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Empiricism: the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience.

Hypothesis: a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited e
vidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Sample: representative subset of the universe or population.
random sample: is a sample in which each member of the population has an equal c
hance of being selected for the sample.
Size (N): the number of cases in the sample.
In general, the large in the N the more reliable.
Variable: is something that can be changed, such as a characteristic or value. V
ariables are generally used in psychology experiments to determine if changes to
one thing result in changes to another.
median: is the score located at the center of a distribution. Consider this set
of numbers: 2, 3, 6, 8, 10. The median of this number distribution is 6. For di
stributions with an even number of scores, take the average of the two middle sc
ores to find the median. (median is the middle score in a set of given numbers.)
Mean: is the mathematical average of a set of numbers. The average is calculated
by adding up two or more scores and dividing the total by the number of scores(
The mean is the arithmetic average of a set of given numbers).
Mode: is the most frequently occurring score in a set of given numbers.
survey: large sample of people are in interview of questionnaire.
The correlation coefficient : r =+- .00 to .99
r=-.92 is strong negative.
Positive Correlations: Both variables increase or decrease at the same time. A c
orrelation coefficient close to +1.00 indicates a strong positive correlation.
Negative Correlations: Indicates that as the amount of one variable increases, t
he other decreases (and vice versa). A correlation coefficient close to -1.00 in
dicates a strong negative correlation.
range = (highest score - lowest score).
case study: one or very few, case or cases is or are study in great detail.
Experiment: a control investigation into the relation the two or more reliable.
1.Wundts germany and 2. Edward Titchener U.K ~~ Structuralism
-Structuralism sought to identify the components of the conscious mind. Or it i
s a method of analysis of aspects of human behavior. { Structuralism was a schoo
l of thought that sought to identify the components (structure) of the mind (the
mind was the key element to psychology at this point). Structuralists believed
that the way to learn about the brain and its functions was to break the mind do
wn into its most basic elements. They believed, the whole is equal to the sum of
the parts.}
3. William James USA...................... Functionalism
- Functionalism: Functionalism was the study of how the conscious mind helps hum
ans survive and successfully adapt to their environment.{ Functionalism was the
psychological school of thought that followed Structuralism and moved away from
focusing on the structure of the mind to a concern with how the conscious is rel
ated to behavior... How does the mind affect what people do? One of the major pr
oponents of Functionalism was Thorndike (created the ever-popular puzzle box) wh
o studied the primary issue of functionalism}
4. John Watson ..................... Behaviorism
- Behaviorism: Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that studies observable
behavior, rather than hidden mental processes.
5. B. F. Skinner........................... Behaviorism..... Operant Conditionin
- Operant Conditioning: is the consequences of rewards and punishment on behavio
r.{ Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthen
ed (meaning, it will occur more frequently) when it's followed by reinforcement,
and weakened (will happen less frequently) when followed by punishment. Operant
conditioning is based on a simple premise - that behavior is influenced by the
consequences that follow. When you are reinforced for doing something, you're mo
re likely to do it again. When you are punished for doing something, you are les
s likely to do it again.}
6. Sigmund Freud:................... Psychoanalysis
- Psychoanalysis is an approach used to study how the unconscious mind shapes be
7. jean piaget....................... cognition
- cognition: All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and re
membering. As you can tell, any of your ideas, thoughts, memories.
8. Kenneth Clark....................... sociocultural
- The sociocultural approach is based on the idea that society and culture shape
cognition. Social customs, beliefs, values, and language are all part of what s
hapes a person's identity and reality.
9.Carl Rogers and 10. Abraham Maslow................ humanistic
-humanistic: that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overr
iding assumption is that humans have free will and are not simply fated to behav
e in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environments.( human
has freedom).
11. Ivan Pavlov ................ classical conditioning.
is one form of learning in which an organism "learns" through establishing assoc
iations between different events and stimuli. For example, when a neutral stimul
us (such as a bell).
12. charles darwin................... Evolutionary.
-The nervous system: is a complex system of nerves which allows you to register
touch, move, breathe, feel and think. The nervous system includes your brain, sp
inal cord, and the nerves that travel throughout your body.
-1.Sensory neurons: (also known as Afferent Neurons) are responsible for bringin
g information from sensory receptors (like the nerves in your hand) to the centr
al nervous system (spinal cord and brain). In other words, these neurons carry i
nformation about the senses, so they bring information from the eyes, ears, etc.
, as well as from within the body like the stomach.
-2. The interneurons: it has 3 functions:
1. to receive sensory info
2. to interrupt this informations and make response decision.
3. to transmit this info message to motor nervous or to other interneuron.
-3. motor neurons -- neurons that carry information from the central nervous sys
tem to the muscles to make these movements.
--gland: an organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical
substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings.
--nerves is a bundle of neurons(axons) wrapped in myelin.
====The Central Nervous System consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
====The Peripheral Nervous System is divided into two sub-systems. The Somatic
Nervous System primary function is to regulate the actions of the skeletal muscl
es. Often thought of as mediating voluntary activity. The other sub-system, cal
led the Autonomic Nervous System, regulates primarily involuntary activity such
as heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion. Although these activit
ies are considered involuntary, they can be altered either through specific even
ts or through changing our perceptions about a specific experience. This system
is further broken down into two complimentary systems: Sympathetic and Parasym
pathetic Nervous Systems.
Poet: Walt Whitman (1819-1892) grew up in Brooklyn and Long Island in a family w
ith 9 children. He learned how to be a printer and through this he discovered hi
s love for reading and writing.
Type of poem: Lyric
Speaker: The speaker is someone listening with pride to the song of America.
Audience: This poem is directed toward America's working class.
Tone: The tone is proud and joyous.
Meaning: This poem describes the song of America. The "song" represents the joy
of being free. All the different people, of different trades, sing a part of the
song. They become a chorus, harmonizing to make a beautiful melody.
Structure of poem: This poem has no rhyme or meter that can be determined so it
is a free verse.
This poem is a joyous reflection of the many working people in America, and how
they are going about their day, strong, happy, healthy, and good at their jobs.
The theme is productivity, or happiness in one's station in life. He describes
all sorts of people on their jobs-mechanics, carpenters, masons, boatmen, shoem
aker, woodcutter, and even mothers, wives, and young men. Each picture he prese
nts of these people is their "blithe" and happy nature in their station of life.
He uses such optimistic and joyous words to describe them going about their da
ys: "blithe", "carols", "strong", "delicious", "robust", "friendly". The entir
e poem is a celebration of life, a celebration of the many different types of pe
ople that make up what America is, and how they find joy and happiness in their
every day.
=quick pace.
the theme of musicality
The tone of the poem is joyful, whimsical, and hopeful
Theme: family, strenght and skill, identity, man and nature .
The speaker in this poem is a writer, quite possibly a poet. He's the son of a p
otato farmer, and as we quickly find out, he's the grandson of a harvester as we
The poem opens with our speaker at his desk. Pretty basic, right? But then, thro
ugh his reminiscences, we move back in time to the potato field and peat bog whe
re his father and grandfather worked. The past is rich with nature the smell of
dirt and potatoes, the cold air, the texture of the earth, and the sound of shov
els cutting through it. While we know the speaker is only imagining the past, we
feel as though we're right there with him, because he's imagining it so darn we
ll. Heaney creates a vivid picture of the potato fields making good use of all f
ive senses, then gently returns us to the present:
it is a nostalgic poem. the poet it remembering his childhood with his father wh
o was a farmer.The poem starts and ends with the same lines "between my finger a
nd my thumb/The squat pen rests" but the first stanza ends with "as snug as a gu
n" and the last stanza ends with "I'll dig with it." Thus, Heaney foregrounds th
e importance of the writer's profession and craft by breathing new life into the
cliched idiom "the pen is mightier than the sword." Heaney affirms that he has
decided to choose his own career path, as a writer. It is clear that Heaney feel
s confident that he is very skilled with a pen and demonstrates and proves that
he is an accomplished poet by writing this very thought provoking poem.Heaney re
alizes that in choosing 'the squat pen' over 'the spade' he is in fact 'digging'
up memories of his ancestors, and thus enabling the process of the historical p
ast giving meaning to the present. So all in all, he draws the conclusion that w
hilst we must not forget our roots,we must pursue our own passions and dreams in
life. For Heaney, it is his chosen calling as a writer in which he finds solace
, which enables him to transfer memories onto paper, giving old thoughts the pow
er to transcend time.