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Buried flexible pipe example to AS code

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1-1998

The calculation is applicable for De >= 75 , initial (3-min) ring bending stiffness >=1250 N/m/m and long-term

(50 years) ring-bending stiffness >= 625 N/m/m.

Description of pipe under consideration

PIPE DIMENSIONS:

External Diameter D

e

mm

Internal Diameter D

i

mm

Minimum Wall Thickness t mm

Mean pipe diameter for calculation D = D

i

+ t = mm

PIPE MATERIAL:

Minimum yield strength of pipe material (for steel only) f

y

MPa

Ring Bending Modulus (3 minutes) E

b

MPa Table 2.1

Ring Bending Modulus (3 minutes) (for GRP only) E

b

MPa

Ring Bending Modulus (50 years) E

bL

MPa Table 2.1

Ring Bending Modulus (50 years) (for GRP only) E

bL

MPa

Poisson's Ratio ν Table 2.1

Long-term safety factor for pressure η

p

Table 2.1

Long-term safety factor for bending η

b

Table 2.1

Long-term safety factor for combined stress η Table 2.1

Allowable long-term vertical pipe deflection

for non-pressure ∆

yall

/ D = % Table 2.1

Allowable long-term ring-bending strain ε

ball

% Table 2.1

Allow. long-term hoop stress σ

hall

MPa Table 2.1

Allow. long-term hoop stress for GRP only σ

hall

MPa for the assigned pressure class

Allow. long-term hoop stress for steel only σ

hall

= 0.72 f

y

= MPa

PE100

106.4

99.3

3.3

102.6

N/A

950

260

0.4

1.25

2

1.25

120

140

7.5

4

8

N/A

N/A Allow. long-term hoop stress for steel only σ

hall

= 0.72 f

y

= MPa

Allow. long-term hoop stress considered for calculation σ

hall

MPa

Ring Bending Modulus (3 minutes) for calculation E

b

MPa

Ring Bending Modulus (50 years) for calculation E

bL

MPa

Second moment of inertia of pipe wall I = t

3

/ 12 = m

3

Eq. 2.2.1.2

Ring bending stiffness (3-minutes) S

DI

= E

b

I / D

3

*10

6

= N/m/m OKAY Eq 2.2.1.1 (1)

Ring bending stiffness (50 years) S

DL

= E

bL

I / D

3

*10

6

= N/m/m OKAY Eq 2.2.1.1 (2)

EMBEDMENT CHARACTERISTICS:

Selected native soil Table 3.2

Fine-grained soil (LL<50%) with medium to no plasticity and containing less than 25% coarse-grained particles

Selected embedment soil Table 3.2

Sand and coarse-graind soil with less than 12% fines

Density index, Dry density ratio, number of blows Table 3.2

Native soil modulus E'

n

MPa Table 3.2

Embedment soil modulus E'

e

MPa Table 3.2

Pipe external diameter range Fig 3.1

Minimum Embedment Geometry :

Pipeline location from table Table 3.1

Minumum cover height H m Table 3.1

Depth of Bedding below the bottom of pipe I

b

mm Fig 3.1

Clearance I

c

mm Fig 3.1

Depth of Overlay I

o

mm Fig 3.1

3

7

75 <= De <= 150

75

2361.9

100

720.9

GM-GL

CI

RD = 95%, ID = 70%, 24<NOB<=50

N/A

8

260

2.995E-09

950

0.6

Subject to vehicular loading in sealed roadways

100

The permanent trench width at springline B = D

e

+ 2 I

c

= mm Fig 3.1

Used Embedment Geometry :

Cover Height H m OKAY

Depth of Bedding below the bottom of pipe I

b

mm

Clearance I

c

mm

Depth of Overlay I

o

mm OKAY

The permanent trench width at springline B = D

e

+ 2 I

c

= mm

B / D

e

=

Design Factor ∆

f

= [ B /D

e

- 1 ] / [ 1.154 + 0.444 (B / D

e

-1 )] = Eq. 3.4.3(3)

Leonhardt CF ζ = 1.44 / [ ∆

f

+ (1.44 - ∆

f

) * ( E'

e

/ E'

n

) ] = Eq. 3.4.3(2)

Effective combined soil modulus E' = ζ E'

e

= MPa Eq. 3.4.3(1)

7500 E' = N/m/m Clause C1.4.6.2

10 D = m H > 10 D Clause 4.3

Assessed unit weight of trench fill or embankment fill γ KN/m

3

The dead load due to trench fill or embankment fill w

g

= γ H =

KN/m

2

Eq. 4.3

Superimposed uniformly distributed dead load u KN/m

2

Clause 4.6 (a)

Superimposed concentrated dead load w

gu KN/m

2

Clause 4.6 (b)

The total superimposed dead load w

gs

= u + w

gu

= KN/m

2

Internal vacuum q

v KN/m

2

Clause 4.5

Superimposed Live Loads (Road Vechiles)

35603

Long-term ring bending stiffness,SDL is LESS than 7500E. Therefore the pipe is in the FLEXIBLE mode.'

0

0

0

Cover height is greater than 10*D, therefore the design load due to trench may be conservative.

2.820

101.3

19

22.8

1.026

0.927

0.678

306.4

100

300

75

96.8

4.747

1.2

Wheel Load (ΣP is the sum of the individual wheel loads) P KN

Contact area lengths under the wheels a m

b m

Single or dual axles (1 or 2) sda

Centreline Distance b/w dual axles dda m

Number of axles in adjacent lanes (1 or 2) noa

The distances b/w wheels from vechiles in adjacent lanes G

1

m

G

2

m

G

3

m

L

1

= ΣG + b + 1.45 H = m

L

2

= dda + a + 1.45 H = m

3.54

3.14

1

0.2

0.4

2

0

0

1.4

1.2

70

Live load impact factor α = 1.4 - 0.15 H = Eq. 4.7.2(2)

Total superimposed wheel Live load ΣP = 2* (noa + sda) * P = KN

Superimposed vechile live load w

q

= ΣP / [ L

1

* L

2

] * α = KN/m

2

Eq. 4.7.2(1)

DEFLECTION:

Bedding constant K Clause 5.2

w

g

+ w

gs

+ w

q

= KN/m

2

∆y/D = [K /1000 * (w

g

+w

gs

+w

q

)] / [ 8/1000000*S

DL

+0.061 E'] = % PASS Eq. 5.2(2)

STRENGTH:

Shape factor

D

f

= [3.33*1E-6 * S

DL

/E'+0.00136]/[1.11*1E-6*S

DL

/E'+0.000151] = Eq. 5.3.1(3)

Outer surface of corrugated wall to the neutral axis c

1

m Fig 1.2

Inner surface to the neutral axis c

2

m Fig 1.2

Effective wall thickness of the pipe for the determination of ring

bending strain t

es

= MAX(2 c

1

, 2 c

2

) = m Clause 1.5 & Fig 1.2

ε

b

= D

f

* ∆

y

/D * t

es

/ D = % ε

ball

Eq. 5.3.1(1)&(2)

INTERNAL PRESSURE:

The maximum operating pressure P

w

MPa

The maximum allowable operating pressure P

all

= 2 σ

hall

t / D = MPa Clause 1.5

<

0.45

0.51

The maximum operating pressure is less than the MAOP, therefore it is SATISFACTORY.

0.1

2.33

68.90

The predicted long-term ring-bending strain is SATISFACTORY.

The Defl. ratio is less than the acceptable, therefore the selected pipe and embedment are ADEQUATE in terms of deflection.

5.838

0.00165

0.00165

0.0033

0.44

1.22

420

46.10

COMBINED LOADING:

Re-rounding coefficient

For P

w

< = 3.0 MPa r

c

= 1 - P

w

/3 = Clause 5.3.3

For P

w

> 3.0 MPa r

c

= Clause 5.3.3

P

w

3.0 MPa thus r

c

=

1 / η =

P

w

/ (η

p

P

all

) + r

c

* ε

b

/ (η

b

ε

ball

) =

1 / η

Eq. 5.3.3

BUCKLING:

Design factor for buckling F

s

q

all 1

= 1 / F

s

* 24 / ( 1 - ν

2

) * S

DL

* 1E-3 = KPa Eq. 5.4(4)

q

all 2

= (S

DL

* 1E-6)

(1/3)

(E')

(2/3)

* 1E3 / F

s

= KPa Eq. 5.4(5)

H 0.5 m

Allow. buckling pressure q

all

= greater of qall 1 and qall 2, = KPa Clause 5.4 (i) & (ii)

When q

v

should be considered because it is critical

q

all 1

= 1 / F

s

* 24 / ( 1 - ν

2

) * S

DI

* 1E-3 = KPa Eq. 5.4(4) & NOTE

2.50

8.24

101.31

>=

101.31

26.99

0.85

0.746

0.8

<

The response to the combined external load and internal pressure is SATISFACTORY.

<=

0.85

0

q

all 2

= (S

DI

* 1E-6)

(1/3)

(E')

(2/3)

* 1E3 / F

s

= KPa Eq. 5.4(5) & NOTE

Allow. buckling pressure q

all

= greater of qall 1 and qall 2 = KPa Clause 5.4 (i) & (ii) & NOTE

Height of the water surface above the top of the pipe H

w

m

Where H >= H

w

γ ( H - H

w

) + (γ

L

+γ

sub

) [ D

e

/ 2 + H

w

) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

< = q

all

Eq. 5.4.1

Specific gravity of soil particles γ

s

Clause 5.4 (a) NOTE

Assessed unit weight of liquid external to the pipe γ

L KN/m

3

for water

Submerged unit weight of trench fill or embankment fill

γ

sub

= ( γ

s

- 1) / γ

s

* γ = KN/m

3

Eq. 5.4(2)

q

v

= KPa

γ ( H - H

w

) + ( γ

L

+ γ

sub

) [ D

e

/ 2 + H

w

) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

= KN/m

3

PASS Eq. 5.4(1)

q

v

= KPa

γ ( H - H

w

) + ( γ

L

+ γ

sub

) [ D

e

/ 2 + H

w

) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

= KN/m

3

FAIL Eq. 5.4(1)

Where H < H

w

γ

L

( D

e

/ 2 - H

w

) + γ

sub

( D

e

/ 2 + H) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

< = q

all

Eq. 5.4(3)

q

v

= KPa

γ

L

( D

e

/ 2 - H

w

) + γ

sub

( D

e

/ 2 + H) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

= KN/m

3

PASS Eq. 5.4(3)

q

v

= KPa

γ

L

( D

e

/ 2 - H

w

) + γ

sub

( D

e

/ 2 + H) + w

gs

+ w

q

+ q

v

= KN/m

3

FAIL Eq. 5.4(3)

101.3

78.549

179.849

10

150.46

150.46

3.00

2.65

11.830

0

0

91.455

101.3

192.755

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