely strongly connected to one another in

lower sales rank networks, the average shortest path would be

smaller in those networks. However, this figure doesn’t support

this conjecture. The reason why the average shortest path could

be higher in lower sales rank network is following; In the

process of forming network, each book more tends to link to

other books in different component in lower sales rank network.

Thus the component becomes bigger and the diameter becomes

larger. In the component, it is not that all books are connected

each other, and some books are still distant. Thus the average

shortest path in the big component could be large. Therefore,

the average shortest path doesn’t depend on the sales rank, but

depends on both the strength of relation between books and the

size of component.

Ave Degree

0

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1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Top10 Top100 Top1000 Top10000 Random

Figure 11 Average Degrees in Different Networks

Ave Clustering Coefficient

0

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Top10 Top100 Top1000 Top10000 Random

Figure 12 Average Clustering Coefficient in Different

Networks

Ave Shortest Path

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Figure 13 Average Shortest Path Length in Different

Networks

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we utilized our algorithm to observe the

network structure in Amazon.com. Figure 14 shows the all

books (nodes) and relations (links) that we observed in this

experiment. We discover that there are some giant connected

components which consist of lower sales rank books (i.e., well–

sold books) and many small components which consist of

higher sales rank books.

Figure 14 Observed Network in Amazon.com

We had two hypotheses: 1) a book which is bought with a

well–sold book, such as a bestseller, is also a well–sold one, 2)

according to the small world principle, any book links to a

bestseller book with small number of distance by linking some

related books. The first hypothesis seems to be consistent with

the result of our experiment. Figures 4 and 6 show that in lower

sales rank network, the related books have lower sales rank

books. We find that books in the lower sales rank network are

more likely to connect each other. Therefore, we can say that in

general a well–sold book is bought with another well–sold

book. The second hypothesis however seems incorrect. When

a book belongs to a small component, it is difficult to link to

other components. Even if we trace many books, it may be

possible that a book never reaches at a bestseller when the

books belong to different components.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Milgram, “The Small World Problem,” Physiology Today 2: 60–67,

1967.

[2] S.N. Dorogovtsev, J.F.F. Mendes, “Evolution of Networks, From

Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW”, Oxford University Press,

2003.

[3] D.S. Callaway, J.E. Hopcroft, J.M. Kleinberg, M.E.J. Newman, S.D.

Strogatz, “Are random grown graphs really random?”, Physical Review

E. Volume 64, 041902, 2001.

[4] Y. Jing, S. Baluha, “PageRank for Product Image Search”, WWW

Conference, Beijing, China, ACM 978-1-60558-085-2/08/04, 2008.

[5] M. Buchanan, “Nexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science

of Networks”, W. W. Norton & Company, 2003.

[6] A. L. Barabási, “Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything

Else and What it Means”, Plum, 2003.

[7] D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, “Collective Dynamics of `Small-World’

Networks”, Nature, 393, 440-442, 1998.

[8] M Steyvers and J. B. Tenenbaum, “The Large-Scale Structure of

Semantic Networks: Statistical Analyses and a Model of Semantic

Growth”, Cognitive Science, 29, 41-78, 2005.

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